Class 12 Geography Chapter 13 Human Resources Department

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Class 12 Geography Chapter 13 Human Resources Department The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 13 Human Resources Department and select need one.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 13 Human Resources Department

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 13 Human Resources Department Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Human Resources Department

Chapter: 13

PART-2

GEOGRAPHY

TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER

Q.1. Which one of the following states of India has the highest rank in the Human development Index?

(a) Assam

(b) Kerala

(c) Mizoram

(d) Punjab

Ans :-  (d) Punjab

Q.2. Which one of the following states of India has the lowest female literacy?

(a) Bihar

(b) Arunachal Pradesh

(e) Jharkhand

(d) Kerala

Ans :- (a) Bihar

Q.3. Which one of the following Union Territories of India has the highest literacy rate’

(a) Chandigarh 

(b) Andaman and Nicobar Island

(c) Daman and Diu

(d) Lakshadweep

Ans :-  (d) Lakshadweep.

Q.4. Which one of the following states records the highest percentage figure of the population below the poverty line?

(a) Assam

(b) Orissa

(c) Punjab

(d) Rajasthan

Ans :- (b) Orissa

Q.5. What do you mean by Human Development? 

Ans :- Human Development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices increasing their opportunities for education, health care income and empowerment and covering the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic, social and political freedom.

Q.6. Give two reasons for low levels of Human Development in most of the Northerner states of India. 

Ans :-  Two noted reasons for low levels of Human Development in

most of the Northern states of India are :

(i) Low literacy rate 

(ii) Size of the population is large.

Q.7. Give the reasons for declaring Child Sex

Ratio in India.

Ans :-  Reasons for declining child sex ratio in India are : 

(i) Social attitude towards female children. 

(ii) Development of medical science i.e. application of sex determination.

Q.8. What do you mean by Poverty?

Ans :- Poverty is general scarcity or dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live.

Q.9. Give two reasons for declining Child Sex Ratio in India. 

Ans :-  Reasons for declining child sex ratio in India are : 

(i) Social attitude towards female child. (ii) Development of medical science i.e. application of sex determination.

SHORT TYPE QUESTION & ANSWER : (MARKS – 3) 

Q.10. Give a brief note on the human development indicators prepared by the Planning Commission of India. 

Ans :-  Using the indicators selected by the UNDP, the Planning Commission of India also prepared the Human Development Report for India. It used states and the Union Territories as the units of analysis. The Ench state government also started preparing the state level Human Development Reports, using districts as the units of analysis. The finat HDI by the Planning Commission of India has been calculated by taking the three indicators as the report also discussed other indicators like economic attainment, social empowerment, social distributive justice, accessibility, hygiene and various welfare measures undertaken by the state.

Q.11. Give a brief note on the uneven development levels (state wise) in India.

Ans :- There are a few developed States like Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Delhi that have per capita income more than Rs. 4,000 per year and there are a large number of poorer States like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir. etc. which have recorded per capita income less than Rs 2.000. Corresponding to these disparities, the developed states have higher per capita consumption expenditure as compared to the poorer states. 

It was estimated to be more than Rs. 690 per capita per month in States like Punjab, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat and below Rs 520 per capita per month in States like Uttar Pradesh, etc. These variations are indicative of some other deep-seated economic problems like poverty, unemployment and under-employment.

The disaggregated data of poverty for the states show that there are States like Orissa and Bihar which have recorded more than 40 percent of their population living below the poverty line. The States of Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland have more than 30 percent of their population below poverty line “Poverty is a state of deprivation. In absolute terms it reflects the inability of an individual to satisfy certain basic needs for a sustained, healthy and reasonably productive living.” Employment rate for educated youth is 25 percent. Jobless growth and rampant unemployment are some of the important reasons for higher incidences of poverty in India.

Q.12. Explain the integrated aspect of development. 

Ans :-  Interrelated aspects of development have direct deteriorating human conditions. It pertains to environmental pollution leading to ecological crisis. Air, soil, water and noise pollution have not only led to the tragedy of commons but these have also threatened the existence of our society. Consequently, the poor are being subjected to three interrelated processes of declining capabilities; i.e. 

(i) social capabilities – due to displacement and weakening social ties (social capital).

(ii) environmental capabilities – due to pollution and.

(iii) personal capabilities – due to increasing incidence of diseases and accidents. This, in turn, has adverse effects on their quality of life and human development. 

Q.13. What are the major factors causing spatial variations of Human Resource in India? 

Ans :-  India has been placed among the countries showing medium human development. Kerala placed at the top rank in the HDI followed by Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra and Haryana.

States like Bihar, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are at the bottom among the 15 major states in India.

StateHDI Value
Andhra Pradesh0.416
Assam0.386
Bihar0.367
Gujarat0.479
Haryana0.509
Kamataka0.478
Kerala0.638
Madhya Pradesh0.394
Maharashtra0.523
Orissa0.404
Punjab0.537
Rajasthan0.424
Tamil Nadu0.531 
Uttar Pradesh0.388
West Bengal0.472

There are several causes related to the spatial variation in the levels of Human Development among the states in India.

