Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education

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Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education Class 11 Education Question Answer, HS 1st year Education Books Answer for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Concept and Aims of Education

Chapter: 1



1. What is education? Explain its meaning by giving suitable definitions. 

Ans: Education is one of the most powerful agencies in moulding the character and personality of the individual and determining the future of individuals and nations. 

According to Plato and Aristotle education as a process of collection of information and knowledge which helps intellectual growth and development. Rousseau regarded education as “plants are developed by cultivation and men by education “.

Rabindranath regards education as “that process which makes one ‘s life in harmony with all existence and thus enables the mind to find the ultimate truth which gives as wealth of inner light and “.

According to swami Vivekananda “Education is the manifestation of Divine perfection already existing in man. 

2. From which word, the word ‘Education ‘   has originated? 

Ans: The word ‘education’ has a Latin derivation. In Latin the word “Educare” means “to draw out”, “to bring up “, “to foster”.

3. Explain the scope of Education. 

Ans: The literal meaning of scope is “range”. Scope means area or subject matter of study with views, outlook, planning, effectiveness, operation and application on the concerned person is a comprehensive way. 

Education is a comprehensive concept which includes the knowledge obtained through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and other means in addition to the formal education provided in the schools and colleges. It enables the child to earn his livelihood and to behave properly, in accordance with his age. 

Education attempts to develop the personality of the child and prepare him for membership of the society. Personality comprises the physical, social, mental, emotional and spiritual characteristics of the person. Education thus becomes a process leading to the enlightenment of mankind and it is the most formidable tool for survival. It means intellectual growth alone is not the creation for education, but also emotional maturity and ethical awareness is also essential. 

Education is incomplete without the formation of good habits. The purposes of education in this respect is not merely to contribute to the continuity of culture but also to change peacefully and rationally the material foundation of civilization. Thus in real understanding education is life which includes manners, values morals, taste, skills attitudes personality and belief etc. 

On the other hand  the modern approach of education is child centred education. A modern educator who swears by modern techniques of teaching must understand the child where he plays the most significant role. 

The role of the teacher is also indispensable as his responsibility has also really increased. Today besides transmitting knowledge, a teacher’s function is to develop himself as a facility to the child. Therefore, from the purview of education scope of education is concerned with the “whole man the entire life of an individual. It’s scope is very wide. It is as wide as the whole world and long as the history of mankind. 

4. Write briefly about the narrow and wider meaning of education. 

Ans: The Narrow Meaning of Education : The most general and common meaning of education is schooling. In common parlance, people regard this concept of education to be synonyms with intellectual knowledge or formal instructions. From the narrow stand point education means more literacy, the knowledge of 3R’s (reading, writing and arithmetic).  In this narrow sense a man is said to be educated if he has a vast storehouse of information or has passed some examinations from educational institutions. From this standpoint therefore, the importance of the knowledge of 3R’s is the only function which education has to discharge. But this is a very narrow meaning of this concept because education includes not only the special influence of formal educational institutions but also many other indirect influences of some other agencies lying outside the school like the library, the press, the cinema, the family etc. 

The Wider meaning of education : in the wider and less definite sense educational implies the influence of the whole environment upon the individual. It is infact a process of development. In the words of Raymont- “Educational means that process of development in which consists of the passage of human beings from infancy to maturity the process whereby he gradually adopts himself in various ways to this physical, social and spiritual environment “. 

In this comprehensive sense education is a process of growth and all experience is education. It is a continuous process of modification. In the words John Dewey, the famous educationist of America, “Life itself is development and developing itself is life. Education is also a life-long process of development. ‘ 

In fact “whatever broadens our mental outlook, sharpens our insight, refines other reactions and stimulates our thought and feeling educates us”. Education in this sense does not cease with the cessation of school life. It has no end beyond more growth and changes. In the words of Durville – “Education in its wide sense includes all influences which set upon the individual during the passage from the cradle to the grave”-Mahatma Gandhi also made a remark that education covers the entire field of life. There is nothing in life however small which is not the concern of education. Dewey also remarked “Education is all one with growing, it has no end beyond itself “.

5. Education is a “Bi-polar” as well as “Tri-polar process “- Discuss. 

Ans: Education – A Bi-polar Process : Modern education regards education as a Bi-polar process. It involves the interplay of the educator and the educant. Bi-polar process means the personality of the educator which modifies the behavior of the child and on the other hand the personality of the child also acts on the personality of the educator. This process is not only conscious but also deliberate. 

