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Class 11 Education Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam
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Primary Education in India and Assam
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
1. What were the objectives of the ancient education system in India?
Ans: During the ancient period education in India was closely limited with religions. And as such, education was taken up by the teachers as a labour of love and the students were given education for giving training on culture and citizenship.
The indigenous education institution occupied a great place in the ancient Indian society. Indigenous schools may be classified into three categories.
Such as :
(a) Schools of learning
(b) Elementary school
(c) Private as Family Institutions.
Pathaslas of the Hindus and Magtabs and Madrassas of the Muslims were included into the first category of school. i. e. school of learning. The main objective of these schools was to give religious education. On the other hand, the objective of elementary school is to meet socio-economic needs of the people.
The Gurukula system of education in ancient India was established for the purpose of making students self-dependent. The purpose of the TOL system of education was to spread Sanskrit education.
The major objective of education in pathasala was simple living and high thinking.
2. Discuss briefly about the following :
Ans: During the vedic period, the students used to attain education while living with the Acharya or Guru (teacher) in his house which is known as Gurukula system. The students lived in the Gurukula as a member of the gurus family. In this system curriculum included subjects like- Vedas, History. Puranas, Grammar mathematics, Brahma-Vidya, Astronomy etc. The method of instruction was verbal. In verbal learning the pupil used to listen to the guru with due attention the teacher enjoyed a predominant place not only in his Gurukula but in the entire society.
He was regarded as a great Guide for all to his pupils; he showered all love and affection and used to teach them whatever he knew in an atmosphere of free discussion. Pupils while living in Ashrams used to be other fellow beings. Sagging of alms was meant to teach politeness. Preparing fire for the signified mental development and rearing up Ashrama animals were meant to make the students self dependent.
In the Gurukula system there was no uniform rule for the duration of education. There were instances of many students staying in the Ashrama for more than thirty years. Pupils from both poor and rich families were sent to the guru’s house. Every student was like the son of the Guru- Arrangement for food and living place for students was the responsibility of the guru. The teacher used to nurse the students when he fall ill.
Ans: Pathasala are the significant indigenous institutions for the Hindus. Their duty was to assist the kings in the interpretation of the law and stages of the country scholars and respected individuals of society were teachers of the path as a last. It was the religious duty and responsibility of the teachers to impart education to the students. Pathsala were mostly located or situated in the temple or mandir. The institution was managed with the help of the donations and subscription from the rich people and rulers of the state.
The rulers of the state did not interfere in the management and administration of pathasala supremacy of the teacher; respect of their education was granted by the rulers.
The method of teaching adopted in pathsala was verbal that insisted on committing to memory verbally. Curriculum included subjects like language study grammar arithmetic, accountancy, social studies, assessment of lands and moral lessons etc.. Though there was no system of paying fees, some of the students paid fees voluntarily. The salary of the teacher was very low. Teachers and the students maintained a very cordial relationship. The major objectives of education in pathasala was simple living and high thinking.
Ans: Tols was the higher institutions of learning. This indigenous institution exist even now in India they were established in the society to spread Sanskrit education. The tools generally admitted Brahmin students only. A student was required to stay with the Guru at the tolls for eight to twelve years from the age of about ten. The number of students was very small so that teachers could give individual attention to each student.
The renowned Sanskrit scholars were the medium of teaching curriculum of the tools were pre-determined by the teachers which includes study of the Vedas along with religion, art, mathematics and science. Some of the famous Sanskrit tols were established at Banaras kashi, Ujjain and Mithila in ancient India. They used to draw students from far away. Pols have enjoyed grants of land for establishing it’s house. The Adhyapak used to arrange for the free boarding, lodging and clothing of his pupils. They used to get financial assistance from the royal authority and sometimes from the common people. Most of the provinces now establish “Sanskrit Board of Education,, to manage the education of tools, Now a days the pupils of all castes can be admitted in the tools and can appear in the final examination of HSLC level. Education of the tools have been able to preserve cultural heritage and community characteristics of the Hindu society throughout the ages.
Ans: Satra is one of the most important indigenous institutions of learning which was established in Assam during the vaisnative movements. Satras played a conspicuous part in the expansion of education and maintenance of social, moral and religious discipline in village life of Assam. The two great religions leaders of Assam Sri Sankardeva and Sri Sri Madhav Deva founded satras for the benefit of the indigenous people.
Every Vaishnavite family had to offer something in cash or kind for the maintenance of satra and propagation of Vaishnavite religion and culture. In some big satras tools were attached for giving education in Sanskrit. Satras were not confined to education only but they were responsible for imparting informal education among the masses by such activities as collection of rare books, training in satriya music and dance and acting.
