Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam

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Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam, Class 11 Education Question Answer in English, HS 1st year Education Question And Answer and select need one.

Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

AHSEC Class 11 Education Solutions

11th Class SCERT Solutions for Education gives you an in-depth understanding of all the concepts. Go through the SCERT Solutions for Class XI Education Solutions to be familiar with different kinds of questions. Boost your exam preparation with the study materials provided here.

Primary Education in India and Assam

Chapter: 7



1. What were the objectives of the ancient education system in India? 

Ans: During the ancient period education in India was closely limited with religions. And as such, education was taken up by the teachers as a labour of love and the students were given education for giving training on culture and citizenship. 

The indigenous education institution occupied a great place in the ancient Indian society. Indigenous schools may be classified into three categories. 

Such as :

(a)  Schools of learning 

(b)  Elementary school 

(c)  Private as Family Institutions. 

Pathaslas of the Hindus and Magtabs and Madrassas of the Muslims were included into the first category of school. i. e.  school of learning. The main objective of these schools was to give religious education. On the other hand, the objective of elementary school is to meet socio-economic needs of the people. 

The Gurukula system of education in ancient India was established for the purpose of making students self-dependent. The purpose of the TOL system of education was to spread Sanskrit education. 

The major objective of education in pathasala was simple living and high thinking. 

2. Discuss briefly about the following :

(a)  Gurukula. 

Ans: During the vedic period, the students used to attain education while living with the Acharya or Guru (teacher) in his house which is known as Gurukula system. The students lived in the Gurukula as a member of the gurus family. In this system curriculum included subjects like- Vedas, History. Puranas, Grammar mathematics, Brahma-Vidya, Astronomy etc. The method of instruction was verbal. In verbal learning the pupil used to listen to the guru with due attention the teacher enjoyed a predominant place not only in his Gurukula but in the entire society. 

He was regarded as a great Guide for all to his pupils; he showered all love and affection and used to teach them whatever he knew in an atmosphere of free discussion. Pupils while living in Ashrams used to be other fellow beings. Sagging of alms was meant to teach politeness. Preparing fire for the signified mental development and rearing up Ashrama animals were meant to make the students self dependent. 

In the Gurukula system there was no uniform rule for the duration of education. There were instances of many students staying in the Ashrama for more than thirty years. Pupils from both poor and rich families were sent to the guru’s house. Every student was like the son of the Guru- Arrangement for food and living place for students was the responsibility of the guru. The teacher used to nurse the students when he fall ill. 

(b)  Pathasala. 

Ans: Pathasala are the significant indigenous institutions for the Hindus. Their duty was to assist the kings in the interpretation of the law and stages of the country scholars and respected individuals of society were teachers of the path as a last. It was the religious duty and responsibility of the teachers to impart education to the students. Pathsala were mostly located or situated in the temple or mandir. The institution was managed with the help of the donations and subscription from the rich people and rulers of the state. 

The rulers of the state did not interfere in the management and administration of pathasala supremacy of the teacher; respect of their education was granted by the rulers. 

The method of teaching adopted in pathsala was verbal that insisted on committing to memory verbally. Curriculum included subjects like language study grammar arithmetic, accountancy, social studies, assessment of lands and moral lessons etc.. Though there was no system of paying fees, some of the students paid fees voluntarily. The salary of the teacher was very low. Teachers and the students maintained a very cordial relationship. The major objectives of education in pathasala was simple living and high thinking. 

(c)  Tols. 

Ans: Tols was the higher institutions of learning. This indigenous institution exist even now in India they were established in the society to spread Sanskrit education. The tools generally admitted Brahmin students only. A student was required to stay with the Guru at the tolls for eight to twelve years from the age of about ten. The number of students was very small so that teachers could give individual attention to each student. 

The renowned Sanskrit scholars were the medium of teaching curriculum of the tools were pre-determined by the teachers which includes study of the Vedas along with religion, art, mathematics and science. Some of the famous Sanskrit tols were established at Banaras kashi, Ujjain and Mithila in ancient India. They used to draw students from far away. Pols have enjoyed grants of land for establishing it’s house. The Adhyapak used to arrange for the free boarding, lodging and clothing of his pupils. They used to get financial assistance from the royal authority and sometimes from the common people. Most of the provinces now establish “Sanskrit Board of Education,, to manage the education of tools, Now a days the pupils of all castes can be admitted in the tools and can appear in the final examination of HSLC level. Education of the tools have been able to preserve cultural heritage and community characteristics of the Hindu society throughout the ages. 

(d)  Satra. 

Ans: Satra is one of the most important indigenous institutions of learning which was established in Assam during the vaisnative movements. Satras played a conspicuous part in the expansion of education and maintenance of social, moral and religious discipline in village life of Assam. The two great religions leaders of Assam Sri Sankardeva and Sri Sri Madhav Deva founded satras for the benefit of the indigenous people. 

Every Vaishnavite family had to offer something in cash or kind for the maintenance of satra and propagation of Vaishnavite religion and culture. In some big satras tools were attached for giving education in Sanskrit. Satras were not confined to education only but they were responsible for imparting informal education among the masses by such activities as collection of rare books, training in satriya music and dance and acting. 

Bhavana etc. Although satras were established in different places under various vaishnavite Guru’s the most prominent amount them are Barpeta, Patbausi, Bordowa, Kamalabari, Auniati satra, These satras played a pivotal role in maintaining discipline, social order and morality among the village folk satras acted as guardians of the social conduct of discipline and kept strict vigilance over them. The satradhikar or the head of the satras were held in high esteem by the society. Strict were also training grounded of arts and crafts. Learning of wood work, came ivory and Clay work etc. we’re encouraged in satra. 

