Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India

Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Mineral and Fuel Resources in India

Chapter: 17




Q.1. In which of the following states has the major oil fields? 

(a) Bihar

(b) Assam

(c) Tamil Nadu

(d) Rajasthan

Ans :- (b) Assam

Q.2. Which one of the following minerals is known as the brown diamond?

(a) Manganese

(b) Iron

(c) Lignite

(d) Mica

Ans :-  (b) Iron

Q.3. Which one of the following is a non-renewable energy?

(a) Thermal

(b) Solar

(c) Wind

(d) Hydel

Ans :- Thermal

Q.5. In which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?

(a) Narora

(b) Kalpakkam

(c) Rana Pratap Sagar

(d) Tarapore

Ans :- (d) Tarapore


Q.3. How do mineral and power resources have important places in our life?

Ans :- Minerals and energy resources occupy a very important place in our life. For example, machines, ships, ornaments, buildings, coins and many other things associated with modern civilized life are made of minerals with the help of power. In other words, power resources help turn minerals into finished goods. But no nation has within its borders, all the minerals and energy resources.

Q.4. What is metallic Mineral?

Ans :- Metallic minerals are those minerals which yield metals after being processed. They have a distinctive shiny metallic luster like that of gold and silver. These minerals are mostly used to make jewellery, flower vases and swords. Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products. Iron, copper, bauxite, tin, manganese are some examples.

Q.5. What is a non-metallic mineral?

Ans :- Non-metallic minerals are minerals that have no metallic luster and break easily. These are also called industrial materials and are typically some form of sediment. Non-metallic minerals are not malleable. Sand, limestone, marble, clay and salt are all examples of non-metallic minerals. They are not recyclable because they can not be reshaped significantly and reproposed, unlike metals that can be melted down and easily reshaped into a new product. An exemption is concrete because concrete is often used from a mixture of non-metallic minerals that have been crushed or ground into small, fine pieces.

Q.6. Why and where Dandi March was organized by Mahatma Gandhi?

Ans :- In 1930 in order to help free India from British control, Mahatma Gandhi proposed a non-violent march protesting the British Salt Tax, continuing Gandhi’s pleas for civil disobedience. The Salt Tax essentially made it illegal to sell or produce salt, allowing a complete British Since salt is necessary in everyone’s daily diet, everyone in India is affected. The Salt Tax made it illegal for workers to freely collect their own salt from the coasts of India, making them buy salt they couldn’t really afford. 

Q.7. What are the renewable sources of energy? 

Ans :- Renewable energy includes Biomass, Wind, Hydro-power Geothermal and Solar sources.

Q.8. What is geothermal energy?

Ans :- The term Geothermal originates from two Greek words ‘GEO and THERM’. The Greek word geo’ meant the earth whilst their word for “therm’ meant heat from the earth. Geothermal energy is energy derived from the heat of the earth. The earth’s centre is a distance of approximately 4000 miles and is so hot that it is molten. Temperatures are understood to be at least 5000 degrees centigrade. Heat from the centre of the earth conducts outwards and heats up the outer layers of rock called the mantle. When this type of rock melts and becomes molten it is called magma. Magma can reach just below the earth’s surface.

Q.9. What is Metallurgical fuel?

Ans :- Metallurgical fuels are non-metallic minerals, used as fuel.

Q.10. What do you understand about offshore Drilling?

Ans :- Offshore drilling is the process of drilling minerals oil from the sca bed, by drilling at the bottom of the sea.

Q.11. What is Nuclear Power?

Ans :- Nuclear power, or nuclear energy, is the use of exothermic nuclear processes, to generate useful heat and electricity. The term includes nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion. Nuclear power stations convert heat energy produced from a nuclear fission chain reaction into electricity Heat generated inside a nuclear reactor core from nuclear fission is used to convert water into steam, which then drives an electric turbine alternator.


Q.12. Discuss the distribution pattern of manganese in India.

Ans :- Manganese is an important raw material for smelting of iron ore and also used for manufacturing ferro alloys. Manganese deposits are “found in almost all geological formations, however, it is mainly associated with the Dharwar system.

