# NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

## NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 24 Fabric Construction, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

### Fabric Construction

Chapter: 24

MODULE – V: TEXTILES AND CLOTHING

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS

INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.1

Q. 1. Identify the following methods of fabric construction:

Ans: (i) knitting.

(ii) lace.

(iii) net.

(iv) weaving.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.2

Q. 1. Give one word for the following sets of words:

(i) Interlacing of two sets of yarns at right angle ___________.

Ans: weaving.

(ii) Only one set of yarns is interlooped to get a fabric ___________.

Ans: knitting.

(iii) Total number of yarn per square inch of fabric ___________.

(iv) Weave that has long floats on the surface which give it a shine ___________.

Ans: satin.

Q. 2. Label the diagram below:

Ans: (a) warp.

(b) weft.

Q. 3. Give single word for the sentence in bold.

Read the lesson carefully to find these words.

(a) Open mesh fabrics with large geometrical shapes was used to make Munni’s frock.

Ans: net.

(b) We bought a fabric which was made using two sets of yarn in green colour.

Ans: woven fabric.

(c) Why don’t you attach criss cross yarn making intricate design on your shirt?

Ans: lace.

(d) He bought a trousers having dominant diagonal lines in it.

Ans: twill weave.

(e) She made a cross stitch wall hanging on a fabric with two or more weft yarns interlaced as a unit with corresponding number of warp yarns.

TERMINAL QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Enumerate the various methods of fabric making.

Ans: The methods of fabric making is are as follow:

Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.

Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.

Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame.

Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.

Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.

Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.

Q. 2. Discuss how designs can be created by weaving.

Ans: Weaving is the art of forming a fabric by interlacing at right angles two or more sets of yarn or other material. It is one of the most ancient fundamental arts. Woven fabrics are classified as to weave or structure according to the manner in which warp and weft cross each other. The three fundamental weaves, of which others are variations, are the plain, twill, and satin. In plain weave, also known as calico, tabby, taffeta, or homespun weaves, the weft passes over alternate warp threads.

Variations are produced by the use of groups of yarns, as in basket weave and monk’s cloth, or by alternating fine and coarse yarns to make ribbed and corded fabrics, as the warp-ribbed bedford cord, piqué, and dimity and the weft- ribbed poplin, rep, and grossgrain. The second primary weave, twill, shows a diagonal design made by causing weft threads to interlace two to four warp threads, moving a step to right or left on each pick and capable of variations, such as herringbone and corkscrew designs. Noted for their firm, close weave, twill fabrics include gabardine, serge, drill, and denim. Satin weave has floating or overshot warp threads on the surface which reflect light, giving a characteristic luster. When the uncrossed threads are in the weft, the weave is called sateen.

Pile fabrics have an additional set of yarns drawn over wires to form loops, and may be cut or uncut. Warp-pile fabrics include terry and plush; weft-pile, velveteen and corduroy. In double-cloth weave two cloths are woven at once,

each with its warp and filling threads, and combined by interlacing some yarns or by adding are a fifth set. The cloth may be made for extra warmth or strength. Geometric designs may be woven on machine looms. Many variations possible on a two harness loom using plain weave or tabby as a base texture.

The very simplest way to get beautiful colour effects weaving is to plan a striped warp of different colours. One can alternate two colours in the warp forming a mottled texture.

Q. 3. Compare and contrast weaving and knitting.

Ans: Weaving is worked on a loom. It is comprised of a series of individual threads (called warp threads) that are kept vertically under tension by the loom. The weaver then places horizontal rows of “weft” threads through the warp to make the cloth. The warp and the weft are always perpendicular to each other.

Knitting is worked on a set of two pointed sticks (knitting needles). A single thread is worked in loops to make a row. Subsequent rows are built on the previous row to make the cloth, still using the same single thread.

The biggest difference between woven and knitted fabrics is that knitted fabrics have stretch (elongation) characteristic built into them, due to the interloping structure. Knitted fabrics also have a more open surface compared to woven fabrics; making knitted garments more comfortable to wear.

Q. 4. Why are knitted garments considered appropriate for winter wear?

Ans: Knitting is a method by whcih thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. Knitting consists of loops called stitches pulled through each other. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different and products, by giving the final piece different colour, texture, weight or integrity.

A knitted piece can stretch in all directions. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting. The properties of knitted garments is as follows:

(i) Stretchable and provide freedom of movement.

(ii) Absorbent.

(iii) Light in weight.

(iv) Figure-hugging yet comfortable.

(v) Wrinkle resistant.

Clothing comfort includes three main considerations:

(i) Psychological.

(ii) Sensorial. and

(iii) Thermo-physiological comfort.

Effects of garments on wearers are often related to properties of the fabrics from which the garments are made. Knitted fabrics have good handle and easily transmit vapour from the body. That’s why knitted fabrics are commonly preferred for sportwear, casual wear and underwear.

Knitted garments are appropriate for winter wear protect from cold because the thermal conductivity is a property of the material that means its ability to conduct heat. Secondly there is entrapped air in the fabric structure giving feeling of warmth to the wearer.

Q. 5. Why is satin weave not as strong as plain or twill weave?

Ans: The manner in which the fabric yarns are woven into cloth commonly includes:

Plain weave which does not lose shape while handling and suitable for large areas but the high degree of crimp reduces smoothness and mechanical properties compared to twill or satin. Plain weave is more likely to be used in inner surfaces.

In twill weave each weft yarn passes alternately over two warp yarns then under the next two thus having less crimp than plain weave and consequently being a little smoother. Twill weave has better mechanical properties than the plain and is likely to be used in external surfaces.

In satin weave a weft yarn passes under one warp then over the next three or more producing a loose weave suitable for draping and holding complex shapes such as a wing root fillet. Satin weave fabric where the fill passes over one warp thread and then under three is called ‘four- harness satin’ [4H-satin] or if it passes over one then under the next seven it is called ‘eight- harness satin’ [8H-satin]. Satin weaves have very low crimp and thus high smoothness, drapability and mechanical properties but the reduction in the interlocking of warp and fill greatly increases the possibility of distortion in handling.

Twill weave is similar to a satin weave in the sense that the loom is floating the warp or weft yarns over yarns of the opposite direction, but with twill the yarn is only passing over two of the opposite yarns. Twill is distinctive by the diagonal lines that appear in the fabric. A twill weave, like a satin weave, usually results in a softer fabric than a plain weave. It is excellent for brushed or napped cotton, and is superior for a feather pillow ticking because of its strength.

Q. 6. Why is twill weave used for your jeans?

Ans: The weave can be varied in many ways -for example, by changing the direction of the twill line (as in herringbone twill) or its angle. Twill is much used for men’s wear and many other clothing applications because it has stretch on both diagonals, which makes clothes comfortable even if closely fitted Denim and many tweeds are of twill weave.

Jean is a durable twilled cotton cloth used especially for sportswear and work clothes. Close-fitting pants made especially of jean or denim.

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