Bhavana etc. Although satras were established in different places under various vaishnavite Guru’s the most prominent amount them are Barpeta, Patbausi, Bordowa, Kamalabari, Auniati satra, These satras played a pivotal role in maintaining discipline, social order and morality among the village folk satras acted as guardians of the social conduct of discipline and kept strict vigilance over them. The satradhikar or the head of the satras were held in high esteem by the society. Strict were also training grounded of arts and crafts. Learning of wood work, came ivory and Clay work etc. we’re encouraged in satra.
Ans: Maktabs, we’re educational institutions prevalent in the Islamic period. They provided primary education to the children. Qalama and verses from the Quran were taught here. The method of teaching was very simple as it was oral. The children were imparted elementary knowledge of reading and writing the maktabs were attached to the mosques. The children were mainly given religious education by the “Maulabi ” when a child attained seven years of the Holy Quran. Children had to memorize the verses.
They were also given knowledge of the Arabic letter and numbers, arithmetic, method of conservation art of writing application, the educational system was in charge of the royal authority, Emperors Akbar realised that much of the precious time was merely wasted in learning useless words. He had therefore introduced significant reforms in the system of education.
(f) Madrasah or Madrasa.
Ans: Madrasa were centres of higher education in g the Islamic era. They imparted higher education to the Muslims. The Term ‘Madrasah” is derived from an Arabic word Dars which means a lecture or lesson ” The teacher therefore, mainly adopted the lecture method and therefore the method of teaching was mainly oral. Students were encouraged to develop the habit of reading books. Subjects of study included medicine and physical science, mathematics, music astronomy, mechanics and even theology.
Individual attention was paid to the all around developments of students only capable and eminent teachers, undertook the duty of teacher. The students were also taught religion, logic, Philosophy and politics. The duration of education was, 10 years Madrars were established in cities like Delhi, Agra, Ajmer, Lucknow and Jaunpur, Akbar had included the study of Hindu Religion philosophy and literature in the Madrassa to bring about communal harmony between the Hindus and the Muslim.
(g) Serampore Trio.
Ans: “Serampore Trio” was a unit of Christan missionaries. The Baptist Mission Society spread Christianity as well as education in the different places of Bengali. They came to Bengal from the Trencober of Madras to develop the missionary activities. The main Baptist missionaries were Carey, ward and Marshmam. They were called Serampore Trio, Carey ward and Mashman Selected a village named “Serampore” at a distance of about 13 miles towards the north of Calcutta as their centre. Carey was the religion’s preacher, ward was the press compositor and Mashman was the school teacher.
3. “Monitorial system ” or “Bell system “
Ans: A practical and economical system of education known as a “Monitor system ” or “prefect system ” was prevalent in India for a long time in bigger indigenous schools. The basis features of the system was that the senior pupil were appointed to teach the junior ones.
The arrival of the missionaries in India soil along with the East India company also of great historical significance.
They did some pioneering work depending mainly on public charity. Through organisations such as “Society for the promotion of Christian knowledge established in 1701, missionaries started establishing charity schools in different parts of India the wife of Madras Governor lady Campbell established a female orphan asylum in madras (now Chennai) seeing the success of this institutions another male orphan asylum started functioning after this under the superintendent ship of Dr. Andrew Bell.
He faced some problems in running the institution for want of funds. In order to face the situation he introduced the system which was in vogue in some bigger indigenous schools by which the senior students were engaged for teaching Junior students. This system known as “Monitorial system” or “prefect system” was the most economical and efficient system of educating the poor. Greatly attracted by this system Dr. Andrea Bell introduced the same in some schools in England in the later part of the 18th century.
4. Write briefly about the contribution of early missionaries in Assam “.
Ans: Assam came under the East India company’s rule in 1826 according to the treaty of yandaboo. The serampore trio came into Assam and set up a centre at Guwahati in the year 1829. The American Baptist Mission Foreign society sent a mission under Reverends Nathan Brown and Oliver cutter to Assam.
They brought a printing press along with them and settled in India. Another renowned missionary, Miks Bronson also came to India. They established several schools and published textbooks for school children. But due to the local people’s suspiciousness Bronson shifted the centre from Jaipur to upper Assam. In the middle of the 19th century the First Baptist Church was established at Guwahati and in the same year at Nagaon and Sibagar.
They started converting people to Christianity and give education. The missionaries at Nagaon founded an orphanage, started schools and hospitals when the missionaries did not get much success in their attempt to go to the hilly region to spread their activities.
In 1841, the Welsh presbitenan missionary came to khasi jaintia Hill . They established several schools for boys and girls. They also extended their activities in Garo Hills, Nagaland, Darrang and Nagaon district. Then in the last quarter of 19th century the church missionaries came to Assam and spread their activities in Darrang District.
In the first decade of the 20th century the Roman Cathotic Mission came and established centres at Shillong, Guwahati and Haflong. It is interesting to note here that the medium of instruction in the primary schools started by the East India company was Bengali. It was because of the demand raised by the Bengali residents of Assam that Assamese was a dialect originated from Bengali Language. As a result the company officials introduced Bengali as a medium of education in Assam in 1836.
