Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India

Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 17 Mineral and Fuel Resources in India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…


Q.18. What are renewable energy sources ? Enumerate the characteristics of renewable resources?

Ans :- There are many sources of energy that are renewable and considered to be environmentally friendly and harness natural processes. These sources of energy provide an alternate ‘cleaner’ source of energy. helping to negate the effects of certain forms of pollution. All of these power generation techniques can be described as renewable since they are not depleting any resource to create the energy. While there are many large-scale renewable energy projects and production, renewable technologies are also suited to small off-grid applications, sometimes in rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.

Sources of energy are :

(i) Tidal energy

(ii) Wave power

(iii) Solar power

(iv) Wind power

(v) Hydroelectricity

(vi) Radiant energy

(vii) Geothermal power

(viii) Biomass

(ix) Compressed Natural Gas

(x) Nuclear power

(a) Hydropower comes from moving water and ocean waves. Hydropower systems use the energy in flowing water for mechanical purposes or to produce electricity. Hydroelectric plants use the kinetic energy of moving water to spin the turbine generator.

(b) Biomass materials such as wood, agricultural crop wastes, fast growing willow and switchgrass crops, animal wastes, and even – garbage can be used as renewable sources of energy to generate heat and power. They also can be used as alternatives to petrochemicals in making plastics and other products. Today, biomass energy systems are very small-scale; some examples include ethanol in gasoline, and use of municipal waste to produce methane gas.

(c) Passive solar heating for buildings is a common application of renewable energy. A passive solar heating system collects energy from the sun. It uses this energy to heat a space directly, or to heat a fluid that later radiates heat to a space.

(d) Active solar systems-or photovoltaic systems are another way of capturing the sun’s energy. These systems use solar cells to directly produce electricity from solar radiation.

(e) At this time, photovoltaic systems are relatively expensive to build and maintain. They also require a back-up source of power, or batteries, to provide power when sunshine is inadequate. Because semiconductors contain toxic materials, the environmental impacts of manufacturing and disposing of solar cells and their batteries are also a concern. 

(f) Solar thermal electricity is another variation on solar energy. These plants use a highly curved mirror to focus sunlight onto a pipe, concentrating the heat to boil water and create steam. That steam is then used to turn a turbine generator to make electricity.

(g) Wind power uses energy from the moving air to tum large blades on windmills. In the past the motion of the blades was used to grind flour or pump water, but now the blades tum turbines, which rotate generators in order to produce electricity.

Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
Chapter 23Assam Geography

Q.19. “Mineral and power resources in India are unevenly distributed”, Discuss the statement.

Ans :- Distribution of mineral and energy resources in India is very uneven. The Great North Plains have practically no minerals as yet. North-east portion of Peninsular India which lies in Jharkhand and Orissa boasts of one of the largest concentrations of mineral and energy mineral deposits in the world. It is known for its richest Iron ore and Coal. 

The region is named as Chota Nagpur Plateau Region. Two essential ingredients of steel vizIron ore and coal are found in close proximity and this factor has accelerated the growth of the steel industry in the region. The region also possesses Manganese, Mica, Copper, Bauxite and Nuclear minerals such as Uranium and Thorium. The rest of the mineral and power deposits are found scattered all over the Peninsular block, including parts of Assam in the east and Rajasthan in the west.

(i) Over 97% coal reserves are located in the valleys of Damodar, Son, Mahanadi and Godavari.

(ii) Petroleum reserves are concentrated in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat, Mumbai High offshore region in the Arabian Sea.

(a) New reserves of petroleum have been found in Krishna Godavari and Kaveri Basins.

(iii) Most of the major mineral resources are located to the east of the line linking Kanpur and Mangalore.

(iv) There are three major belts of mineral concentration. They are :

(a) The North Eastern Plateau Region.

(b) The South Western Plateau Region.  

(c) The North Western Region.

Q.20. Give a description of the major mineral and power resources regions of India.

