Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context and select need one.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 19 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
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Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. Regional planning relates to-
(a) Development of various sectors of economy
(b) Area specific approach of development
(e) Area differences in transportation network
(d) Development of rural areas
Ans :- (b) Area specific approach of development
Q.2. ITDP refers to which one of the following?
(a) Integrated Tourism Development Programme
(b) Integrated Travel Development Programme
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme
Ans :- (c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
Q.3. Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
(a) Agricultural development
(c) Transport development
(d) Colonisation of land
Ans :- (b) Eco-development
VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.4. Give the definition of sustainable development.
Ans :- Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Q.5. What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
Ans :- The positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area are–
(i) Increase in cultivated area.
(ii) High intensity of cropping
(iii) Introduction of new crops like cotton, wheat, rice etc. in place of gram bajra jowar.
(iv) High production in agriculture and livestock.
Q.6. What does planning involve?
Ans :- Planning involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set actions to achieve some goal.
Q.7. What are the stages through which the planning process moves?
Ans :- Stage 1: Policy Setting
Stage 2 : Planning and Development
Stage 3 : Project Selection
Stage 4 : Project Implementation
Q.8. What is the former name of Indira Gandhi Canal?
Ans :- The former name of Indira Gandhi Canal is Rajasthan Canal.
Q.9. How is planning in recent times different from traditional planning methods?
Ans :- Planning is different from the traditional hit and miss methods by which reforms and reconstruction are after undertaken.
Q.10. What is the Drought Prone Area?
Ans :- Drought – prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought prone areas and creating productive assets.Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programme, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, markets credit and services.
Q.11. What is the Command Area Development Programme?
Ans :- The Centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) Programme was launched in 1974-75 with the main objectives of improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity from irrigated agriculture through a multi. disciplinary team under an Area Development Authority.
SHORT TYPE QUESTION & ANSWER : (MARKS – 3)
Q.12. Briefly discuss the hill area development programme.
Ans :- Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. The National Committee on the development of backward areas in 198! recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.
Q.13. Explain the two approaches to planning. Ans : There are two approaches to planning.
(i) Sectoral planning and
(ii) Regional planning.
The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.There is no uniform economic development over space in any country Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning.
Q.14. Explain the meaning of development.
Ans :- The term development is generally used to describe the state of particular societies and the process of changes experienced by them. During a fairly large period of human history, the state of the societies has largely been determined by the interaction processes between human societies and their biophysical environment. The processes of human, environment interaction depend upon the level of technology and institutions nurtured by a society.
While technology and institutions have helped in increasing the pace of human environment interaction, the momentum thus, generated in return has accelerated technological progress and transformation and creation of institutions Hence, development is a multi dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.
Q.15. Describe the two stages of Indira Gandhi Canal.
Ans :- The construction work of the canal system has been carried out through two stages. The command area of Stage – I lies in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and northern part of Bikaner districts. It has a gently undulating topography and its culturable command area is 5.53 lakh hectares. The common area of Stage – Il is spread over Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur Nagaur and Churu districts covering a culturable command area of 14.10 lakh ha.
It comprises desert land dotted with shifting sand dunes and temperature soaring to 50’C in summers. In the lift canal, the water is lifted up to make it flow against the slope of the land. All the lift canals of Indira Gandhi Canal system originate at the left bank of the main canal while all the canals on the right bank of the main canal are flow channels.
|Chapter 1||Human Geography Nature & Scope|
|Chapter 2||The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth|
|Chapter 3||Population Composition|
|Chapter 4||Human Development|
|Chapter 5||Primary Activities|
|Chapter 6||Secondary Activities|
|Chapter 7||Tertiary and Quaternary Activities|
|Chapter 8||Transport and Communication|
|Chapter 9||International Trade|
|Chapter 10||Human Settlement|
|Chapter 11||Population Structure of India|
|Chapter 12||Migration Pattern in India|
|Chapter 13||Human Resources Department|
|Chapter 14||Human Settlement of India|
|Chapter 15||Land Resource and Agriculture|
|Chapter 16||India’s Water Resources|
|Chapter 17||Mineral and Fuel Resources in India|
|Chapter 18||Manufacturing Industries of India|
|Chapter 19||Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context|
|Chapter 20||Transport and Communication in India|
|Chapter 21||International Trade|
|Chapter 22||Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective|
|Chapter 23||Assam Geography|
Q.16. Write the physical environment of Bharmour Region.
Ans :- Physical Environment of Bharmour Region :
(i) Bharmour Region lies between 32° 11’N and 32° 41 N latitude and 76° 22 Fand 76° 53 E longitudes.
(ii) It spreads over an area of about 1,818 sq. km : The region mostly lies between 1.500 m to 3,700 m above the mean sea level.