But the American missionaries helped in removal of Bengali language and Assamese language was reintroduced as medium in 1873. Assamese was also used since then as the language of the court at the lower level.
The Christian missionaries played a vital role in the development of modern education in Assam. They wrote several books in Assamese language. The missionaries translated the Bible into Assamese and this was the first Assamese book in print; the first Assamese newspaper “Arunodoi” was published by Nathanbrown in 1846. In 1839, William Robinson published the first Assamese Grammar “Grammar of Assamese language ” From serampore. The first Assamese Dictionary “Dictionary in Assamese and English was edited by Miles Bronson in 1867”
From the activities of Christian missionaries we can see that they did excellent work in Assam and extended their activities even in Hill areas. They established several schools and colleges in the different parts of the state. Though their objectives were to spread the Christianity they helped us in our educational and social development.
5. Write briefly :
(a) The charter Act of 1813.
Ans: British parliament renewed the charter in the year 1813 as a result of the efforts of Charles Grant. When the Act was renewed a clause was inserted. The clause stand that, “a sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the revival and improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India and for the instructions and promotion of a knowledge of the science among the inhabitants of the British Territories in india” It also started that, it shall be lawful for the Governor General in council to direct that this sum of rupees should be collected out of any surplus which may remained after meeting with, the expenses of the company in its military civil and commercial establishment and paying the interest of the debts.
The clause of charter Act of 1813 compelled the East India Company to accept the responsibility for the education of the India people. From 1813 to 1857 the company therefore opened many schools and colleges under its direct control which laid the foundation of the English system of Education in India.
On the other hand, the Christian missionaries were made free to spread education in the country on their own lines. Since the educational clause of the charter made it obligatory on the part of the East India company to spread education in India, it had created a new era of British education in India.
(b) Hunter Commission of 1882
Ans: The revolt of 1857 shocked the very foundation of British Empire in the country and the administration was transferred to the crown. By 1882, it was considered necessary to assess the development of education in the country in a more comprehensive way for this purpose Lord Ripon when came to India as the new viceroy took keen interest in developing Indian education. He was particularly interested to know how far the suggestions given by the wood’s Despatch are implemented in the country.
And accordingly he appointed the Indian Education commission on February 3, 1882 under Chairmanship of William Hunter a member of the Executive council of the viceroy. The commission is also popularly known as hunter commission after the name of its chairman. The commission had twenty members, some of whom were Indians and representatives of missionaries. B. L. Rice, the secretary of the commission.
The main objective of the commission was to see the results of Wood’s Despatch and to suggest necessary measures for implementation of the policies of the Despatch. The commission recommended the complete withdrawal of the Govt. from primary education learning to local self Govt. bodies such as municipalities of the private efforts through a system of grant-in-aid. The commission had suggested and recommended differently on primary secondary and higher Education.
(c) Anglicist classicist controversy
Ans: The charter Act of 1813 did not clearly mention it’s terms and conditions. It just mentioned that rupees one Lakh should be spent for the promotion of knowledge and literature among the learned natives of India. It did not clearly state whether it was meant for the promotion of native education system or the western literature and science among the Indians.
This led to a controversy on four major point regarding as to :
(a) What should be the aims and objectives of education?
(b) What should be the medium of instruction?
(c) What will be the method of imparting education?
(d) Which agencies will be responsible for the spread of education in India?
As there was no education department, under the Govt. which could take any decision in this regard, it had just a general committee of public instructions consisting of 10 members also five supported the imparting of education of the India classical languages. They were known as the classicists or orientalists. They felt that Indian education should be developed through Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian languages. These people also felt that Indian literature and culture was superior to those of the Europeans.
The other five members known as the Anglicist group supported the teaching of English language and literature. These people were young Englishnan, who were proud of their political and cultural superiority over the Indian literature and culture. They believed that education could be developed only through western knowledge Lord Macaulay who was also a supporter of the Anglicist group, was the president of the Anglicist group. This gave rise to controversy known as the Anglicist classicist controversy in the history of Indian Education. It also gave birth to the Macaulay’s minute of 1835.
(d) MACAULY’S MINUTE (1835)
Ans: The paper dealing with the Anglicist Orientalist controversy was placed before the Executive council and lord Macaulay as the law member of this council wrote a minute dated 2nd Feb, 1835 giving whole-hearted support in favour of western education. This document is of great historical importance which had its effect on the educational policy in Indian right down to the present times.
