Class 12 Geography Chapter 16 India’s Water Resources

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Class 12 Geography Chapter 16 India’s Water Resources The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 16 India’s Water Resources and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 16 India’s Water Resources

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 16 India’s Water Resources Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

India’s Water Resources

Chapter: 16




Q.1. Which one of the following types of resources describes water as a resource?

(a) Biotic resource

(b) Abiotic resource

(c) Non-renewable resource 

(d) Cyclic resource

Ans :- (d) Cyclic resource

Q.2. Which one of the following rivers has the highest replenishable groundwater resource in India?

(a) The Ganga

(b) The Indus

(e) The Brahmaputra

(d) The Mahanadi

Ans :- (a) The Ganga

Q.3. Which one of the following figures in cubic kilometers shows the total annual precipitation in India?

(a) 2,000

(b) 3.000

(e) 4,000

(d) 5,000

Ans :- (c) 4,000

Q.4. In which one of the following sectors in India used the highest amount of water?

(a) Domestic use

(b) Irrigation

(c) industries

(d) Power generation

Ans :- (b) Irrigation


Q.5. How is water scarcity becoming the base of disputes among communities?

Ans :-  Sharing and controlling of these scarce resources are becoming the basis of dispute issues among the regions, communities and states. Q.

Q.6. How is water necessary to ensure development?

Ans :- The assessment, efficient use and conservation of water become necessary to ensure development.

Q.7. Why is per capita availability of water dwindling? 

Ans :- Per capita availability of water dwindling because of the following reasons :

(i) All the people are wasting it and are becoming more careless than they can become.

(ii) It’s dwindling day by day due to the increase in population.

(iii) Available water resources are also getting polluted with industrial, agricultural and domestic effluents.

Q.8. What is watershed?

Ans :- A watershed is an area of land that feeds all the water running under it and draining off of it into a body of water. It combines with other watersheds to form a network of rivers and streams that progressively drain into larger water areas. A watershed describes an area of land that contains a common set of streams and rivers that all drair into a single larger body of water, such as a larger river, a lake or an ocean. For example, the Mississippi River watershed is an enormous watershed. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross county, state, and national boundaries.

Q.9. What do you mean by rain water harvesting?

Ans :-  Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purposes like irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is a technique used for collecting, storing, and using rainwater for landscape irrigation and other uses.

Q.10. What do you mean by hydro-electricity?

Ans :- Hydroelectricity means making electricity from the moving water of rivers and streams. Hydroelectricity is a form of renewable energy because it is constantly being renewed by a river’s water flow, It is the electricity obtained by harnessing the power of water flowing down from a high level. It is the electricity obtained by harnessing the power of water flowing down from a high level. It is a timeless and renewable resource. 

Q.11. What do you understand by Multi-Purpose Projects?

Ans :- Water Resources Projects are planned for various purposes like irrigation, Hydro Power Generation, Water Supply for Drinking and industrial purpose, Flood control, navigation etc. Projects which serve more than one purpose are called Multipurpose projects. Generally the majority of multipurpose projects are a combination of irrigation and Hydro- power. A multipurpose project is a large-scale hydro project often including dams for water retention, canals for irrigation, water processing and pipelines to supply water to cities and power generation. These often include transportation improvements and industrial growth. They are also developed to reduce the dangers of flooding.

Q.12. What is a River Basin?

Ans :-  A river basin is the land that water flows on its way to a river. It is normally made up of all the land drained by a river and its tributaries. Features of a river basin include: tributaries, a watershed, a confluence, source and a mouth. A river basin is the land that water flows across or under on its way to a river. Just is a bathtub catches all of the water that fills within its sides, a river basin sends all of the water falling within it to a central river and out to an estuary or to the ocean.


Q.13. Describe the water resources in India.

Ans :- India accounts for about 2.45 percent of the world’s surface area, 4 percent of the world’s water resources and about 16 percent of world’s population. The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is 1.869 cubic km. Out of this only 60 percent can be put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable water resource in the country is only 1.122 cubic km.

Q.14. Give reasons for the deterioration of water quality in India in the recent years.

Ans :- Water gets polluted by foreign matters such as microorganisms, chemicals, industrial and other wastes. Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use. When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, ocean and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water. This results in pollution of water whereby quality of water deteriorates affecting aquatic systems. Sometimes, these pollutants also seep down and pollute groundwater.

Q.15. Give the reasons why water conservation is necessary? 

Ans :- The reasons water conservation necessary is :

(i) Decreasing availability of fresh water and its increasing demand have forced the humans to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development.

(ii) Water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalination. is considered negligible.

(iii) Inater has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws. and adopt effective measures for its conservation.

(iv) Along with developing water saving technologies and methods. attempts are also to be made to prevent its pollution.

(v) We con conserve water by adopting the following techniques :

(a) Watershed development

(b) Rain water harvesting

(c) Water recycling

(d) Reuse, and

(e) Conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in the long run.

Q.16. Briefly discuss the recycle and reuse of water. 

Ans :- Recycle and reuse of water are :

(i) Another way through which we can improve fresh water availability is recycling and reuse of water.

(a) Use of water of lesser quality like reclaimed wastewater is an attractive option for industries for cooling and fire-fighting to reduce their water cost.

(b) In the same way in urban areas water after bathing and washing utensils is used for gardening. 

(c) Water used for washing vehicles is also used for gardening.

(d) This would conserve better quality of water for drinking purposes.

(ii) Currently recycling of water is practised on a limited scale.

(iii) There is enormous scope for replenishing water through recycling. 

Q.17. Discuss rainwater harvesting as a method of water conservation.

Ans :- Rain water harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses. It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers. It is a low cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water by guiding the rain water to bore well, pits and wells. Rainwater harvesting increases water availability, checks the declining groundwater table, improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates, prevents soil erosion, and flooding and arrests salt water intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers.

Q.18. What are the factors determining Spatial Distribution of Water Resources?

Ans :- India accounts for about 2.45% of the world’s surface area and it contains 4% of the world’s water resources and about 16% of world’s population.

The total water available from precipitation in India in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is 1,869 cubic km. Out of this only 60% can be put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilizable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km.

In India, there are four major sources of surface water that can be identified. These are (i) rivers, (ii) Lakes, (iii) Ponds and (iv) Tanks. In the country, there are about 10,360 rivers and tributaries which are longer than 1.6 km each.

The mean annual flow in all the river basins in the country is estimated to be 1.869 cubic km. Due to topographical, hydrological and other constraints only about 690 cubic km (32 percent) of the available surface water can be utilised.

Factors determining spatial distribution of water resources are :

(i) Uneven precipitation 

(ii) Nature of the relief feature.

(iii) Nature of the soils

(iv) Catchment areas

(v) Human activities

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