Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Land Resource and  Agriculture

Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Land Resource and  Agriculture The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Land Resource and  Agriculture and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Land Resource and  Agriculture

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 15 Land Resource and  Agriculture Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Land Resource and  Agriculture

Chapter: 15




Q.1. Which one of the following is not a Land use category?

(a) Fallow land

(b) Net sown area

(c) Marginal land

(d) Cultivable wasteland

Ans :- (c) Marginal Land.

Q.2. Which one of the following is the main form of degradation in irrigated areas?

(a) Salinization of soils

(b) Gully Erosion

(c) Wind erosion

(d) Siltation of land

Ans :- (a) Salinization of soils.

Q.3. In which one of the following groups of countries Hyvs of wheat and rice were developed?

(a) Mexico and Philippines 

(b) Mexico and Singapore 

(c) Japan and Australia

(d) USA and Japan

Ans :- (c) Japan and Australia

Q.4. Which one of the following crops is not cultivated under dry land farming?

(a) Sugarcane

(b) Groundnut

(c) Ragi

(d) Jowar

Ans :- (a) Sugarcane.


Q.5. How do you measure total cultivable land? 

Ans :- Total cultivable land is measured in the following procedure :

Physical cultivable area + Area cultivated and harvested twice and thrice

= ………………………………………………………………………..

                       Total cultivable land.

Q.6. How would you distinguish between net sown area and gross cropped area?

Ans :- Net sown area : Net sown area is that area which is sown and harvested in a year.

Gross cropped area : Gross cropped area is that area which includes net sown area plus area sown and harvested twice or thrice in a year.

Q.7. Distinguish the dry land and wetland farming? 

Ans :- Dry land farming :

(ii) Dryland farming (in India) is largely confined to the regions with annual rainfall less than 75 cm.

(ii) Dryland farming produces drought resistant crops.

(iii) In dryland farming produces crops like ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar.

Wetland farming :

(i) Wetland farming in India) is done in such regions where rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement.

(ii) Wetland farming produces such crops which require abundant moisture.

(iii) Major crops in wetland farming are rice, jute and sugarcane

Q.8. Differentiated between barren and cultivable was telford. 

Ans :-  Barren and wasteland :

(i) Hilly terrain deserts, rocky lands we may termed as barren and wasteland. 

(ii) Barren and wasteland cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology.

Cultivable wasteland :

(i) Cultivable wastelands are land which are kept fallow for more than five years.

(ii) Cultivable wasteland can be brought under cultivation after improving it through reclamation practices.

Q.8. What are the major uses of land?

Ans :- People use land for various purposes, among them as a resource for production, residence and recreation.

Q.9. Distinguish the irrigated farming and rainfed farming. 

Ans :-  Distinction between irrigated farming and rainfed farming are :

Irrigated FarmingRainfed Farming
(i)Irrigated farming is based on irrigation.(i)Rainfed farming is based on rains.
(ii)Irrigation is of two types – for crops.
(a) Protective irrigation aims at protection of crops from adverse effect of soil moisture deficiency
•  Its aims is to providesoil moisture to maxi mum possible area.
(b) Productive irrigation means to provide sufficient soil moisture in the cropping season to get maximum production.
(ii) Irrigation is not generally required for crops.
(iii)Wheat and Rice are major crops based on irrigation.

Q.9. Why is agricultural productivity low in dry regions? 

Ans :- Because of lack of moisture in the land or soil, as the dry soil is less fertile, and also due to poor level of management.

Q.10. What do you mean by intensive Subsistence Farming? 

Ans :- Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year.

Q.11. What is Intercultural?

Ans :-  Interculture is the agricultural practice in which two crops are raised simultaneously in order to maintain the fertility and productivity of the fields.

Q.12. What do you mean by White Revolution?

Ans :- It refers to the increase of milk production in the country through various developmental programmes.


Q.13. Give a note how is land resource more crucial to the livelihood of the people?