(1) First of all lord Macaulay gave his own interpretation of the 43rd section of the charter Act of 1813. According to him the word “literature ” did not stand for either Sanskrit or Arabic but only meant English literature. It was mentioned in his note that-“All parties seem to be agreed on one point that the dialects spoken among the natives of this part of India contain neither literary nor scientific information and are moreover so poor and rude that until they are enriched from some quarter it will not be easy to translate valuable work into them”
(2) Secondary the phrase learned native of India. Should be applied to a person”Versed in the philosophy of Locke and the poetry of milton”
(3) Thirdly, the object of promoting knowledge of science should be done through the medium of the English language. In other words Macaulay rejected the claims of the Orientalist party and tipped the balance in favour of the Anglicist party in his minute.
6. Discuss the important suggestion of wood’s Despatch of 1854 for the development of primary education in India? What were these effects?
Ans: The importance of wood’s Despatch in the Indian education are discussed below :
(1) The aim of education : The Despatch stated that the aim of education should be to impart useful knowledge to the Indian masses for raising their intellectual moral and economic status. It also felt that the company should take over the responsibility of Indian education.
(2) The Despatch was not against Sanskrit and Arabic education, but felt that western knowledge and science was proper for the Indian people. It therefore recommended that English be the chief medium but the vernacular languages may also be taught together in the schools.
(3) Department of education : The despatch recommended that a Department of public instruction be set in each province. The highest authority of the department would be the Director of public instruction and other inspector should also be appointed to assist him.
(4) Setting up of universities : The Despatch also recommend the setting up of universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. These universities were to be established on the model of the London University. These universities were to have a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and Fellows, thus constituting a senate. The Senate would conduct universities examinations and confer degrees upon the successful candidate for the affiliated colleges.
(5) Expansion of mass education : Wood’s Despatch recommended that education should be made available to all i. e. the masses. It therefore recommended the establishment of more high schools, middle and primary schools. It also proposed to award scholarships to the bright students. It also discarded the downward filtration theory and recommended the schools to be set up on the lines of the indigenous primary schools.
(6) Grant in aid : The Despatch proposed the sanction of grant-in-aid to the Indian educational institutions the grant-in-aid was based on the principles of religious neutrality. It. Would be given to all the schools which imparted secular education, possessed good local management and which followed the rules and regulations of the Govt. prescribed for receiving grant-in-aid. These institutions had to charge a minimum fee from the students and could not give free education.
(7) Training of teachers : The Despatch recommended the setting up of a teacher training school in each presidency. Teachers were to be given scholarships during their training period. It also recommended setting up of institutions for imparting vocational training I’m law, medicine and engineering.
(8) Education of women : The despatch also laid great emphasis on the education of women. It encouraged the involvement of private enterprise in this area. The Despatch also welcomed the Governor General’s declaration in Bengal in favour of women education and suggested that women education should be implemented in all the provinces.
Following are the effects of wood despatch :
(1) The Despatch set up the aim of education merely to read books, pass examination and seek employment.
(2) Education was brought under the direct control of the spirit of freedom was put to an end
(3) The pattern of the three proposed universities was purely foreign which did not suit the Indian Environments.
(4) The Government’s policy of nomination of members to the Senate resulted in the nomination of such person who were mostly ignorant of educational problems.
(5) The vocational education recommended by the Despatch created only a class of young educated. Indian men who were fit for clerical jobs. They did not pursue education for academic career but for seeking Govt. Jobs.
7. Discuss the importance of wood’s Despatch of 1854 in the field of Indian education?
Ans: Following are the importance of wood’s Despatch of 1854 :
(1) The Despatch put forward a suggestion for all types of educational institution i. e. primary, secondary, higher female education, vocational education and training of teachers.
(2) It for the first time recommended the establishment of universities in India for higher education.
(3) It made education systematic by establishing a department of Education in each province and appointment of a Director of public instruction and other officers.
(4) The principle of mass education was recognised and encouragement was given to the indigenous institutions.
(5) The provisions of teacher training raised the standard of education. Only capable teachers would later take the profession of teaching.
(6) The proposed system of grant-in-aid gave much encouragement to the expansion of education.
8. Why is the Despatch of 1854 known as the magna carta of Indian Education? Discuss.
Ans: (1) Firstly, although the despatch envisaged more general education among the common people yet the Government of Indian did the reverse i. e. they spent more on higher education than on primary education. Therefore while university education and high school education made rapid progress primary and middle vernacular school education did not.
(2) Secondly, the Despatch introduced red tapism in the field of Indian education by creating the Department of education with many officers and files
(3) Thirdly, the Despatch did not mention the ideal of universal Literacy which it ought to have done.
(4) Fourthly, Commercial values rather than spiritual considerations weighed more with the framers of this Despatch .
(5) Fifty, the scheme of giving encouragement to the professional education remained only in black and white
(6) Sixthly, the Govt. increased its own institutions which were more expensive and discouraged private enterprise.
(7) Lastly, vernacular languages continued to be neglected.
