Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population Structure of India

Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population Structure of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population Structure of India and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population Structure of India

Join Telegram channel

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Population Structure of India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…


Q.1. Discuss the density variation pattern of population in India 

Ans :-  India is the second largest populous country in the world. The total population of the country is 1,028(2001). But the population of the country is highly uneven in spatial pattern of density. According to the 2001 census, the density of population in India is 313 persons per square km.

On the variation on spatial density of population, some factors play dominant role among them the following are notable:

A. Physical factors

B. Socio – economic factors

C. Historical factors.

A. Physical factors : Physical factors are the dominant factors on the uneven density of population in India and also all over the world. It includes –

(i) The nature of topography in those areas which are plains, the density is obviously very high than the uneven hilly or mountainous areas.

(ii) Climate is another noted factor on the high density of population. All the suitable climatic areas are thickly populated, then the very hot or very cold areas.

(iii) Soil conditions are also a factor of high density of population. The areas are thickly populated where soils are more fertile, but have found very thin populations where soils are sandy o mproductive.

(iv) National resources also play a key role on population density.

B. Socio-economic factors : Socio-economic factors includes.

(i) Agricultural development.

(ii) Pattern of human settlement.

(iii) Development of transport network.

(iv) Industrialization.

(v) Urbanization.

C. Historical factors or historically : Some areas are thickly populated.

The state wise density of population is also highly variable, such as –

(i) The hilly states are very thinly populated. For example Arunachal Pradesh (13) Sikkim (76) Meghalaya, Mizoram (42) Nagaland Manipur the density is relatively low. 

(ii) The bordering states such as Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh the density of population is relatively low 

(iii) West Bengal (903), Bihar (880) Uttar Pradesh (690) Kerala (819) are the states having high density areas. 

(iv) The states are highly populous which are relatively high urbanisation such as Maharustra Tami: Nadu, Punjab etc. 

(v) Among the union territories the density of population is high in Delhi (9,340) and Chandigarh.

Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
Chapter 23Assam Geography

Q.2. Give an account of the occupational structure of India’s population. 

Ans :- India is a very large country from an aerial point of view as well as a population point of view. The country is the homeland of 1028 million (2001) population.

The various occupations of the people of India can be divided into :

(a) Primary : 58.2%

(h) Secondary : 4.2%

(c) Tertiary : 37.6%

Again, the economic status point of view, the workers are divided into three groups viz :

(ii) Main workers

(ii) Marginal workers

(iii) Non- workers.

In India more than 50 per cent of main workers are engaged in agricultural activities.

The share of workers is as follows :

(a) Cultivators : 31.71%

(b) Agricultural labourers : 26,69% 

(c) People engaged in non- agricultural activities are:41.6%

Occupational classification of the people in India can be groups as the following manner :

(a) Cultivator

(b) Agricultural labourer

(c) Livestock, forestry, fishing, plantation and allied activities.

(d) Mining and quarrying

(e) Manufacturing

(f) Construction

(g) Trade and Commerce

(h) Transport

(i) Other activities

Q.3. Examine the rural composition of Indian population. 

Ans : Rural Composition in Indian Population :

(i) Places of residence are an important indicator of social and economic characteristics.

(ii) 72% of its total population lives in villages. 

(iii) India has 638, 588 villages according to the Census 2001 out of which 593,731 (93%) are inhabited villages.

(iv) The distribution of the rural population is not uniform throughout the country.

(v) Dadra and Nagar Haveli (77.1%) have the highest proportion of niral population. 

(vi) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (67.33%) have the highest proportion of rural population.

(vii) The size of villages varies considerably. It is less than 200 persons in the hill states of north eastern India, western Rajasthan and Rann of kachchh and as high as 17 thousand persons in the stalies of kerala and in parts of Maharashtra.

(viii) Each village consists of hamlets.

(viii) Rural population is highly scattered.

Q.4. Discuss the composition of urban population.

Aus :-  Urban Composition in Indian Population : 

(i) It may be noted that contrary to rural population, the proportion of urban population (27.8%) in India is quite low but it is showing a much faster rate of growth over the decades.

(ii) In almost all the states and union Territories, there has been a considerable increase of urban population. Urban population is one that lives in large size settlements i.e. towns and cities.

(iii) Urban area is one where three-fourths or above of its population is engaged in non-agricultural activities such as manufacturing, trade. transport communication, banking and social services like health education, administration etc.