According to Dewey this process has psychological and sociological side. The psychology side is the basis of this process. It furnishes the materials and given the starting points for all education. In order to make education real and useful, the educator must know about the nature, interest and activities of the educant. 

Education – A Tri-polar Process : Education is also regarded as  a Tri-polar process involving the interaction of the personality of the educators on that of the educand in a social setting which affects the modification of the behaviour of the educand. According to John Dewey on the other hand, the sociological side is more important to which he belongs. Social conditions should be studied by the teacher and mould the child according to the social setting. Therefore, education is considered as a tripolar process where teacher, student and society community is interrelated. 

6. Explain the following concepts: 

(a) Education as a lifelong process. 

Ans: Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effects of everything which influences human personality. 

(b) Educational as modification of human behaviour.

Ans: Education is the modification of behaviour. It enlarges human experience and so it produces some change in one’s behaviour which involves thinking, feeling and action. 

(c)  Education as an instrument of social change. 

Ans: Society is changing frequently, education helps to bring the constant changes of society. Children of the society get the correct concept of right and wrong from the help of education. Through education old customs and other things can be modified and they can accept some new and progressive changes. 

7. Write briefly on:

(a)  Formal education 

(b)  Informal education 

(c)  Non-Formal education 

Ans: (a) Formal education: Formal education is important in a school, college or in any form of institution. It is planned with a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific end in view. It is deliberately planned with framed regulations for a specific period of time. In the formal educational system there is a systematic well-defined curriculum in the formal system of education. 

Formal system of education carries strict discipline, management and rules in the institution. Formal education is concerned with the teachers, taught and the schools, colleges and other types of institutions. In the formal type of institutions there is rigidity in attendance and programs in their own systems. Formal education is fully structured to teach something and around this lies everything else -namely the staff, equipment religions institutions etc. Formal education is given by specially qualified teachers. They are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction. 

(b)  Informal education : Informal education is not preplanned. It is by nature, wide and more comprehensive which comprises many and vivid experiences provided by the environment. In formal education it is quite incidental, situational and spontaneous leaving all the formalities. Informal agencies of education are such as home, social and religious institutions, cinema, radio, television, press, libraries films and other such agencies. The influence of these agencies are very important and significant informal education is not given according to any fixed time-table or through formal means of education. 

A number of experts define informal education as ‘The process by which a person imbibes attitudes, develops skills, cultivates values and acquires knowledge, without these bring any organization or system about it. 

This would include the deliberate attempts of parents and others in the family and community to help the young ones grow and adapt themselves to the environment. Informal education also includes all incidental learning that takes place while at work or at play and during travels as well as spontaneous learning through films, radio and television. 

(c)  Non-Formal Education : Non-Formal Education is modern and recent in concept, scope and method. It is life-long with learning integrated with life and work. Non-formal education is consciously and deliberately organised and systematically implemented. Non-formal education is by nature a continuous process. The aim of this education is all round development of man. It is a process of enabling the individual to understand his own needs, the environmental situation, the social goals and mutual relationship. Non-formal education helps in sharing, exploring , analysing and judging together with maximum participation of the learners. Non-formal education is also pre-planned life formal education . The education under non-formal education is also given by experienced teachers but mostly through correspondence. It is need based, flexible and dynamic. The programmes of non-formal education are also organised round the temples, mosques and churches, some secular institutions also conduct programmes like dance, music, folk drama, etc. Presently the non-formal education is modified with the form of liberal and vocational education. 

In non-formal education, education certificate degrees are awarded on the basis of evaluation. Non-formal education encourages healthy points of departure towards progress. It anticipates and prepares for change for the future. Non-formal education is based on the principle of maximisation on human potentialities. 

8. Distinguish between :

(a) Formal and informal education. 

Ans: Difference between formal and informal education :

Formal education 

(1) Formal education has formal means and purpose. 

(2) Schools are the formal agencies of education. 

(3) In formal education there is a formal course of study. 

(4) In formal education there is beginning and end. 

(5) Only qualified teachers impart formal education. 

(6) Formal education is dominated by examination. 

(7) Formal education came into existence after informal education. 

(8) Rules regulations and discipline are indispensable parts of formal Education.

(9) In formal education there is limited freedom for the individuals. 