9. State briefly the curzon’s Education policy.
Ans: Educational policy. Curzons policy Regarding Primary Education : Curzon took some practical measures for improving the standard of education such as
(1) Training facilities for the primary school teacher were increased.
(2) The curriculum of primary school was revised in order to make room for liberal education.
(3) The scientific method of grant-in-aid was substituted in place of the payment by result method.
(4) The policy of adjusting to the needs of the villagers adopted curzon’s policy regarding secondary education.
As regards secondary education his policy contains two aspects, control and improvement. As regards control he adopted the following measures-
(1) All secondary schools whether managed by private or public authority must be recognised by the department of education.
(2) All secondary schools besides securing recognition from the education department must also obtain recognition of the University for sending candidates to the matriculation examination.
(3) Every secondary school securing recognition of the Department of Education shall enjoy the following privileges –
(a) Receiving grants-in-aid
(b) Sending pupils to Govt. examination or Entrance examination of the Govt. technical school.
(c) Admitting pupils holding Govt. scholarship.
Curzon’s policy Regarding university Education.
The Indian university commission of 1902 the main recommendations of the commission are the following :
(a) The rules of affiliation should be more rigid.
(b) There should be provision for inspection of colleges.
(c) Size the Senate should be small and one-fifth of its members should submit resignation every years.
(d) System of appointing professors and Pandora should be introduced
(e) The University should keep strict vigilance over the living conditions of students.
(f) The syndicate should be granted legal recognition.
(g) Some reforms should be introduced in curriculum.
(h) The standard of entrance examination should be raised and intermediate examination should be abolished.
(I) The jurisdiction of each university should be fixed.
(j) The degree course should be of three years duration.
10. What were the major suggestions for the improvement of primary education given by Indian Education commission of 1882? What were there effects?
Ans: The suggestion of the commission regarding primary education may be divided under six heads viz. :
(b) Legislation and administration,
(c) Encouragement of indigenous schools,
(d) Training of teachers,
(e) Finance under these headings the commission made the following suggestion –
(1) Primary education should be regarded as the education of the masses.
(2) The upper primary and lower school examinations should not be made compulsory.
(3) The Govt should make strenuous efforts towards etc.. Provision extension and improvement.
(4) Attempt should be made by legislation to secure the fullest possible provisions for primary education.
(5) Indigenous schools should be aided and improved.
(6) All aid primary schools should invariably be inspected.
(7) Except in backwards areas aids should be given to schools on the results of examinations.
(8) School houses and furniture should be simple and economical.
(9) Standards of examinations should be simple and some practical subjects like native methods of arithmetic account and mensuration etc. should be included on the curriculum.
(10) In the choice of text-books the managers of primary schools should enjoy freedom
(11) Promotion from class to class should not be made purely on the basis of fixed examination uniform throughout the provinces
(12) Physical development should be promoted by various native games and exercise.
(13) Teaching and discipline of every primary schools should be such as to exert a right influence on the conduct of students. A special manual should be prepared for the teachers.
(14) The existing rules as to religious instruction should apply to all schools.
(15) Normal school should be established for the training of teachers.
(16) The cost of direction, inspection and provision of normal schools should be met from the provincial funds.
(17) Children of rate-payers should not be entirely exempted from payment of fees.
(18) All board schools should admit a number of free students. Special schools’ larger exemption may be granted for special reasons.
(19) Except in case of few students who will get free studentship fees should be levied on all aided schools.
(20) In selecting a person for the lowest offices of the Govt. preference should be given to person who can read and write.
(21) Night school should be started wherever practicable.
(22) School house and holiday should be adjusted to the local requirements, especially in agricultural and backward districts.
(23) Primary education in backward districts, specially in those inhabited mainly by aboriginal rolls should be extended by the Department of education.
(24) All primary schools maintained and aided by school Board should be open to all classes and communities.
(25) In order to ensure proportional provisions of the education of all classes a reasonable proportion should be maintained between a primary and a special school.
(26) Assistance should be given to schools and orphanages where poor and destitute children receive instruction.
(27) Primary education should have exclusive claim over local funds and a large claim on provincial revenues.
(28) Both municipal and local self Govt. Boards should keep a separate school fund.
(29) The first appointment and promotion of school master in municipal or boards school should be left to the town or District Boards subject to the approval of the Department of education.
(30) The cost of maintaining aiding and repairing of primary schools in each district be met from municipal or local boards school funds.
(31) Vernacular should be the medium of instruction in primary schools.
|Concept and Aims of Education
|Stages of Human Development
|School and its Organizations
|Chapter 4 (A)
|Psychology and Education
|Chapter 4 (B)
|Education Psychology and its Significance
|Physical Basis of Mental Life
|Bases and Direction of Human Behaviour
|Primary Education in India and Assam
11. Write briefly
(a) Hunter commission and primary education.
