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Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education
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Concept and Aims of Education
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
1. What is education? Explain its meaning by giving suitable definitions.
Ans: Education is one of the most powerful agencies in moulding the character and personality of the individual and determining the future of individuals and nations.
According to Plato and Aristotle education as a process of collection of information and knowledge which helps intellectual growth and development. Rousseau regarded education as “plants are developed by cultivation and men by education “.
Rabindranath regards education as “that process which makes one ‘s life in harmony with all existence and thus enables the mind to find the ultimate truth which gives as wealth of inner light and “.
According to swami Vivekananda “Education is the manifestation of Divine perfection already existing in man.
2. From which word, the word ‘Education ‘ has originated?
Ans: The word ‘education’ has a Latin derivation. In Latin the word “Educare” means “to draw out”, “to bring up “, “to foster”.
3. Explain the scope of Education.
Ans: The literal meaning of scope is “range”. Scope means area or subject matter of study with views, outlook, planning, effectiveness, operation and application on the concerned person is a comprehensive way.
Education is a comprehensive concept which includes the knowledge obtained through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and other means in addition to the formal education provided in the schools and colleges. It enables the child to earn his livelihood and to behave properly, in accordance with his age.
Education attempts to develop the personality of the child and prepare him for membership of the society. Personality comprises the physical, social, mental, emotional and spiritual characteristics of the person. Education thus becomes a process leading to the enlightenment of mankind and it is the most formidable tool for survival. It means intellectual growth alone is not the creation for education, but also emotional maturity and ethical awareness is also essential.
Education is incomplete without the formation of good habits. The purposes of education in this respect is not merely to contribute to the continuity of culture but also to change peacefully and rationally the material foundation of civilization. Thus in real understanding education is life which includes manners, values morals, taste, skills attitudes personality and belief etc.
On the other hand the modern approach of education is child centred education. A modern educator who swears by modern techniques of teaching must understand the child where he plays the most significant role.
The role of the teacher is also indispensable as his responsibility has also really increased. Today besides transmitting knowledge, a teacher’s function is to develop himself as a facility to the child. Therefore, from the purview of education scope of education is concerned with the “whole man the entire life of an individual. It’s scope is very wide. It is as wide as the whole world and long as the history of mankind.
4. Write briefly about the narrow and wider meaning of education.
Ans: The Narrow Meaning of Education : The most general and common meaning of education is schooling. In common parlance, people regard this concept of education to be synonyms with intellectual knowledge or formal instructions. From the narrow stand point education means more literacy, the knowledge of 3R’s (reading, writing and arithmetic). In this narrow sense a man is said to be educated if he has a vast storehouse of information or has passed some examinations from educational institutions. From this standpoint therefore, the importance of the knowledge of 3R’s is the only function which education has to discharge. But this is a very narrow meaning of this concept because education includes not only the special influence of formal educational institutions but also many other indirect influences of some other agencies lying outside the school like the library, the press, the cinema, the family etc.
The Wider meaning of education : in the wider and less definite sense educational implies the influence of the whole environment upon the individual. It is infact a process of development. In the words of Raymont- “Educational means that process of development in which consists of the passage of human beings from infancy to maturity the process whereby he gradually adopts himself in various ways to this physical, social and spiritual environment “.
In this comprehensive sense education is a process of growth and all experience is education. It is a continuous process of modification. In the words John Dewey, the famous educationist of America, “Life itself is development and developing itself is life. Education is also a life-long process of development. ‘
In fact “whatever broadens our mental outlook, sharpens our insight, refines other reactions and stimulates our thought and feeling educates us”. Education in this sense does not cease with the cessation of school life. It has no end beyond more growth and changes. In the words of Durville – “Education in its wide sense includes all influences which set upon the individual during the passage from the cradle to the grave”-Mahatma Gandhi also made a remark that education covers the entire field of life. There is nothing in life however small which is not the concern of education. Dewey also remarked “Education is all one with growing, it has no end beyond itself “.
5. Education is a “Bi-polar” as well as “Tri-polar process “- Discuss.
Ans: Education – A Bi-polar Process : Modern education regards education as a Bi-polar process. It involves the interplay of the educator and the educant. Bi-polar process means the personality of the educator which modifies the behavior of the child and on the other hand the personality of the child also acts on the personality of the educator. This process is not only conscious but also deliberate.
According to Dewey this process has psychological and sociological side. The psychology side is the basis of this process. It furnishes the materials and given the starting points for all education. In order to make education real and useful, the educator must know about the nature, interest and activities of the educant.
Education – A Tri-polar Process : Education is also regarded as a Tri-polar process involving the interaction of the personality of the educators on that of the educand in a social setting which affects the modification of the behaviour of the educand. According to John Dewey on the other hand, the sociological side is more important to which he belongs. Social conditions should be studied by the teacher and mould the child according to the social setting. Therefore, education is considered as a tripolar process where teacher, student and society community is interrelated.
6. Explain the following concepts:
(a) Education as a lifelong process.
Ans: Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effects of everything which influences human personality.
(b) Educational as modification of human behaviour.
Ans: Education is the modification of behaviour. It enlarges human experience and so it produces some change in one’s behaviour which involves thinking, feeling and action.
(c) Education as an instrument of social change.
