Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective

Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective

Chapter: 22




Q.1. Find out from the following the most polluted river of India. 

(a) Yamuna

(b) Brahmaputra

(c) Satluj

(d) Godavari

Ans :-  (a) Yamuna

Q.2. Which one of the following diseases is caused due to water pollution?

(a) Respiratory infections

(b) Conjunctivitis

(c) Bronchitis

(d) Diarrhea

Ans :- (d) Diarrhea

Q.3. Push and pull factors are responsible for

(a) Slums

(b) Migration

(c) Land degradation

(d) Water pollution

Ans :- (b) Migration

Q.4. Which one of the following is the cause of acid rain?

(a) Air pollution 

(b) Water pollution

(c) Land pollution

(d) Noise pollution

Ans :- (a) Air pollution


Q.5. What are various types of pollution?

Ans :- Various types of pollution are :

(i) Air pollution.

(ii) Water pollution. 

(iii) Land pollution.

(iv) Noise pollution. 

Q.6. What diseases are generally caused by water pollution?

Ans :- Water pollution is a source of various water borne diseases. The diseases commonly caused due to contaminated water are diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc. The World Health Organisation shows that about one-fourth of the communicable diseases in India are water-borne.

Q.7. What causes land degradation?

Ans :- The pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agricultural land. Soil erosion, water-logging, salinisation and alkalinisation of land lead to land degradation. Land is degraded and productivity declines. Land degradation is generally understood either as a temporary or a permanent decline in productive capacity of the land.

Q.8. Give the differences between pollution and pollutants? 

Ans :- The differences between pollution and pollutants are :

1Decrease in the quality and productivity of a substance is called pollution.1Pollutants are the wastes which mix with the substance and pollute them.
2Types of pollution : Air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, environmental pollution, land degradation etc.2Types : Gaseous, solids, liquids and sound etc.
3They have an ill effect on humans and their activities.3They cause pollution of various substances.

Q.9. Mentioned the impact of air pollution on human health. 

Ans :- Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves very harmful to human health. Air pollution can also cause acid rains. Rain water analysis of the urban environment has indicated that the pH value of the first rain after summer is always lower than the subsequent rains.

Q.10. Mention the problems associated with the urban waste disposal in India.

Ans: The problem associated with the urban waste disposal in India.

are :

(i) Non-collection of urban waste.

(ii) Leaving this uncollected in the open spaces between houses and wastelands.

(iii) They cause health hazards.

(iv) They cause air and water pollution

(v) Land degradation

(vi) Environmental pollution

Q.11. What causes Environmental Pollution?

Ans :- Environmental pollution is the decrease in the quality of environment due to release of substance and energy from waste products of human activities.

Q.12. What are various types of pollution?

Ans :- The various types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, land pollution and noise pollution.


Q.13. Give the reasons why urban waste disposal becomes a serious environmental problem in India. 

Ans :- (i) This leads to serious health hazards.

(ii) These wastes should be treated as resource and utilised for generating energy and compost.

(iii) Untreated waste ferments slowly and releases toxic biogas to the atmosphere, including methane.

Q.14. Give the reasons revolt people from rural areas migrate to urban areas.

Ans :- Population flow from rural to urban areas is caused by many factors like high demand for labour in urban areas, low job opportunities in rural areas and unbalanced pattern of development between urban and rural areas. In India the population in cities is rapidly increasing. Due to low opportunities in smaller and medium cities, the poor people generally bypass these small cities and directly come to the megacities for their livelihood.

Q.15. Explain the causes of industrial pollution.

Ans :- The causes of industrial pollution :

(i) Industries produce several undesirable products like industrial wastes, polluted wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke.

(a) Most of the industrial wastes are disposed of in streams, rivers or lakes.

(b) Poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters. 

(c) Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp, and paper, textiles and chemicals.

(ii) Various types of chemicals used in modem agriculture like inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides are also pollution generating components.

(a) These chemicals move to rivers, lakes, and tanks. 

(b) They also infiltrate into the soil to reach the groundwater.