Ans: The East India Company felt that certain defects had cropped in the education system of the country therefore, in 1885 Lord Ripon the then viceroy of India was requested by the General council if India to institute an enquiry into Indian education. Therefore, to look into the matter, Lord Ripan appointed the first Indian Education commission on February 3,1882 with William Hunter, a member of the executive council of viceroy as its chairman. The commission came to be known as “Hunter commission, after his name. Besides the chairman, the commission constituted 20 other members out of whom a few of them were Indians.
The commission was to make the following enquiries :
(1) Condition of primary education and methods of its expansion
(2) The position of state institutions and their importance.
(3) Position of missionary institutions in the general scheme of Indian education.
(4) Attitude of Govt. towards private enterprise
It also undertook an enquiry into the system of grant-in-aid.
Recommendations on primary Education.
(1) Primary education should be imparted through the medium of the mother tongue.
(2) Grants-in-aid should be given to the primary schools of the educationally backward or tribal regions
(3) The management and supervision of primary education be entrusted to the Local Boards would take up the responsibility of the finance, inspection, management and expansion of primary education.
(4) Literate people should be preferred for appointment on the government’s posts.
(5) The District and municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education
(6) The local funds were to be exclusively spent on primary education.
(7) More normal schools be established for the training of teachers.
(8) Curriculum to suit local needs. It should include subjects of practical utility such as physical science, agriculture medicine accountancy, geography etc.
(b) Hunter commission and Indigenous system of education.
Ans: As the time of hunter commission many indigenous institutions were importing education to people on the old traditional Indian pattern. The commission regarded these schools as very useful for imparting primary education. So, it recommended financial grants for them. It had observed that the indigenous school., if recognised and assisted, may be expected to improve as a useful system of education. The commission suggested that the grants should be given on the basis of payment by-results. Education should remain open for all children in schools receiving grant-in-aid. For the improvement of indigenous schools, the commission also suggested to impart secular education in these institutions along with government scholarship to the poor students.
(c) Hunter commission and its effects on Indian Education
Ans: The East India Company felt that certain defects had cropped in the education system of the country “Therefore, in 1882 Lord Ripon, the then viceroy of India was requested by the General council of India to institute an enquiry into Indian education commission on February 3,1882 with William Hunter, a member of the executive council of viceroy as its chairman. The commission came to be known as “Hunter commission ” after his name. Besides the chairman, the commission consisted of 20 other members out of whom a few of them were Indians.
Effects on Indian Education : The Indian education commission has changed the shape of elementary education by bringing under the local boards. This measure made the Government free from any responsibility for the same and gave an opportunity to the local boards to serve the general masses. Local Boards played the most significant role in the development of primary education in Indian. At that time Indian Education commission there were many indigenous institutions. These were imparting education to people on the old traditional Indian pattern. Commission gave encouragement and regarded those schools as very useful for imparting primary education.
12. Write about the contribution of GK Gokhle in the field of primary education in India?
Ans: As a result of the educational policy adopted by the govt. in 1904 primary education made a satisfaction progress in the country, but this expansion could not meet the growing demand of the Indian people. The Swedeshi movements had a awakened the people to the idea of the education of the general masses – under these circumstances, Sri Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a member of the Imperial legislative council, tried to draw the attention of the governmental and public in this direction and put forward the demand for free and compulsory education.
With this intentions on March 19, 1910, Gokhale moved his resolution in the Imperial Legislative council as “The this council recommends that a beginning should be made in the direction of making elementary education free and compulsory throughout the country, and that a mixed commission of officials and non-officials be appointed at a early date to frame definite proposals “
The following measures were suggested in the resolution :
(1) Free and compulsory education should be introduced for boys between the age of 6-10 years.
(2) It should be introduced in those areas where 33 percent male Children have already been receiving education
(3) The expenditure of education should be shared by the govt. and the local bodies in the proportion of 1:2
(4) A separate secretary should be appointed to look into the matters of education.
(5) A statement described the progress of education should be included in the Budget statement.
The resolution was discussed in the Legislative council but still after that the expected progress was not made in the field of primary education. Seeing the slow progress in the expansion of primary education. Gokhle again introduced his private bill of historical importance on March 16, 1911.
The measures suggested in this bill were.
(1) The act would be applied to those areas as where already boys and girls are attending school in a certain percentage.
(2) This percentage was to be decided by the Governor – General in council.
(3) Local boards to introduce educational cess
(4) Guardians of boys between 6-10 years to be forced to send their children to school. They would be punished if they broke the rule.
(5) Grants-in-aid should be sanctioned by the provincial govt. to the local Boards for the expenditure on the maintenance of the schools.
(6) The govt. was to decide whether it could bear the expenses of free education or not the bill was criticised on the grounds that –
(a) The public did not demand for compulsory education.
(b) Some of the Indians themselves opposed it
(c) Local Boards did not favour levying of educational cess
(d) The system would lead to a lot of difficulties in the organization and administration of primary education.