Ans :-  Better access to input and product markets, including savings and credit. Appropriate technologies for higher, sustainable productivity. Education and the skills to use the new technologies. Opportunities to diversify both within and beyond agriculture. For the landless, being able to access land. Improved tenancy and sharecropping arrangements, Protection of rights and development of opportunities for agricultural workers. Equitable opportunities for private sector development e.g. in high value crops for export. Better terms of trade for developing country agricultural producers. Security of tenure, whether the right to occupy a room or to develop a plot of land, plays a large part in determining access to basic infrastructure, services, employment opportunities and credit. People who are safe from eviction feel secure to improve their homes and neighbourhoods. 

The legal recognition of extra-legal settlements and enterprises of the poor are powerful tools for social inclusion, and an essential basis for establishing the rule of law and more socially legitimate government in urban areas. Urban planning strategies provide an important means of enabling poor people to live close to their sources of livelihood. Participatory planning can strengthen the confidence in the development process and property rights, and help to direct investment to areas where it will be of greatest social benefit.

Q.14. Briefly discuss the major land-use categories as maintained in the land revenue records? 

Ans :- The various land-use categories of India as maintained in land- revenue records of India are as follows : 

(i) Forests : Forests are the most important part of a nation. But, it is a matter of fact that the area of this category’s land is gradually decreasing. The area under actual forest cover is different from the area classified as forest.

(ii) Land put to non agricultural uses : Land under settlements, infrastructure, industries, shops etc. are included in this category.

(iii) Barren and Wasteland : It includes the barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines etc. which are normally cannot be brought under cultivation.

(iv) Area under permanent Pastures and grazing lands: Most of this type land is owned by the village “Panchayat” or the government.

(v) Area under Miscellaneous tree crops and groves : The land under orchards and fruit trees are included in this category. 

(vi) Cultivable waste- land: Any land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is included in this category. 

(vii) Current fallow : This is the land which is left without cultivation for one or less than agricultural years.

(viii) Fallow other than current fallow : This is also a cultivable land which is left uncultivated for more than a year but less than five years. 

(ix). Net area sown : The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area.

Q.15. Give a distinguishing note between Kharif and Rabi cultivation.

Ans :- Distinction henwen Kharif and Rabi cultivation are :

SL. NoKharif Season SL. NoRabi Season
(i)Kharif cropping season starts from the onset of Monsoon and ends up with the end of Monsoon(i)Rabi cropping season starts with the season of Retreating Monsoon and ends up with the start of summer season.
(ii)Kharif season is from June or early July to the end of September or early October. Sowing of crops starts in June or early July and harvest begins by the middle of September or early October.(ii)Rabi season spreads from late October or early November to April-May.
(iii)Major crops of the Kharif season include rice, millets, and maize. groundnuts, jute and cotton. Pulses like moong, urad and arhar are also grown in this season. Arhar takes a longer period to mature than other crops.(iii)Major crops of Rabi season are wheat, gram, barley, oil seeds like mustard seed and rapeseed. Pulses like masoor are also grown in this season.

Q.16. Write an account on the Maize cultivation in India 

Ans :- Maize is a food as well as fodder crop grown under semi-arid climatic conditions and over inferior soils. This crop occupies only about 3.6 percent of the total cropped area. Maize cultivation is not concentrated in any specific region. It is sown all over India except eastern and north-eastern regions. The leading producers of maize are the states of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Yield level of maize is higher than other coarse cereals. It is high in southern states and declines towards central parts.

Q.17. Write an account on cotton cultivation in India. 

Ans :-  Cotton is a tropical crop growth in the kharif season in semi-arid areas of the country, India lost a large proportion of cotton growing area to Pakistan during partition. However, its average has increased considerably during the last 50 years. India grows both short staple (Indian) cotton as well as long staple (American) cotton called ‘narma’ in north-western parts of the country. Cotton requires a clear sky during the flowering stage.

India ranks fourth in the world in the production of cotton after China, U.S.A and Pakistan and accounts for about 8.3 percent of production of cotton in the world. Cotton occupies about 4.7 percent of the total cropped area in the country. 

There are three cotton growing areas, in. parts of Punjab, Haryana and Northern Rajasthan in north-west, Gujarat and Maharashtra in the west and plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in South Leading producers of this crop are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. Per hectare output of cotton is high under irrigated conditions in north-westerns region of the country. Its yield is very low in Maharashtra where it is grown under rainfed conditions.

