Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Migration Pattern in India

Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Migration Pattern in India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Migration Pattern in India and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Migration Pattern in India

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 12 Migration Pattern in India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Migration Pattern in India

Chapter: 12




Q.1. Which one of the following states receives the maximum number of immigrants?

(a) Bihar

(b) Delhi

(c) Maharashtra

(d) Uttar Pradesh

Ans :-  (b) Delhi

Q.2. Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?

(a) Education

(b) Work and employment

(c) Business

(d) Marriage

Ans :-  (b) Work and employment

Q.3. Which one of the following urban agglomerations (UA) has the highest share of immigrant population?

(a) Mumbai UA

(b) Bangalore UA

(c) Delhi UA

(d) Chennai UA

Ans :-  (c) Delhi UA.

Q.4. How much of population have migrated from other countries to India as per census of India 2001

(a) 5 Lakh

(b) 9 Lakh

(c) 22 Lakh

(d) 50 Lakh

Ans :-. (a) 5 lakh


Q.5. What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the pace of origin n and destrilation? 

Ans :-  In rural areas (place of origin) population of lower ages are more than the adults while the population of adults increases in urban areas (Places of destination). Again the rural areas females dominate the population while in urban areas males are more than females.

Q.6. Which are two major neighbouring countries from where the highest number of people migrated to India? 

Ans :-  Bangladesh and Pakistan

Q.7. What do you mean by internal migration?

Ans :-  Internal migration refers to the movement or change of residence within state boundaries which involves provinces, cities or municipalities. It refers to human migration within one geopolitical entity, usually a nation.

Q.8. What do you mean by urban agglomeration? 

Ans :-  In the study of human settlements, an urban agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area.

Q.9. How is migration an integral part of our rife? 

Ans :-  Migration is an integral part of our life in redistributing population over time and space. India has witnessed waves of migrants coming to the country form Central and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia. In fact, the history of India is a history of waves of migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts of the country.

Q.11. Describe the third wave of migrants from India. 

Ans :-  Third wave of migrants comprised professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s onwards), software engineers, management consultants. financial experts, media persons (1980s onwards), and others migrated to countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany, etc. Their professionals enjoy the distinction of being one of highly educated, the highest earning and prospering groups.

Q.12. What do you mean by International Irrigation? 

Ans :-  International migration occurs when people’s cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time. An international migrant is someone who moves to another country to live and work for at least a year.


Q.13. Give the reasons why people from India have migrated to other countries.

Ans :-  Migration occurs for many reasons. Many people leave their home countries in order to look for economic opportunities in another country. Others migrate to be with family members who have migrated or because of political conditions in their countries. Education is another reason for international migration, as students pursue their studies abroad. However, if they move for the reason of finding a better job, they are called economic migrants. About 15% moved along with their families. More than 50% moved due to marriage. 9% migrated for employment and 2% for education.

Q.14. Describe the third wave of migrants from India.

Ans :-  Third wave of migrants were professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s onwards), software engineers, management consultants, financial experts, media persons (1980s onwards), and others migrated to countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany, etc. Their professionals enjoy the distinction of being one of highly educated, the highest earning and prospering groups. After liberalization, in the 90s education and knowledge-based Indian emigration has made Indian Diaspore one of the most powerful dinspores in the world.In all these countries, Indian diaspora has been playing an important role in the development of the respective countries.

Q.15. Explain the causes of mare-female migration. 

Ans :-  Reason for migration of males and females are different. For example, work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration (38 percent) while it is only three per cent for the females. Contrary to this, about 65 percent of females move out from their parental houses following their marriage. This is the most important cause in the rural areas of India except in Meghalaya where reverse is the case.

Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
Chapter 23Assam Geography

Q.16. Briefly describe the spatial variations in migration.

Ans :- Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana attract migrants from other states such as Uttar Pradesh. Bihar, etc. Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants from the state.

Among the urban agglomeration (UA), Greater Mumbai received the higher number of migrants. Intra-states migration constituted the largest share in it.

Q.17. Discuss the general pattern of migration in India. 

Ans :- On the basis of direction of movement migration occurs in five streams :

(i) Rural to Urban (RU)

(ii) Urban to Urban (U- U) Internal Migration

(iii) Rural to Rural (R-R)

(iv) Urban to Rural ans (U-R)

(v) International Migration (C to O) International Migration (O to C)

In India, during 2001, out of 315 million migrants, enumerated on the basis of the last residence, 98 million had changed their place of residence in the last ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intrastate migrants. The stream was dominated by female migrants. Most of these were migrants related to marriage.

Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million people have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these, 96 percent came from the neighbouring countries : Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0,16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is concerned it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries.


Q.1. Give an account of causes and consequences of migration. 

Ans :-  There could be a variety of reasons. 

These reasons can be put into two broad categories :

(i) push factor, these cause people to leave their place of residence origin : and

(ii) pull factors, which attract the people from different places.

In India people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Apart from these factors, natural disasters such as, flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake, tsunami, wars and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate. On the other hand, there are pull factors which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for the majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages. Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment, etc, are also quite important pull factors.

Q.2. Discuss the socio demographic consequences of reintegration. 

Ans :- People tend to move from places of low opportunity and low safety This in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas.

The social and demographic consequences of migration is given below :

Social consequences: 

(i) Migrants act as agents of social change.

(ii) New ideas related to new technologies family planning giris education get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. 

(iii) Another major social consequence is the intermixing of people from diverse cultures. 

(iv) It contributes to the evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and winds up the mental horizon of the people at large.

(v) Negative consequences such as :

(a) Anonymity

(b) Social vacuum

(c) Sense of rejection

(d) Anti – social activities.

Demographic Consequences :

(i) Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. 

(ii)  Growth of cities is the result of rural – urban migration.

(iii) Due to selective out migration from the rural areas to the urban areas as a result an adverse effect is occurring on the rural demographic structure.

(iv) High out migration sometime creates serious imbalances in age and sex composition in the areas concerned. 

Q.3. Analyse the push and pull factors of migration in India.

Ans :-  Push factors : Push factors are those factors, by which people are compelled to leave the place of residence. Examples, unemployment. poor living conditions, political turmoil, natural disasters, epidemics etc. 

Pull factors : Pull factors are those factors which have offered attraction and inducement to the intending migrants to come over. Examples, better job opportunities, better living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property.

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