Q.16. What are the causes of air pollution?

Ans :- Air pollution is taken as an addition of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property. With increasing use of varieties of fuels as a source of energy, there is a marked increase in emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in the pollution of air. Combustion of fossil fuels, mining and industries are the main sources of air pollution. These processes release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos.

Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.

Q.17. Briefly discuss how air pollution becomes the biggest killer in South East Asia. 

Ans :-

Q.18. Discuss the role of the NGOs in managing Environmental Pollution.

Ans :- Enactment of statutes on Pollution Control and the experience gained in implementation of the various provisions of these Acts in the past more than two decades had indicated that Govt. machinery alone cannot effectively cope-up with the task of pollution control until supported by the masses. The need for participation of masses in achieving the targets committed in the Policy Statements for Abatement ofPollution has been felt strongly. Public interest litigations have successfully demonstrated that responsible and concerned NGOs and public spirited individuals can bring about significant pressure on polluting industries for adopting pollution control measures.

NGO being one of the most effective media to reach the people these days, may play a significant role in this regard. NGOs are assisting the State Pollution Control Boards to a greater extent in providing first hand information and generating mass awareness with regard to control of pollution and can better function in this field in the following ways :

(i) By conducting preliminary river surveys and surveys in the air pollution control area for identification of any pollution source. 

(ii) By keeping vigil on abstraction of water/discharge of sewage trade effluent by any industry in quantity in relation to flow/volume. 

(iii) By conducting sampling and analysis of river/well water to ascertain the quality of river/well water.

(iv) By providing information regarding any cause or permit any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter into any stream or well or on land or in air.

(v) By keeping vigil in the surrounding area, river, well, land and air against pollution and reporting to State Board/Central Board, if found any. 

(vi) By providing information whether any river stretch requires prohibition on use for disposal of polluting matters-for notification under Section 24 of the Water Act. 

(vii) By providing information regarding violation of consent such as discharges in odd hours etc. 

(viii) By publishing the minimum height of the stack/chimney prescribed for the industry/industrial operation etc, and ambient air and ambient water standards. 

(ix) By publishing the notified restricted areas of industries. industrial operations etc. shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certainsafe-guards.

(x) By providing information on fish kill or other sudden damage to the environment not noticed by the State Board.

Q.19. Write briefly on tire ‘Dharavi’ Slum.

Ans :- Dharavi is a slum in Mumbai, India. It is one of the largest slums in the world. Dharavi slum was founded in the 1880s during the British colonial era. The slum grew in part because of expulsion of factories and residents from peninsular city centers by the colonial government, and from rural poor migrating into urban Mumbai (then called Bombay). It is currently a multi religious, multi-ethnic, diverse settlement. 

Dharavi’s total population estimates vary between 300.000 to about 1 million. Dharavi has an active informal economy in which numerous household enterprises employ many of the slum residents. It exports goods around the world. Leather, textiles and pottery products are among the goods made inside Dharavi by the slum residents. The total annual turnover has been estimated at over US$500 million. Dharavi has suffered through many incidences of epidemics and other disasters. It currently covers an area of 217 hectares (535 acres).

Q.20. What are the Categories of Wastelands’?

Ans :- (i) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) has classified wastelands by using remote sensing techniques and it is possible to categorise these wastelands according to the processes that have created them.

There are a few types of wastelands like

(a) Gullied / ravenous land

(b) Desertic or

(c) Barren rocky areas

(d) Steep sloping land and

(e) Glacial areas.

They are primarily caused by natural agents

(ii) There are other types of degraded lands like :

(a) Waterlogged and marshy areas

(b) Land affected by salinity and alkalinity and

(c) Land with or without scrub

(d) They have largely been caused by natural as well as human factors.

(iii) There are some other types of wastelands like :

(a) Degraded shifting cultivation area.

(b) Degraded land under plantation crops.

(c) Degraded forests.

(d) Degraded pastures

(e) Mining and

(f) Industrial wastelands

(g) Caused by human action

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