Sl. No.CONTENTS
PART-1
Chapter 1Human Geography Nature & Scope
Chapter 2The World Population Distribution, Density & Growth
Chapter 3Population Composition
Chapter 4Human Development
Chapter 5Primary Activities
Chapter 6Secondary Activities
Chapter 7Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Chapter 8Transport and Communication
Chapter 9International Trade
Chapter 10Human Settlement
PART-2
Chapter 11Population Structure of India
Chapter 12Migration Pattern in India
Chapter 13Human Resources Department
Chapter 14Human Settlement of India
Chapter 15Land Resource and  Agriculture
Chapter 16India’s Water Resources
Chapter 17Mineral and Fuel Resources in India
Chapter 18Manufacturing Industries of India
Chapter 19Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Chapter 20Transport and Communication in India
Chapter 21International Trade
Chapter 22Problems and Issues Geographical Perspective
PART-3
Chapter 23Assam Geography

The major causes are :

(i) Education : Education is the dominant cause for the high HDI. For example Kerala is able to record the highest value in the HDI largely due to its impressive performance in achieving near hundred percent literacy (90.92 percent) in 2001. On the other hand states like Bihar, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh the literacy is very low, so HDI is also low.

States showing higher total literacy rates have iess gaps between the male and female literacy rates. For Kerala it is 6.34 percent while it is 26.75 percent in Bihar and 25.95 percent in Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Economic : The level of economic development to play significant impacts on HDI. Economically developed states like Maharashtra Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Haryana have higher HDI value of HDI as compared to states of poor economies (Assam. Bihar, etc)

(iii) Social cause

(iv) Political cause

(v) Historical cause.

LONG TYPE QUESTION & ANSWERS (MARKS – 5)

Q.1. Give an account of human development in India as per UNDP Report 2005.

Ans :-  India with a population of over 1.09 billion ranked the second largest populous country in the world. In terms of Human Development Index her ranking is 127 among 172 nations in the world (2005). With the composite HDI value of 0.062, India finds herself grouped with countries showing medium human development (UNDP. 2005) Table – 3 reveals the HDI values of India and some other countries of the world.

CountryHDI valueCountryHDI value
Norway0.963Thailand0.778
Australia0.955Sri Lanka0,751
Sweden0.949Iran0.736
Switzerland0.947Indonesia0.697
U.S.A0.944Egypt0.659
Japan0.943Indila0.602
U.K0.939Myanmar0.578
France0.938Pakistan0.527
Germany0.93Nepal0.526
Argentina0.863Bangladesh0.52
Cuba0.817Kenya0.474
Russia0.795Zambia0.394
Brazil0.792Chad Niger0.3410.281

Low scores in the HDI is a matter of serious concern but, some reservations have been expressed about the approach as well as indicators selected to calculate the index values and ranking of the states/countries. Lack of sensitivity to the historical factors like colonication, imperialism and neo-imperialism, socio-cultural factors like human rights violation, social discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender and caste, social problems like crimes, terrorism, and war and political factors like nature of the state, forms of the government (democracy or dictatorship) level of empowerment are some factors that are very crucial in determining the nature of human development. These aspects have special significance in the case of India and many other developing countries.

Q.2. Discuss human development index in India.

Ans :- Planning Commission calculated the human development index by taking states and union territories as the unit of analysis.

StateHDI Value
Andra Pradesh0.416
Assam0.386
Bihar0.367
Gujarat0.479
Haryana0.509
Karnataka0.478 
Kerala0.638
Madhya Pradesh0.394
Maharashtra0.523
Orissa0.404
Punjab0.537
Rajasthan0.424
Tamil Nadu0,531
Uttar Pradesh0.368
West Bengal0.472

Planning Commission of India (2001) : India National Human Development Report 2001

(i) According to this analysis. India has been placed among the countries showing medium human development.

(ii) The rank of India among the 172 countries of the world is 127. 

(ii) The reveals that Kerala with the composite index value of 0.638 is at the top rank.

(iv) Punjab (0.537), Tamil Nadu (0.531), Maharashtra (0.523) and Haryana (0.50S) follow Karala in that order.

Q.3. Discuss the relationship between population, environment and development.

Ans :-  The relationship between population, environment and development are : 

(i) According to this analysis India has been placed among the countries showing medium human development

(ii) The rank of India among the 172 countries of the world is 127.

(iii) Reveals that Kerala with the composite index value of 0.638 is at the top rank.

(iv) Punjab (0.5370) Tamil Nadu (0.531), Magarashtra (0.523) and Haryana (0.509) follow Kerala in that order.

Q.4.Discuss the paradoxes of Human Development in India. 

Ans :-  The paradoxes of Human Development in India are : Rural and remote areas have no idea of the development in the cities.

(ii) Along with these developments, there are several paradoxes.

(iii) These paradoxes are :

(a) The Jhuggi and Slum clusters.

(b) Traffic jams.

(c) Congestion

(d) Crimes.

(e) Poverty

(f) Small children begging around traffic lights.

(g) People sleeping on footpaths. 

(h)Polluted water

(i) Polluted air.

(iv) These are the contrary to the development aspects of our country.

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