(10) Formal education is expensive. 

(11) Formal education awards Degree, Diploma etc. to the individual. 

(12) Formal education is pre-planned and designed. 

(13) Formal education is time, space and age bound. 

Informal education 

(1) Informal education has no such means and purpose. 

(2) The various constituents of society are the agencies of informal education. 

(3) In informal education there is no syllabi or formal course. 

(4) Informal education is a life long process having no beginning and end. 

(5) Different individuals and agencies imparinterest education. 

(6) In informal speech there is no place for examination. 

(7) Informal education proceeds formal education. 

(8) Informal education is regulated by rules regulations and discipline. 

(9) There is ample freedom for the individual in informal education. 

(10) Informal education is not expensive. 

(11) In informal education there is no provision for awarding Degrees, Diploma etc. 

(12) Informal education is not planned and designed. 

(13) Informal education is not bound by time, space and age. 

(b) Formal and Non-formal education. 

Ans: Formal Education:

(1) Formal education is organised for teaching. 

(2) Formal schools are full time institution. 

(3) The role of the teacher is more dominating. 

(4) Formal education is run by professional teachers in full and Non-professional person. 

(5) Formal education is organised through schools and colleges. 

(6) In formal education there is uniformity and rigidity. 

(7) In formal education attendance is compulsory. 

(8) Formal education includes non-workers. 

(9) Formal education is centralized. 

(10) Formal education is more expensive. 

(11) Formal education is space bound and time bound. 

(12) Formal education is employment oriented. 

Non-formal education 

(1) Non-formal education is organized for learning either by one self or by a group. 

(2) Non-formal education is part-time. 

(3) The role of the teacher is less dominating. Teacher – pupil relationship is more intimate. 

(4) Non-formal programmes are run by professional and non professional persons. 

(5) Non-formal education may be organised by social, political, cultural organizations. 

(6) Non-formal education is characterized  by flexibility and diversity. 

(7) In non-formal education attendance is voluntary. 

(8) Non-formal education programmes are organized for workers. 

(9) Non-formal education is decentralized. 

(10) Non formal education is less expensive. 

(11) Non-formal education is not space-bound and time bound. 

(12) Non-formed education is guided by individuals development and motivated by self renewal. 

9. Who was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education? 

Ans: Sir Percy Nunn was the chief supporter of the individual aim of education.

10. What is meant by education for individuality?  How far do you accept this view? 

Ans: According to Percy Nunn the ardent advocates of individuality life aims at the fullest development of individuality and therefore education should aim at developing the individuality of the child. In his words “educational efforts, it would seem be limited to securing for every one the conditions under which individuality is most completely developed, that is to enabling him to make his original contribution to the variegated whole of human life as fully and as truly characteristics as his nature permits, the from of contribution being left to the individual as something which each must in living an by living forge out himself. ” The individualistic ideal of education emphasises individuals excellence and personal self-realisations. I accept this view due to its some advantages. 

These are :

(1) Biological support : The biologists believe that every individual is different from the other. In the words of prof. G. Thompson, “Education is for the individual, its function being to enable the individual to survive and live out its complete life. Education is imparted to preserve the individual life. Community exists for the individual, not the individual for the community. Therefore, individual and not society should be the centre of all educational efforts and activities :”

(2) Naturalists’ support : Naturalists like Nunn and Rousseau believe that the aim of education should be the autonomous development of the individual. They stress that education should be imparted according to the nature of the individual. 

(3) Psychologists ‘ support : According to psychology, every individual has his own unique personality. Every individual differs from the other in terms of mental abilities and talents. The task of education should be to help in the development of the innate powers of an individual. 

(4) Spiritualists’ support : The spiritualist believes that every individual is a separate entity and responsible for his own actions. The chain task of education should therefore, be to help the individual in self-realisation. 

11. Explain the social aim of education with its merits and demerits. 

Ans: John Dewey, the pragmatic philosopher has put forward a broad aim of education which is known as the socialistic aim. According to this socialistic theory the claims of society are always above the claims of the individual members composing the society. Therefore, every scheme of education should try to prepare individuals for social living. 

In fact the school should be a “miniature society” and everything taught in the school should have social bearing. Education is really a strong instrument of social change. The champions of these ideals maintain that society as a proper personal entity has the absolute right to dictate what should be the intimate aim of education. Every individual should try to contribute as far practicable towards social welfare and social progress. 