(iv) Consequently the proportion of urban population to total population has been increasing slowly but steadily. It was as low as 10.8% in 1901 and rose to 27.8 by 2001

(v) In contrast to an average growth rate of about 21.34% in 2001 the urban population has registered a growth rate of 31.13 percent. 

(vi) Half of the total urban population of India lives only in five states These five states are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh Gujarat, Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and Union Territory of Delhi, have about 32 per cent of the urban population of the country. Rest of the urban population (about 18%) is spread over the remaining states and Union Territories

(vii) According to the 2001 census, 35 cities have more than 1000000 population cach. They are called the metro-politan or million plus cities. These 35 metropolitan cities alone account for 37.8% of the total population.

(viii) About 27.2% of the total population of India lives in urban areas.

(ix) The proportion of urban population to the total has been increasing steadily at a faster pace. 

(x) The rate of growth of urban population in the country is higher than the rate of growth of rural population.

(xi) Almost 45% of the world’s population is urbanised.

(xii) The urban population of India increased from 2.58 crore to 28.53 crore, from 1901 to 2001. 

(xiii) Although the growth rate of urban population started falling from the 1980s, it grew up by 31.13% only during 1991-2001.

(xiv) Goa is the most urbanised state in India having 49.77% urbanised population. 

(xv) States like Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu have higher rate of growth of urbanisation

Q.5. Examine the linguistic composition of the population of India. 

Ans :-  The linguistic composition of population of India are : 

(i) India is a Land of linguistic diversity,

(ii) According to the Linguistic Survey of India, 1903-1928. there were 179 languages and 544 dialects in the Country

(iii) According to the 1991 census, there are about 18 scheduled languages and a number of non-schedule languages.

(iv) 18 languages are printed on a ten Rs. note. 

(v) The speakers of Hindi have the highest percentage (40.42).

(vii) The smallest language groups are Kashmiri and Sanskrit speakers (0.01% each).

There are four language families, which have their sub-families and branches or groups, which can be better understood from the table :

FamilySub-FamilyBranch/GroupSpeech Areas
Austric (Nishada) 1.38%Austro-Asiatic Austro-NesianMon-Khmer MundaMeghalaya. Nicobar IslandsWest Bengal, Bihar. Orissa, Assam Madhya Pradesh MaharashtraOutside india.
Dravidian(Dravida)20%             South-Dravvidian 
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. Kerala Andhra Pradesh. M.P Orissa Maharashtra Bihar Or West Bengal Madhya Pradesh
Sino-Tibetan(Kirata)0.85%                                                     Tibet – MyanmarSiamese-ChineseTibeto-Himalayan  North Assam 
Jammu & Kashmir Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam. Nagaland. Manipur. Mizoram Tripura, Meghalaya.
Indo-European(Aryan) 73%Indo-AryanIranian          Dardic       Indo-AryaOutside Indu Jammu & KashmirJammu & Kashmir, Punjab Himachal Pradesh UP. Rajasthan, Haryana, MP. Bihar. Orissa. West Bengal. Assam. Gujarat, Maharashtra. Goa.

Q.6. Give an account of the religious composition of Indian population.

Ans :-  Religion is one of the most dominant forces affecting the cultural and political life of most Indians. Religion virtually permeates into almost all the aspects of people’s family and community lives. 

(a) India is a secular country and observance of various religions and its rituals play a significant role in every aspect of life in the country.

(b) According to Census 2001: It is the birthplace of Hinduism. Buddhism. Sikkim and Jainism. It has nourished Zoroastrianism, Bahaism, Judaism. Islam and Christianity have flourished alongside other religions and faiths.


All religious communities1,028,610,328100.0
Religion not stated727,5880.1

According to census of India 2001, out of 1028 million population :

  • little over 827 million (80.5%) follow Hinduism 
  • 138 million (13.4%) follow Islam
  • 24 million (2.3%) are Christians
  • 19 million (1.9%) are Sikh
  • 8 million (0.80%) follow Buddhism
  • 4 million (0.4%) are Jainism

In addition, over 6 million profess “other” religions and faiths including Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Bahaism, tribal religions, different from six main religions.

Proportion of various religions in population


Distribution :

(a) Hindu : Hindus are most numerous in 27 states/Uts except in Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Nagaland Meghalaya, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab. 