Gokhale did not give up and submitted the bill to a select committee of 15 members. But that also did not work. But it was indeed a heroic defeat. Of course, the bill had some impact on the govt. and the public, most of the educated Indian people began to realise the need for free and compulsory education. A department of education was created into the central govt. Elementary education was made free in some provinces in 1912.
13. Discuss the significant resolutions of the wardha conference of 1937.
Ans: Following are the resolutions of wardha conference :
(1) Free universal and compulsory primary education be provided for 7 years on a national scale.
(2) Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction.
(3) The main subject of the Basic Education should be normal craft suitable for the local condition.
(4) The system of education should gradually cover the remuneration of the teachers
(5) The products of the craft centred education in the basic schools may be sold in the market and thereby the pupils can get their own expenses.
(6) Teachers of the Basis schools should be trained.
14. What are the causes of failure of basic education?
Ans: Basic education had become unsuccessful in the country because of its defective principles and wrong implementation of and. In fact, Basic education has not received the synaptic support of all the sections of the Indian population . Critics pointed out that there is more sentiment in basic education than sound philosophy since it is associated with the name of Gandhiji. As a result, there was artificial treatment of the system. So with the death of Gandhiji they hardly cared to remember it.
15. What are the provisions of Assam Primary Education Act? 1926.
Ans: Following are the provisions of Assam Primary Education Act. 1926
(1) The Act extends to the whole of Assam.
(2) Any local authority may introduce compulsory education to the whole or any part of the area within its jurisdiction. For this majority for the two thirds for its members should support the proposal
(3) For compulsory primary education for the children of 6-11 years age group should be considered
(4) The local authority should provide one-third of the additional cost for primary education and shall levy and educational tax.
(5) The govt. shall provide two-third of the additional cost of education to the local authorities.
(6) If a local authority fails to submit a scheme for introducing compulsory education within a reasonable time. the govt. may call upon or compel them to do so.
(7) The govt. may notify to make rules to carry out the purpose of this Act, particularly about the educational tax, constitution of the education committee and the maintenance of education funds.
(8) No tuition fees shall be charged, from any pupil of recognised schools maintained or aided by the local authority
(9) Poor children will be provided with books and writing materials free of cost by the local authority if the education committee recommends.
(10) The local authority and the education committee shall be responsible for the enforcement of the Act and shall provide accommodation, equipment and appointment of education staff on the approval of the Director of public instruction.
16. What is SSA? Write briefly?
Ans: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize primary education by community ownership of the school system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community owned quality education in a mission mode.
It is a programme with a clear time frame for universal primary Education and a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. SSA is an opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education. It is an effort effectively involving the panchayati Raj institutions, school management committees, village and urban slum level education committee, parents teachers Associations, Tribal Autonomous councils and other grassroots level structures into the management of primary schools. SSA is an expression of political will for universal primary education across the country and a partnership between the central, state and the local government. It is an opportunity for states to develop their own vision of primary education.
17. Write notes on :
(a) Universalization of primary education.
Ans: Education is one of the main important instruments of social development. It plays the most significant role in the development of a nation. India is a sovereign Democratic Republic country and it has got its own constitution. According to the constitution of India education is a state subject and the central Government has to play only an advisory role. There are some fundamental rights that can be enjoyed by the citizens, irrespective of caste, creed and religion. One of the important rights of the citizens is the right to education.
(b) District Primary education programmes.
Ans: To evaluate the effectiveness of the new education policy 1986. a committee was appointed by the govt. of India in 1990. A review of NPE., 1986 was conducted during 1990-1992. The program of Action. 1992 stressed the need for development of education in backwards districts. Accordingly, the govt. of India formulated the “District Primary Education Programme” (DPEP) scheme in 1993-94, DPEP is an effort to decentralized educational planning at the district level. It is planned in such a way that it suits the educational needs and demands of the district concerned. Initially district projects were prepared in 44 districts in eight states – Assam, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Gradually it was followed in 273 districts spread over 18 states.
(c) Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) .
Ans: Total Literacy campaign is one of the significant components of universalisation of Primary Education. In 1989 National “Mass movement Attempt ” or “Janajagaran Prasesta ” Programme was accepted. It was the attempt to remove illiteracy from the society within a short time. “Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad ” and “Bharat Jana vigwan jatra” shows that the mass people of India voluntarily proceed to eradicate illiteracy among them and from their society. Music, Art, Drama and Cultural components play a significant role in the implementation of this programme and it helps in the creation of a healthy environment.
18. What is the role of SSA in the universalisation of primary education?
Ans: The sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide and relevant primary education for all children in the 6to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, Regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the management of schools.
The main objectives are :(a) All children in school, Education Guarantee centre, Alternate Schools, “Back-to-school” camp by 2003.
(b) All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.