Ans :- The North Eastern Plateau Region :

(i) This belt covers Jharkhand and Orissa Plateau region (comprising Chota Nagpur Plateau), West Bengal and parts of Chattisgarh.

(ii) Major iron and steel industry has been set up in this region because of these reasons :

(a) Availability of raw materials – iron ore, manganese, limestone.

(b) Coking coal.

(c) Water from nearby rivers.

(d) Cheap labour.

(e) Easy availability of transportation means railways.

(iii) In this region various minerals like iron, coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica are abundantly found.

The South Western Plateau Region :

(i) Karnataka, Goa and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala for this belt.

(ii) The belt is rich in ferrous minerals and bauxite. 

(iii) The important ferrous minerals include iron ore, manganese and limestone.

(iv) The belt does not contain coal deposits except low grade lignite coal at Neyveli lignite coalified.

(v) Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium, bauxite. 

(vi) Goa is known for iron ore deposits.

The North Western Region :

(i) North Western Region extends over Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat. 

(ii) These mineral deposits belong to Dharwar systems of rocks.

(iii) Major minerals found in this region and copper and zinc.

(iv) Sandstone, granite, marble, gypsum, dolomite and Fuller’s earth deposits are abundantly found in Rajasthan

(v) Petroleum is largely found in Gujarat.

(vi) Salt is obtained from Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Besides the above mineral belts another important belt is the Himalaya belt

The Himalayan Mineral Region :

(i) Major minerals known to occur in this region are copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten. 

(ii) These minerals occur in both the regions – eastern and western. Mineral oil is extracted in Assam valley/Brahmaputra valley.

Q.21. Distinguish between metallic and non metallic minerals. 

Ans :-  Metallic Minerals :

(i) Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.

(ii) Iron, copper, bauxite, tin, manganese are some examples.

(iii) These are generally associated with igneous rocks. 

(iv) They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own.

(v) They are ductile and malleable. 

(vi) When hit, they do not get broken.

Non-Metallic Minerals :

(i) Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.

(ii) Coal, salt, clay, marble are some examples.

(iii) These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.

(iv) They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own.

(v) They are not ductile and malleable. 

(vi) When hit, they may get broken into pieces.

Q.22. Describe iron ore distribution in India.

Ans :- The total reserves of iron ore in the country were about 20 billion tonnes in the year 2004-05. About 95 percent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. In Orissa, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar. 

The important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj). Kiruburu (Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh). Similar hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them. Most of the important mines such as Noamundi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Paschim Singhbhum districts. 

This belt further extends to Durg. Dantewada and Bailadila. Dalli, and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron ore in the country, In Karnataka, iron ore deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of Bellary district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikmagalur district and parts of Shimoga, *Chitradurg and Tumkur districts. The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore. 

Q.23. Discuss the distribution pattern of coal in India.

Ans :- About 80 percent of the coal deposits in India is of bituminous type and is of non-coking grade. The most important Gondwana coal fields of India are located in Damodar Valley. They lie in the Jharkhand-Bengal coal belt and the important coal fields in this region are Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura. 

Jharia is the largest coal field followed by Raniganj. The other river valleys associated with coal are Godavari, Mahanadi and Sone. The most important coal mining centres are Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh (part of Singrauli coal field lies in Uttar Pradesh), Korba in Chhattisgarh, Talcher and Rampur in Orissa, Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee and Bander in Maharashtra and Singareni and Pandur in Andhra Pradesh.

Tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. It is extracted from Darangiri, Cherrapunji, Mewling and Langrin (Meghalaya). Makum, Jaipur and Nazira in upper Assam, Namchik-Namphuk (Arunachal Pradesh) and Kalakot (Jammu and Kashmir)

Besides, the brown coal or lignite occurs in the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir.

Q.24. Discuss briefly the production and distribution pattern of natural gas in India.