Orissa is the leading producer of Manganese. Major mines in Orissa are located in the central part of the iron ore belt of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.

Karnataka is another major producer and here the mines are located in Dharwad. Bellary, Belgaum, North Canara, Chikmagalur, Shimoga. Chitradurg and Tumkur. Maharashtra is also an important producer of manganese which is mined in Nagpur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri districts. The disadvantages to these mines is that they are located far from steel plants. The manganese belt of Madhya Pradesh extends in a belt in Balaghat-Chhindwara-NImar-Mandla and Jhabua districts.

Andhra Pradesh, Goa and Jharkhand are other minor producers of manganese.

Q.13. Give the salient features of energy resources in recent times in India.

Ans :- Major features of energy resources in India are :

(i) Man has been using energy resources from time immemorial.

(ii) In the beginning wood was mainly used.

(iii) Nowadays mineral fuels are essential for generation of power.

(v) Power is required in agriculture, industry, transport and other sectors of economy. 

(v) Major mineral fuels are coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They are also called fossil fuels.

(vi) Nuclear energy minerals are uranium, thorium, monazite etc.

(vii) Both mineral fuels and nuclear energy minerals are put in the category of conventional sources of energy.

Q.14. Describe field-based and market based oil refineries.

Ans : There are 18 operational refineries and three proposed in India, Their distribution is as under:

market based oil refineries

Production of crude petroleum in the country was 3 lakh tonnes in 1950 51. It rose to 332 lakh tonnes in 2005-06.

Q.15. Give a note on the oil refining in India. 

Ans :- Oil Refining in India :

(i) Crude petroleum has several impurities. It cannot be used in the form of crude.

(ii) It is refined in oil refineries and impurities are separated. These impurities have several by-products. Various industries are based on them.

(iii) There are two types of refineries :

(a) Field-based refineries : Example : Digboi 

(b) Market-based refineries : Example : Barauni.

Q.16. What is the present state of wind power and solar power condition in India?

Ans :- The country’s potential of wind power generation exceeds 50,000 megawatts, of which one fourth can be easily harnessed. In Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka, favourable conditions for wind energy exist. Wind power plant at Lamba in Gujarat in Kachchh is the largest in Asia, Another wind power plant is located at Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu.

Gujarat has been a leader in solar power generation and contributes 2/3rd of the 900 MW of photovoltaics in the country. The State has commissioned Asia’s biggest solar park at Charanka village. Rajasthan is one of the leading states of India in the field of solar energy. The total photovoltaic capacity has passed 500 MW, reaching 510.25 MW at the end of the 2012-13 fiscal year. The Shri Sai Baba Sansthan Trust has the world’s largest solar steam system. It was constructed at the Shirdi shrine at an estimated cost of Rs.1.33 crore, Rs.58.4 lakh of which was paid as a subsidy by the renewable energy ministry. The Welspun Solar MP project, the largest solar power plant in India set up at a cost of Rs. 1,100 crore on 305 hectares of land, will supply power at Rs. 8.05 a kWh. 

The project of a 130-MW solar power plant at Bhagwanpur in Neemuch was launched by Gujarat chief Minister, Narendra Modi. Ujaas, based in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, is now backed by Mr. Amitabh Bachchan who holds 1.6% stake according to latest filings. Vivaan Solar, Gwalior based company started in Aug 2012 has also completed 15 MW in Kadodiya Village, Ujjain.

Q.17. Give a note on the spatial distribution of Copper and Bauxite. 

Ans :- The copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.

Minor producers of Copper are Agnigundala in Guntur District (Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurg and Hasan districts (Karnataka) and South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu).

Orrisa happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi Sambalpur are the leading producers. The other two areas which have been increasing their production are Bolangir and Koraput. The badlands of Jharkhand in Lohardaga have rich deposits. Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are other major producers. Bhavanger, Jamnagar in Gujarat have major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat in M.P have important deposits of bauxite. Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.

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