Merits of social aim :

Educationists have stressed on the social aim of education for the following reasons :

(1) Man is a social animal and therefore, he develops through social contacts. It is not possible for an individual to live without society. Raymonth believes that the ‘isolated individual is a figment of the imagination ‘.

(2) John Dewey, the chief supporter of this aim believes that education should develop in each and every individual social efficiency which must be achieved by the positive use of individual powers and capacities in social occupations. Such a person is not a burden on society but contributes to its developments. He also follows the moral and social standards of conduct. 

(3) Gandhi who also supported this aim had formulated the basic scheme with the objective of making people realise that education was not only for their individual benefits but also for the needs of a predominantly rural and agrarian population. 

Demerits of social aim:

(1) Some educationists are of the view that the social basis of human nature is not instinctive but habitual. We can change the habit of an individual, but not his instincts. Education helps us to the develop good habits to lead a healthy social life. 

(2) Social aim if carried to the extreme reduces the individual to a mere entity. 

(3) The extreme notion of the all powerful state or society ignores the legitimate needs, desires and interests of the individual and suppresses his creative power. 

(4) It makes the individual only a tool in the hands of the govt, and demands unquestioning obedience and loyalty from the individual. 

(5) It does not give any importance to individual development and his inherent qualities. 

Sl. No.Contents
Chapter 1Concept and Aims of Education
Chapter 2Stages of Human Development
Chapter 3School and its Organizations
Chapter 4 (A)Psychology and Education
Chapter 4 (B)Education Psychology and its Significance
Chapter 5Physical Basis of Mental Life
Chapter 6Bases and Direction of Human Behaviour
Chapter 7Primary Education in India and Assam

12. Make a difference between individual and social aim of Education. 

Ans: The difference between individuals and social aim of education can be discussed under the following points:

(1) Basis : Individual aim of education is based on biological heredity of man. 

While the social aim of education is based on social heredity of man. 

(2) Power of freedom : Individuals aim of education entrust complete freedom to the individual. 

While the social aim of education entrust complete freedom and power to the state. 

(3) Believes : Individual aims of education believe social development as a sub originate to the individual development. 

While the social aim of education believes individual development as a sub-originate to the social development. 

(4) Dependent : Individual aim of education is dependent on the philosophy of naturalism. 

The social aim of education depends on the physiology of pragmatism. 

13. The individual and social aim of education are not contradictory but complementary to each other. Discuss the statement. 

Ans: As man is potentially divine, education should help the individual to develop his potentialities to such an extent that he is in a position to perfect himself.  Man should therefore be educated as man. If education fails to realize the unique potentialities of each man, it will harm him as well as the society. Progressive thinkers feel that when individuals are developed society will automatically be developed. 

Great socio-culture changes have been brought in this world by the personal influencing of exceptional individuals. For example, no one can deny the contribution of people like Buddha. Mahatma Gandhi, Lenin, Martin Luther King etc. have had tremendous influence on the life of the people. People live these create society and preserve, purify and promote and transmit culture to the young generation. Therefore, the aim of education should be to develop individuality. Bertrand Russell rightly said that, “Education of the individual is a fair thing than the education of the citizen. “

By instinct, man is social. The sociological approach stresses that the development of an individual should be thought of in relation to his society and culture. Dewey maintained that education should produce socially efficient individuals who are socially aware and culturally refined. Every individual in the society must be vocationally efficient or else he will be a parasite in the society. He should also be tolerant towards others and he is aware about the rights and duties of a citizen. Hence, the social aim of education gives more importance to social heredity. 

The individual and social aims of education are contradictory to each other. Some one say that a synthesis of education for individuality and education for the development of the state is not possible. In their extreme from both the aims are undesirable and not at all. Conducive for the enhancement of either the individual or the society because unrestricted freedom produces undisciplined and selfish people and on the other hand subordination of individuals by the state results in the suppression of one’s potentialities. 

In reality, however, the argument that the two aims are contradictory is baseless. Events in history have proved that there have been unparalleled individual achievements in the field of art, literature, science, philosophy etc. Percy Nunn one of the chief exponents if the individual aim admitted that ‘individuality develops only in a social environment where it can feed on common interests and common activities “. Aristotle also said that, “The individual human being was not only a rational but a social and political animal, and because of this he had always lived in some kind of society. “

Thus it follows that a person develops as a human being in a community, a family, a village or in a city state. Neither the individual nor the society should be regarded as superior to each other. Instead the individual is essential for the society and the latter is necessary for the individual. John Dewey rightly said that,  ‘The individual who is able to be educated is a social individual and the society is an organic union of individuals. 