Ans: Society is changing frequently, education helps to bring the constant changes of society. Children of the society get the correct concept of right and wrong from the help of education. Through education old customs and other things can be modified and they can accept some new and progressive changes.
7. Write briefly on:
(a) Formal education
(b) Informal education
(c) Non-Formal education
Ans: (a) Formal education: Formal education is important in a school, college or in any form of institution. It is planned with a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific period of time. In the formal educational system there is a systematic well-defined curriculum in the formal system of education.
Formal system of education carries strict discipline, management and rules in the institution. Formal education is concerned with the teachers, taught and the schools, colleges and other types of institutions. In the formal type of institutions there is rigidity in attendance and programs in their own systems. Formal education is fully structured to teach something and around this lies everything else -namely the staff, equipment religions institutions etc. Formal education is given by specially qualified teachers. They are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction.
(b) Informal education : Informal education is not preplanned. It is by nature, wide and more comprehensive which comprises many and vivid experiences provided by the environment. In formal education it is quite incidental, situational and spontaneous leaving all the formalities. Informal agencies of education are such as home, social and religious institutions, cinema, radio, television, press, libraries films and other such agencies. The influence of these agencies are very important and significant informal education is not given according to any fixed time-table or through formal means of education.
A number of experts define informal education as ‘The process by which a person imbibes attitudes, develops skills, cultivates values and acquires knowledge, without these bring any organization or system about it.
This would include the deliberate attempts of parents and others in the family and community to help the young ones grow and adapt themselves to the environment. Informal education also includes all incidental learning that takes place while at work or at play and during travels as well as spontaneous learning through films, radio and television.
(c) Non-Formal Education : Non-Formal Education is modern and recent in concept, scope and method. It is life-long with learning integrated with life and work. Non-formal education is consciously and deliberately organised and systematically implemented. Non-formal education is by nature a continuous process. The aim of this education is all round development of man. It is a process of enabling the individual to understand his own needs, the environmental situation, the social goals and mutual relationship. Non-formal education helps in sharing, exploring , analysing and judging together with maximum participation of the learners. Non-formal education is also pre-planned life formal education . The education under non-formal education is also given by experienced teachers but mostly through correspondence. It is need based, flexible and dynamic. The programmes of non-formal education are also organised round the temples, mosques and churches, some secular institutions also conduct programmes like dance, music, folk drama, etc. Presently the non-formal education is modified with the form of liberal and vocational education.
In non-formal education, education certificate degrees are awarded on the basis of evaluation. Non-formal education encourages healthy points of departure towards progress. It anticipates and prepares for change for the future. Non-formal education is based on the principle of maximisation on human potentialities.
8. Distinguish between :
(a) Formal and informal education.
Ans: Difference between formal and informal education :
(1) Formal education has formal means and purpose.
(2) Schools are the formal agencies of education.
(3) In formal education there is a formal course of study.
(4) In formal education there is beginning and end.
(5) Only qualified teachers impart formal education.
(6) Formal education is dominated by examination.
(7) Formal education came into existence after informal education.
(8) Rules regulations and discipline are indispensable parts of formal Education.
(9) In formal education there is limited freedom for the individuals.
(10) Formal education is expensive.
(11) Formal education awards Degree, Diploma etc. to the individual.
(12) Formal education is pre-planned and designed.
(13) Formal education is time, space and age bound.
(1) Informal education has no such means and purpose.
(2) The various constituents of society are the agencies of informal education.
(3) In informal education there is no syllabi or formal course.
(4) Informal education is a life long process having no beginning and end.
(5) Different individuals and agencies imparinterest education.
(6) In informal speech there is no place for examination.
(7) Informal education proceeds formal education.
(8) Informal education is regulated by rules regulations and discipline.
(9) There is ample freedom for the individual in informal education.
(10) Informal education is not expensive.
(11) In informal education there is no provision for awarding Degrees, Diploma etc.
(12) Informal education is not planned and designed.
(13) Informal education is not bound by time, space and age.
(b) Formal and Non-formal education.
Ans: Formal Education:
(1) Formal education is organised for teaching.
(2) Formal schools are full time institution.
(3) The role of the teacher is more dominating.
(4) Formal education is run by professional teachers in full and Non-professional person.
(5) Formal education is organised through schools and colleges.
(6) In formal education there is uniformity and rigidity.
(7) In formal education attendance is compulsory.
(8) Formal education includes non-workers.
(9) Formal education is centralized.
(10) Formal education is more expensive.
(11) Formal education is space bound and time bound.
(12) Formal education is employment oriented.
(1) Non-formal education is organized for learning either by one self or by a group.
(2) Non-formal education is part-time.
(3) The role of the teacher is less dominating. Teacher – pupil relationship is more intimate.
(4) Non-formal programmes are run by professional and non professional persons.
(5) Non-formal education may be organised by social, political, cultural organizations.
(6) Non-formal education is characterized by flexibility and diversity.
(7) In non-formal education attendance is voluntary.
(8) Non-formal education programmes are organized for workers.
(9) Non-formal education is decentralized.
(10) Non formal education is less expensive.
(11) Non-formal education is not space-bound and time bound.
(12) Non-formed education is guided by individuals development and motivated by self renewal.
9. Who was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education?
Ans: Sir Percy Nunn was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education.
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