(c) All children complete eight year of primary schooling by 2010.
(d) Focus on primary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.
(e) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at primary education level by 2010.
(f) Universal retention by 2010.
All the objectives are expressed though it is expected that various districts and states are likely to achieve universalization in their own respective contents and in their own time frame. 2010 is the outer limit for such achievements. The emphasis is on mainstreaming out of school children through diverse strategies, as far as possible, and on providing eight years of schooling for all children in the 6-14 age group. The trust is on bridging of gender and social gaps and a total relation of all children in schools. Within this framework it is expected that the education system will be made relevant so that children and parents find the schooling system useful and absorbing, according to their natural and social environment.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has two directions. One indicates the organizational setup for implementation of primary education and the other indicates the expenditure in reaching a universalisation of primary education. The state govt. and the central govt. has this investment in the primary education sector.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been divided into some branches. Such as –
(1) Reform in planning and management.
(2) Development of schools along with the development of the education system.
(3) Expansion of alternative creature education.
(4) Making informal more practical.
(5) Involving community in all aspects of education.
(6) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is in favour of education.
Provided by both the public and private sector for which it has set some standard to be followed in the institutions.
(a) There should be one teacher against every 40 students in the primary and upper primary stage of education.
(b) Ensuring the existence of at least two teachers in every school.
(c) One separate room for every head master of upper primary schools.
(d) Ensuring free text books for girls, children of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes ruled in every primary and upper primary school.
19. Mention two objectives of pre-primary education.
Ans: Objective of pre primary Education :
(a) The children under the age group of 1 to 6 years are supposed to get growth and expansion in the field of school academics as preschoolers.
(b) To afford the holistic development akin to cognitive, social, expressive and interacting skills or in general the development of the kids counting with a variety of maturity and knowledge in a child like considerable, emotional, exciting, mental, ethical, fine motor, gross motor, verbal communication, education, admiring, response etc. With other individuality build up at this phase.
20. Write two provisions of Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.
Ans: (a) To provide for free and compulsory education to children in the age group of 6 to 14 years and for this purpose, a legislation would be introduced in parliament after the constitution ( Ninety-third Amendment) Bill, 2001 is enacted,
(b) To provide in article 45 of the constitution that the state shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
21. Who appointed the Hunter commission? Write five major recommendations of Hunter Commission for the development of primary education in India.
Ans: Lord Ripon appointed to the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy ‘s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter commission after the name of its chairman. Besides the chairman, the commission consisted of 20 other members. There was a good representation of missionaries and Indians in the commission.
The commission made valuable recommendations for the development of primary education. The recommendations can be discussed under six heads:
(a) Policy :
(1) Primary education should be regarded as the instructions of the masses. It should be closely related to the practical aspect of the life of the masses.
(2) Primary education should be imparted through the medium of the mother tongue.
(3) The Government should extend patronage to primary education more than before.
(4) In selecting a person for appointment to the government post of a lower order, preference should be given to the candidates who can read and write.
(5) Primary education in backwards districts, especially in those areas inhabited by aboriginal races, to be extended by the Department of Education through liberal grant-in-aid.
(b) Legislation and Administration :
(1) The control of primary education should be handed over to District and Municipal Boards.
(2) The local boards should deal with the whole system for primary education as regards to finance, management, expansion and inspection of primary education of the particular local area.
(3) Transfer of all government primary schools to the local boards was considered necessary.
(c) Encouragement of Indigenous schools :
(1) Indigenous schools need encouragement for their improvement. Efforts should be made to encourage these schools.
(2) The commission held the view that the Districts and Municipal Boards consisting of Indians would be more sympathetic to the indigenous schools than the Education Department and recommended that the work of assisting indigenous schools should be assigned to them.
(3) The Commission recommended that a system of “Payment by Results ” should be adopted in dealing with indigenous schools.
(4) The same standards of examination should not be maintained throughout the whole state.
(d) School Administration : Regarding the management of the schools the Commission recommended.
(1) School houses and furniture should be simple.
(2) The managers should be free to choose the text books for their schools.
(3) School hours and holidays should be adjusted according to local needs.
(4) Instructions in primary schools should be simplified. Practical subjects like native methods of arithmetic, accounts and mensuration, elements of natural and physical science ,agriculture, health should be introduced.
(5) Various native games and exercise should be introduced for physical development of the students.
(6) Night schools should be established wherever necessary
(e) Training of teachers :
(1) Normal schools should be established for the training of primary schools teachers.
(2) There should be at least one Normal School in each division.
(3) The cost of Normal schools should be met from provincial funds.
(f) Finance :
(1) Every Districts and municipal Board should maintain a separate Fund for primary education.
(2) The Provincial Government should grant one third of the total expenditure to the local bodies.
(3) The cost of maintaining, aiding and repairing primary schools should be met from local funds.
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