Q.18. Write briefly on the geographical requirements for the jute cultivation and mention the major jute producing areas of India. 

Ans :- Jute is used for making coarse cloth, bags, sacks and decorative items. It is a cash crop in West Bengal and adjoining eastern parts of the country. India lost large jute growing areas to East Pakistan (Bangladesh) during partition. At present, India produces about three-fifth of jute production of the world. West Bengal accounts for about three-fourth of the production in the country. Bihar and Assam are other jute growing areas. Being concentrated only in a few states, this crop accounts for only about 0.5 percent of the total cropped area in the country.

Q.19. What are the geographical requirements for tea cultivation and which are the major tea producing areas in India?

Ans :- Tea is a plantation crop used as a beverage. Black tea leaves are fermented whereas green tea leaves are unfermented. Tea leaves have rich content of caffeine and tannin. It is an indigenous crop hill in northern China. It is grown over undulating topography of hilly areas and well drained soils in humid and sub-humid tropics and sub-trophies. 

In India, tea plantations started in 1840s in Brahmaputra valley of Assam which still is a major tea growing area in the country. Later on, its plantation was introduced in the sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal (Darjeeling. Jalpai and Cooch Bihar districts). Tea is also cultivated on the lower slopes of Nilgiri and Cardamom hills in Western Ghats. India is a leading producer of tea and accounts for about 28 percent of total production in the world. 

India’s share in the international market of tea has declined substantially At present, it ranks third among tea exporting countries in the world after Sri Lanka and China. Assam accounts for about 53.2 percent of the total cropped area and contributes more than half of total production of tea in the country. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the other leading producers of tea.

Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
Chapter 23Assam Geography

Q.20. Give an account of coffee cultivation in India.

Ans :-  Coffee is a tropical plantation crop. Its seeds are roasted, ground and are used for preparing a beverage. There are three varieties of coffee ice, arabica, robusta and liberica. India mostly grows superior quality coffee, arabica, which is in great demand in the International market. But India produces only about 4.3 percent coffee in the world and ranks sixth after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia and Mexico. Coffee is cultivated in the highlands of Western Ghats in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka alone accounts for more than two-third of total production of coffee in the country.

Q.21. What are the Environmental Problems of land resources in India?

Ans :- Different types of environmental problems of land resources in India are :

(i) Degradation of land due to stone crashers.

(ii) Degradation of land due to pollution especially industrial wastes. 

(iii) Due to our use of irrigation soil fertility is seriously depleted.

(iv) Due to our use of chemical fertilizers soil fertility seriously depleted in the recent years.   

(v) Deforestation is another environmental problem of land resources in India.

(vi) Alkalisation and salinisation of soils are other problems of land resources in India.

Q.22. What are the strategies followed for agricultural development in the Post Independence Period in India.

Ans : Important in strategies for agricultural development followed the post- independence period in India are as follows : 

(a) The Government of India was made pressure to increase foodgrains  production by-

(i) Switching over from cash crops to food crops.

(il) Intensification of cropping over already cultivated lands. 

(iii) Increasing cultivated area by bringing cultivated and fallow land under plough.

(b) The above strategy helped in increasing foodgrains production, but agricultural production stagnated during the late 1950s. 

(c) To overcome this problem, India were launched two important programme as –

(i) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) 

(ii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) But two consecutive droughts during the mid-1960s resulted in a food crisis in the country.

(d) By the mid – 1960s, Indian farmers used some new varieties (HYV) of wheat and rice which were imported from Mexico and the Philippines respectively.

(e) The country introduced package technology comprising HYVs along with chemical fertilizers in irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

(f) This strategy of agricultural development paid dividends instantly and increased the food grains production at a very fast rate. It is known as “Green Revolution.”

(g) This strategy of agricultural development made the country self reliant in foodgrain production. 

(h) In 1988, emphasis was given to the following sectors.

(i) Dairy farming

(ii) Poultry

(iii) Horticulture

(iv) Livestock rearing

(v) Aquaculture.

(i) In the 1990s, initiation of the policy of liberalisation and free mare economy are notable strategies for agricultural development.

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