14. What is the vocational aim of education?  What makes this aim so important for society. 

Ans: One of the most important aims of education in the present society is the vocational aim. In today’s world earning one’s livelihood is considered to be the most honourable experience of his life. Parents expect their children to be educated enough to earn a respectable being this makes them self-sufficient in life and consequently develops self satisfaction, mental and moral strength and self confidence  vocational aim of education makes education a purposely activity. It helps to develop various interests and arouses thoughts and feelings in the minds of the young students. Vocational aim again helps in placing a person in the right vocation and instills the right attitude to work. This aim increases the industrial competency of a person without which he becomes a parasite in the society. 

Advancement of science and technology and rapid industrialization has emphasized the importance of the vocational aim of education. When the people of a national become vocationally efficient, there is economic progress and consequently political and social stability. Mahatma Gandhi said “True education ought to be for children a kind of insurance against unemployment”. So preparation for a vocational is an important part of our education. Vocational education bridges the gulf between the rich and poor people. 

The education of the advanced countries lay special emphasis on developing the vocational efficiency of the people. According to John Dewey “Education is meaningful only when it aims at some vocation or employment.” Today’s child should grow up to be a responsible citizen tomorrow and one of his main responsibilities is to earn a living. Hence the importance of the vocational aim of education cannot be ignored. 

15. What should be the aim of education in a democracy? 

Ans: The word Democracy is derived from two Greek words – “Demos” (which means people)  and “kratos’ ‘ (which means power) . From this we can easily define democracy as the power of the people. Henderson once remarked that ‘Democracy is based upon infinite value and worth of human personality and belief that men are capable of managing their own affairs in such a way as to promote the welfare of all and that they should have the freedom to do so. ”  The basic principle underlying democracy is the importance of individuality and respect for his freedom. 

The main characteristic of democracy as:

(1) Affirming the dignity of the individual. 

(2) Equality 

(3) Liberty 

(4) Fraternity 

According to the University commission education is the great test instrument of social emancipation. The relationship between education and democracy is education of the masses. Because the success of democracy depends upon the civic consciousness of the people regarding various problems confronting the society. The democracy and the responsibility of the school are great. 

Therefore the aims of education is democracy must be formulated on the basis of the following viz. :

(1) Widespread expansion of education. 

(2) Preparing future citizens for economic productivity and self dependence. 

(3) Training for leadership. 

(4) Training for good citizenship. 

(5) Aiming at complete development of personality. 

(6) Freedom for thought and actions. 

(7) Training for national discipline. 

(8) Educating for national integration. 

(9) Educating for social emancipation. 

(10) Preparing for international understanding. 

(11) Accelerating the process of modernization. 

(12) Educating for social equality and justice. 

(13) Training for self expression. 

(14) Making people politically conscious etc.

16. Write briefly on the relation of education with. 

Ans: (a)  Education and Biology : Biology is the study of living beings. It is the study of man and nature. It studies about the physical growth mechanism of an individual. By studying nature, it makes a detailed study of the physical environment around man and its impact on his growth. 

Education also is a study of man and his environment. But it’s study is broader than that of biology. It takes into consideration both the physical and mental factors that affect the growth of a child. While dealing with the environment, it includes both the physical and social environment of man and it’s impact on its growth. 

Education deals with the mental abilities of a man and all these abilities are directly related to our physiological body, the study of which is a subject matter of Biology. 

Biology makes a detailed study about the dietary habits of man and why and what type of food should be consumed by man to achieve proper nutrition. The taking of a balanced diet helps a child develop proper both physically and mentally. Education in its scope also includes as to why such food is necessary for the proper growth of a child and the relation between physical and mental growth. 

(b)  Education and Sociology : (2016) The concept of education can be used in a wider sense. As it refers to all the experiences in which a learner can learn something. 

But sociology is the study of getting maximum ability from each member of the society. Sociology includes both teaching and learning processes. 

The word ‘sociology’ is derived from Latin word socio. Which implies companion and it is also derived from the Greek word ‘logos’ which implies scientific study. 