(e)  Maktab. 

Ans: Maktabs, we’re educational institutions prevalent in the Islamic period. They provided primary education to the children. Qalama and verses from the Quran were taught here. The method of teaching was very simple as it was oral. The children were imparted elementary knowledge of reading and writing the maktabs were attached to the mosques. The children were mainly given religious education by the “Maulabi ” when a child attained seven years of the Holy Quran. Children had to memorize the verses. 

They were also given knowledge of the Arabic letter and numbers, arithmetic, method of conservation art of writing application, the educational system was in charge of the royal authority, Emperors Akbar realised that much of the precious time was merely wasted in learning useless words. He had therefore introduced significant reforms in the system of education. 

(f) Madrasah or Madrasa. 

Ans: Madrasa were centres of higher education in g the Islamic era. They imparted higher education to the Muslims. The Term ‘Madrasah” is derived from an Arabic word Dars which means a lecture or lesson ” The teacher therefore, mainly adopted the lecture method and therefore the method of teaching was mainly oral. Students were encouraged to develop the habit of reading books. Subjects of study included medicine and physical science, mathematics, music astronomy, mechanics and even theology. 

Individual attention was paid to the all around developments of students only capable and eminent teachers, undertook the duty of teacher. The students were also taught religion, logic, Philosophy and politics. The duration of education was, 10 years Madrars were established in cities like Delhi, Agra, Ajmer, Lucknow and Jaunpur, Akbar had included the study of Hindu Religion philosophy and literature in the Madrassa to bring about communal harmony between the Hindus and the Muslim. 

(g)  Serampore Trio. 

Ans: “Serampore Trio” was a unit of Christan missionaries. The Baptist Mission Society spread Christianity as well as education in the different places of Bengali. They came to Bengal from the Trencober of Madras to develop the missionary activities. The main Baptist missionaries were Carey, ward and Marshmam. They were called Serampore Trio, Carey ward and Mashman Selected a village named “Serampore” at a distance of about 13 miles towards the north of Calcutta as their centre. Carey was the religion’s preacher, ward was the press compositor and Mashman was the school teacher. 

3. “Monitorial system ” or “Bell system “

Ans: A practical and economical system of education known as a “Monitor system ” or “prefect system ” was prevalent in India for a long time in bigger indigenous schools. The basis features of the system was that the senior pupil were appointed to teach the junior ones. 

The arrival of the missionaries in India soil along with the East India company also of great historical significance. 

They did some pioneering work depending mainly on public charity. Through organisations such as “Society for the promotion of Christian knowledge established in 1701, missionaries started establishing charity schools in different parts of India the wife of Madras Governor lady Campbell established a female orphan asylum in madras (now Chennai)  seeing the success of this institutions another male orphan asylum started functioning after this under the superintendent ship of Dr. Andrew Bell. 

He faced some problems in running the institution for want of funds. In order to face the situation he introduced the system which was in vogue in some bigger indigenous schools by which the senior students were engaged for teaching Junior students. This system known as “Monitorial system” or “prefect system” was the most economical and efficient system of educating the poor. Greatly attracted by this system Dr. Andrea Bell introduced the same in some schools in England in the later part of the 18th century. 

4. Write briefly about the contribution of early missionaries in Assam “.

Ans: Assam came under the East India company’s rule in 1826 according to the treaty of yandaboo. The serampore trio came into Assam and set up a centre at Guwahati in the year 1829. The American Baptist Mission Foreign society sent a mission under Reverends Nathan Brown and Oliver cutter to Assam. 

They brought a printing press along with them and settled in India. Another renowned missionary, Miks Bronson also came to India. They established several schools and published textbooks for school children. But due to the local people’s suspiciousness Bronson shifted the centre from Jaipur to upper Assam. In the middle of the 19th century the First Baptist Church was established at Guwahati and in the same year at Nagaon and Sibagar. 

They started converting people to Christianity and give education. The missionaries at Nagaon founded an orphanage, started schools and hospitals when the missionaries did not get much success in their attempt to go to the hilly region to spread their activities. 

In 1841, the Welsh presbitenan missionary came to khasi jaintia Hill . They established several schools for boys and girls. They also extended their activities in Garo Hills, Nagaland, Darrang and Nagaon district. Then in the last quarter of 19th century the church missionaries came to Assam and spread their activities in Darrang District. 

In the first decade of the 20th century the Roman Cathotic Mission came and established centres at Shillong, Guwahati and Haflong. It is interesting to note here that the medium of instruction in the primary schools started by the East India company was Bengali. It was because of the demand raised by the Bengali residents of Assam that Assamese was a dialect originated from Bengali Language. As a result the company officials introduced Bengali as a medium of education in Assam in 1836. 

But the American missionaries helped in removal of Bengali language and Assamese language was reintroduced as medium in 1873. Assamese was also used since then as the language of the court at the lower level. 

The Christian missionaries played a vital role in the development of modern education in Assam. They wrote several books in Assamese language. The missionaries translated the Bible into Assamese and this was the first Assamese book in print; the first Assamese newspaper “Arunodoi” was published by Nathanbrown in 1846. In 1839, William Robinson published the first Assamese Grammar “Grammar of Assamese language ” From serampore. The first Assamese Dictionary “Dictionary in Assamese and English was edited by Miles Bronson in 1867”

From the activities of Christian missionaries we can see that they did excellent work in Assam and extended their activities even in Hill areas. They established several schools and colleges in the different parts of the state. Though their objectives were to spread the Christianity they helped us in our educational and social development.

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