Ans :- India had 38 trillion cubic feet (Tef) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2007. The total gas production in India was about 31,400 mcm in 2002-03 compared with 2,358 mcm in 1980-81. At this production level, India’s reserves are likely to last for around 29 years, that is significantly longer than the 19 years estimated for oil reserves. Almog 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat. Offshore gas reserves are also located in Andhra Pradesh coast (Krishna Godavari Basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery Basin Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and the North Eastern status (Assam and Tripura).

Major Gas Based Projects

Q.25. Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 

Ans :- The comparison between the Conventional and Non conventional sources of Energy is mentioned below :

(i) Conventional energy, such as thermal powers (from coal. petroleum, and natural gas), hydel power (from high velocity of running water) are tapped and used abundantly at present Their uses are practiced for a long time. But, in contrast to conventional sources of energy, non-conventional sources of energy (solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, wind energy ete) are not used frequently and in large scale (commercially). Their uses are comparatively more recent.

(ii) Except hydel power, the sources of thermal power i.e. other conventional energies are non renewable in nature. But the sources of non-conventional energy are flow-resources. There is no anxiety for their exhaustion.

(iii) Except hydel power, the generation of other conventional energy produces air pollution. But the generation of non-conventional energy does not produce air pollution.

(iv) Except hydel power, the other conventional energy is costly. But comparatively, the non-conventional energy is much cheaper. 

(v) Conventional energy causes pollution when used, as they emit smoke and ash. non-conventional energy is generally pollution free.

(vi) Conventional energy is very expensive to be maintained, stored and transmitted as they are carried over long distances through transmission grids and lines. Non-conventional energy is Less expensive due to local use and is easy to maintain.

Q.26. Give a descriptive note on the Non-conventional Sources of Energy in India. 

Ans :- Non Conventional sources of energy are generally renewable sources of energy. This type of energy sources include anything, which provides power that can be replenished with increasing demand for energy and with fast depleting conventional sources of energy such as coal. petroleum, “natural gas etc.

The non- conventional sources of energy such as energy from sun, wind, biomass, tidal energy, geothermal energy and even energy from waste material are gaining importance. This energy is abundant, renewable, pollution free and eco-friendly.

It can also be more conveniently supplied to urban, rural and even remote areas. Thus, it is also capable of solving the twin problems of energy supply in a decentralized manner and helping in sustaining a cleaner environment.

However, the importance of renewable energy or non-conventional sources of energy was recognised in the early 1970s. But now, it has been accepted that renewable energy resources can provide the basis for sustainable development.

During the past quarter century, a variety of renewable energy technologies have been developed and deployed in villages and cities. In India, a sinner Ministry of Non-conventional source of energy has been created for planning, promoting and coordinating relating to all aspects of renewable energy resources.

India today has one of the largest programmes for non- conventional sources of energy. According to energy experts, India’s non-conventional energy potential is estimated at about 1, 95000 mw. An estimate of 31 percent of this potential comes from the Sun, 30% from ocean thermal, 26% from bio-fuel and 13% from wind. During the last two decades, several renewable energy technologies have been developed and deployed in villages and cities.

However, the major non-conventional energy sources that are being used for power generation are :

(i) Tidal energy                          

(ii) Wave power

(iii) Solar power                         

(iv) Wind power

(v) Hydroelectricity                     

(vi) Radiant energy

(vii) Geothermal power              

(viii) Biomass

(ix) Compressed Natural Gas    

(x) Nuclear power

Q.28. What is the present state of Wind Power in India?

Ans :- Same as Q.No.162

Q.29. How do you suggest conserving Mineral Resources? 

Ans :- For sustainable development calls for the protection of resources for the future generations. There is an urgent need to conserve the resources. The alternative energy sources like solar power., wind, wave, geothermal energy are inexhaustible resources. These should be developed to replace the exhaustible resources. 

In case of metallic minerals, use of scrap metals will enable recycling of metals. Use of scrap is especially significant in metals like copper, lead and zinc in which India’s reserves are meagre. Use of substitutes for scarce metals may also reduce their consumption. Export of strategic and scarce minerals must be reduced, so that the existing reserve may be used for a longer period.

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