(iii) This region popularly known as the homeland of Gaddis is surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.
(a) It has Pir Panjal in the North and Dhaula Dhar in the South.
(b) In the East , the extension of Dhaula Dhar converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass.
(iv) The river Ravi and its tributaries the Budhil and the Tundahen, dran this territory and care for our deep gorges.
(v) These rivers divided the region into four physiographic divisors:
(c) Kugti and
(d) Tundah areas
(v) Bharmour experiences freezing weather conditions and snowfalls in winter.
(vi) Its monthly temperature in January remains 4C and in July 26°C.
Q.17. Give an account of the Hill Area Development Programme.
Ans :- Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand). Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. The National Committee on the development of backward areas in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.
Q.18. Give the reasons why the target area and target group in Planning have been introduced.
Ans :- The planning process has to take special care of these areas which have remained economically backward. As we know, the economic development of a region depends upon its resource base. But sometimes resource-rich regions also remain backward. Economic development also requires technology as well as investment besides the resource. With the planning experience of about one and half decades, it was realised that regional imbalances in economic development were getting accentuated. In order to arrest the accentuation of regional and social disparities, the Planning Commission introduced the target area and target group approaches to planning. Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are Command Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme. Hill Area Development Programme. The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which are the examples of target group programmes.
LONG TYPE QUESTION & ANSWERS (MARKS – 5)
Q.1. Give an overview of the planning perspective in India.
Ans :- India has centralised planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission. It is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and members. The planning in the country is largely carried out through Five Year Plans.
The First Five Year Plan was launched in 1951 and covered the period, 1951-52 to 1955-56. Second and Third Five Year Plans covered the period from 1956-57 to 1960-61 and 1961-62 to 1965-66 respectively. Two successive droughts during the mid-sixties (1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-67 and 1968-69. This period was covered by annual plans, which are also termed as rolling plans. The Fourth Five Year Plan began in 1969-70 and ended in 1973-74
Following this the Fifth Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier i.e. in 1977-78. The Sixth Five Year Plan took off in 1980. The Seventh Five Year Plan covered the period between 1985 and 1990. Once again due to the political instability and initiation of liberalisation policy, the Eight Five Year Plan got delayed It covered the period 1992 to 1997.
The Ninth Five Year Plan covered the period from 1997 to 2002. The Tenth Plan began in 2002 and it is still in progress. It will come to an end on 31.3.2007. The approach paper of the Eleventh Plan entitled. “Towards Faster and More Inclusive Growth has already been approved.
Q.2. Give an account on the Drought Prone Area Programme.
Ans :- Drought Prone Area Programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services
National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme. It has been observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance. Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone areas.
Q.3. Give an account of the Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmour Region.
Ans :- Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmour Region :
(i) Bharmour tribal area consists of Bharmour and Holi-Tehsils of Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh.
(ii) It is a notified tribal area since 21 November, 1975.
(iii) ‘Gaddha tribal community in-habit Bharmour.
(iv) They have maintained a distinct identity in the Himalayan region because they practised transhumance and covered through Gaddiali dialect.
(v) Bharmour tribal region has harsh climate conditions, low resource base and fragile environment.
(vi) These factors have influenced the society and economy of the region.
(vii) According to the 2001 Census, the total population of Bharmour sub-division was 37,246 i.e, 20 persons per sq. km.
(viii) It is one of the most backward areas of Himachal Pradesh.
(ix) Historically, the Gaddis have experienced geographical and political isolation and socio-economic deprivation.
(x) The economy is largely based on agriculture and allied activities like sheep and goat rearing.
(xi) Process of development of tribal areas of Bharmour started in the 1970s when Gaddis were included among scheduled tribes.’
(xii) Under the Firth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1947.
(xiii) Bharmour was designed as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh.
(xiv) This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services.
(xv) The most significant contribution of tribal sub plan in Bharmour region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools. health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity
(xvi) The remote villages in Tundah and Kugti areas still lack infrastructure.
(xvii) Traditionally, the Gaddis had subsistence agricultural-cum-pastoral economy with emphasis on food grains and livestock production.
(xviii) Gaddis are still very mobile as a sizable section of them migrate to Kangra and surrounding areas during winter to earn their livings from wage labour.
Q.4. Give an account on the Backward Area Programme.
Ans :- Backward Area Programme :
(i) National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme.
(ii) It observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance.
(iii) Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone area.
(iv) Other strategies of development of these include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level.
(v) Restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animals population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone areas.
(vi) Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought.
(vii) Broadly, the drought prone area in India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalaseema and Telangana Plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.
(viii) Spread of irrigation has largely protected the drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and North-Rajasthan.
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