(b) Muslim : Muslims are in majority in Lakshadweep and Jammu & Kashmir. Sizeable in Assam (30.9%), West Bengal (25.2%), Kerala (24.7%), Uttar Pradesh (18.5%) and Bihar (16.5%). 

(c) Christian : Christians are a majority in North-eastern states of Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya- upto 80%. Among other states Uts, Manipur (34.0%), Goa (26.7%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (21.7%), Kerala (19.0%), and Arunachal Pradesh (18.7%) have considerable percentage of Christian population to the total population of the State/UT.

(d) Sikh : Sikhs Punjab accounts for more than 75% of the total Sikh population in the country. Chandigarh (16.1%), Haryana (5.5%), Delhi (4.0%), Uttaranchal (2.5%) and Jammu & Kashmir (2.0%)

(e) Buddhism : Maharashtra largest concentration of Buddhism (58.3%). 73.4% of the total Buddhists in India reside here. Kamataka (3.9 lakh), Uttar Pradesh (3.0 lakh), west Bengal (2.4 lakh) and Madhya Pradesh (2.0 lakh) are other states having large Buddhist population. Sikkim (28.1%). Arunachal Pradesh (13.0%) and Mizoram (7.9%)

(f) Baha’is : The roots of the Baha’is Faith in India go back to the first days of the Bábi religion in 1844, Zoroastrianism: A small religious community, which exists mostly in Mumbai, is Zoroastrianism. The follower is called Parsi because the religion arrived in India from Persia. This religion was established by Zarathustra in 6th or 7th century BC.

(g) Judaism : In 1948, India had a Jewish population of approximately 30,000. Since then 20,000 have migrated to Israel and elsewhere. leaving a community of 7 to 8 thousand, according to the official estimates. Most of Bene’ Israel origin, concentrated in Mumbai. Calcutta, Delhi, Cochin, Poona and a few villages in Maharashtra State.

Q.7. Discuss the regional difference in urban growth in India.

Ans :- Regional differences in Urban Growth in India :

Growth of Urban population has remained higher than that of the population. 

Dadra and Nagar Haveli has the highest growth (330.33 percent) of that population in the country.

Among major states, Arunachal Pradesh (101.29 percent) has the highest growth. 

On the other hand, Andhra Pradesh (14.63 percent) and Kerala (7.64 percent) have growth of urban population Jow and sluggish.

High and very high growth in urban population is attributed to extension of urban boundaries, recognition of new towns and influx of immigrants mainly from rural areas.

Q.8. How is India better than its neighbors in respect of gender? 

Ans :-  Women don’t seem to be doing too badly in India, when we consider just South Asia. India’s gender-related development index (GDI) rank is 96 out of 177 countries, one of the best in the region if we do not count Sri Lanka, way ahead at rank 68. But, as always, the ranking hides more than it reveals about gender equality.

While Sri Lanka soars ahead on most counts, when it comes to women’s political participation, it is behind most countries in the region and so is India. Pakistan leads the way with 20.4%, highest percentages of women in Parliament. In Sri Lanka, the figure is 4.9% and in India 9.2% Bangladesh too, is better off with 14.8% of seats in Parliament held by women.

If female life expectancy in India is 65 3, Bangladesh is not too far behind at 612 years. Sri Lanka is way ahead with a female life expectancy of 71 3 and its adult female literacy rates than Pakistan and Nepal. In gross school enrolment of women too, India’s percentage is just 58, same as Bangladesh. On most counts, including the GDI ranking China (rank 64) is far ahead of all the countries in South Asia.

The estimated earned income of women in India, $ 1471 per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, might be high in the region, but again Sri Lankan women earn almost twice as much and Chinese women three times the amount.

Yet again, Bangladesh is close behind India with it’s women earning $1,170, while in Pakistan and Nepal, they earn less than $1,000 per capita. Interestingly, when it comes to the proportion of females involved in economic activity, Sri Lanka and India are almost equally badly off. India’s rate is 34% and Sri Lanka’s is 35%. Here, Bangladesh does a lot better with 52.9% and Nepal with 49.7%. What is really revealing in terms of gender disparity is a comparison of the time spent by men and women on market-oriented activity as opposed to non-market activities, which would mean work that is not paid for Women in India spend 35% of their time on market activity and the rest on non-market activity.

This figure in itself is not too shocking because there is a similar diode, and sometimes a sharper one, even in the developed countries, between time spent by women on market and non-market activities.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top