On the other hand, education word is derived from two Latin words “E” and “Duco”, “E” means “out of”  and “Duco” means “to lead”. So education implies drawing out something and to “put in something “. So education also has to aspect learning and teaching. 

The relationship between education and sociology is that by increasing the quality of education that the society can be improved. 

On the other hand, a poor education system can decline that status of society. 

(c)  Education and philosophy : Education  is said to be normative science whereas philosophy is an art. When we look at these meanings it seems that there is no relation between the two subjects. But on a detailed study we find that there is a great relation between the two subjects. 

Education may be said to be the dynamic side of philosophy. Philosophy lays down the principles and direction for moulding the behaviour of a child which is the ultimate aim of education. Philosophy formulates the method and education processes it. Philosophy lays down the ideas, values and principles of life and education works out those ideas, values and principles. Philosophy sets the goals of life and education provides the means for its achievement. 

Yet another fact that establishes a relation between these two subjects is that all the great philosophers of the world have also been great educators, whether they belonged to the east or west. For example, Tagore, Gandhi, Locke, Rousseau, Spencer, and many more. 

Philosophy also provides aims to education. These aims determine the curriculum, the methods of teaching, the problem of school organisation, school discipline and the role of the teacher in the process of education. 

(d)  Education and Economics : Throughout human history education and economic growth have been closely interlinked. Generally, Economics is defined as the science of wealth. In other words it is a science which deals with study of the nature of production, Consumption, distribution and exchange of wealth. Education is concerned with giving vocational training to the children in order to make them a good producer vigilant consumer and efficient distributor of wealth by becoming economically self dependent. Plato remarked before 2000years ago that education has an economic value and therefore a considerable part of the wealth must be invested in education. 

The relation between economics and education is felt in the following areas viz. : 

(1) From the standpoint of economics, education is an investment. 

(2) The realisation of educational objectives involves economics as there is need for money for the same. 

(3) The overall economic development of the nation depends upon the educational developments. 

(4) Education is a great instrument for removing poverty. 

(5) Education only can remove socio-economic disparity in the society. 

(6) The problem of unemployment can be solved if education is made job-oriented. 

(7) Education only can give a person economic security. 

(8) Remarkable development of science, technology and explosion of knowledge has brought about revolutionary change in the field of education. 

In order to meet the challenge of future education must increase the amount of budget provision. 

(9) Education helps manpower planning which is dependent on economic resources. 

(10) Educational programmes such as removal of illiteracy, Adult education programmes non-formal education. Open education and distance education needs strong economic support. 

(11) Education helps to solve some of the economic problems faced by the society such as –

(a)  problems connected with educated unemployment  

(b)  Absence of the dignity of labour.

(c)  Lack of awareness regarding rights and duties of a citizen.

(d)  Lack of facilities for job training.

(e)  Problems of regional imbalance.

(f)  Lack of awareness about the importance of investment in education etc. 

(e)  Education and statistics : Statistics is a set of tools for summarising and describing a set of data. Statistics is a branch of science which deals with the classification and frequency of occurrence of different kinds of things as a basis for description and inferences. Statistics deals with collection and analysis of data. 

Statistics is used in every aspect of work of daily life. For example when we take our weights or measure of heights, when we scrutinise cricket test scores of various players compare the works obtained in the examination by different students we use statistical help only. Statistical concepts are used when we often take the average price of a commodity also. 

Knowledge of statistics is required in almost all fields of study. Statistical teachings are used for research in physical and natural science like physics, chemistry and biology. It is used in applied pure and social science like Geology, Anthropology, Medical Engineering, Sociology, Economics, Psychology. Knowledge of statistics is particularly useful to students of psychology etc. and Education because it helps in understanding the modern literature for better use. 

Education and statistics is so related that it helps in conducting research investigation at the primary level to conclusions level. Statistics helps the teacher and school administrators in evaluating the performances of students in the schools. 

In education statistics is used widely in the planning and administration of the institution. In education attempts are being made to measure human ability I.e., intelligence, scholastic aptitude, creativity, personality, interest, behaviour, attitude etc. through statistical analysis only. Therefore knowledge of statistical technique is required for understanding and problem solving in all the situations in education. 

17. Mention two provision of Right to Education Act, 2009.

Ans: Main provision of the Act: (1) Every child between the ages of six to fourteen years shall have the right to free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school, till completion of elementary education – External website that opens in a new window. 

(2) No child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

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