NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 25 Textile Finishes, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Textile Finishes

Chapter: 25




Q. 1. Fill in the blanks after unscrambling the clues in the brackets. 

(i) A finish is applied to fabric to improve its __________, __________, and __________. (EPARACAPEN, DHAN, EPRACMORFNE).

Ans: Appearance, performance.

(ii) Finishes can be classified as __________ or __________ and __________ or __________. (CIABS/ECALIPS, ENWELAERB/RBEDALU)

Ans: Basic / Special, renewable / durable.

(iii) A finish that is applied after every wash is called __________. (NRALEEWBE)

Ans: renewable.

(iv) When a finish is applied to almost all fabrics it is termed as __________. (UINORTE)

Ans: Basic or routine.

(v) The rough, dirty and stained fabric received from a loom is called __________. (YRAG)

Ans: Gray fabric.


Q. 1. State true or false and justify the given statements:

(i) Scouring is a finish used to clean the fabric.

Ans: Yes, scouring is washing fabric with soap and chemicals to remove all impurities.

(ii) Bleaching has no damaging effect on fabric.

Ans: No, bleaching has to be done very carefully. It destroys the colour. Strong bleach can damage the fabric to some extent.

(iii) Shrinkage control can be done at home also.

Ans: Yes, soaking the fabric overnight and drying it causes shinkage.

(iv) Organdy is permanently stiff.

Ans: Yes, this is due to a permanent finish called Parchmentisation.

(v) Mercerized thread should be used for stitching.

Ans: Yes, mercerization makes cotton smooth, shiny and strong.

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks by choosing correct words from the bracket: 

(i) Mercerisation is a __________ finish. (renewable/ durable)

Ans: durable.

(ii) Shrinkage control is indicated as __________ on the label. (sanforized/parchmentised) 

Ans: sanforized.

(iii) Water proofing is a __________ finish. (routine/special)

Ans: special.

(iv) If on washing, the colour does not bleed, it has been treated for __________. (water proofing/colour fastness)

Ans: colour fastness.

Q. 3. Name the finish required to achieve the following qualities in the fabrics:

(i) (a) Strong and lustrous cotton

(b) It should dye well.

Finish required __________.

Ans: mercerization.

(ii) (a) A crisp cotton fabric. 

(b) It should be able to withstand daily washing during summer. 

Finish required __________.

Ans: stiffening.

(iii) (a) Cotton that does not wrinkle easily.

(b) It does not require repeated ironing.

Finish required __________.

Ans: wash-n-wear.

(iv) (a) Fabric should not absorb water.

(b) Water should not be able to pass through it.

Finish required __________.

Ans: water proofing.


Q. 1. What is a textile finish? Why is it necessary to apply it on fabric?

Ans: Fabrics usually need to undergo and additional processing known as finishing. Finishing of textile fabric is carried out to increase attractiveness and/or serviceability of the fabric. Different finishing treatements are available to get various effects, which add value to the basic textile material. Finsihing is waht makes fabrics more suitable for their intended end use.

Newly constructed knit or woven fabric must pass through various finishing processes to make it suitable for its intended purpose. Finishing enhances the appearance of fabric and also adds to its serviceability. Finishes can be solely mechanical, solely chemical, or a combination of the two. Those finishes, such as scouring and bleaching, simply prepare the fabric for further use is known as general finishes. Functional finishes, such as durable press treatments, impart special characteristics to the cloth.

Q. 2. Explain two basic finishes.

Ans: (i) Newly constructed knit or woven fabric must pass through various finishing processess to make it suitable for its intended purpose. Finishing enhances the appearance of fabric.

(ii) Adds to its serviceability.

Finishes can be

(i) solely mechanical.

(ii) solely chemical. or 

(iii) a combination of the two.

Those finishes, such as scouring and bleaching which simply prepare the fabric for further use are known as general finishes. When applied to gray goods, scouring removes impurtieis. Bleaching removes unwanted colour. Starching commonly used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. There are many types of finishes, some make fabrics softer, some stiffer, some water-repellent and some shrink-resistant. Some fabrics may have two or more finishing treatments.

Q. 3. Name the special finishes and describe the process and use of each.

Ans: Calendering: a finishing process, used on fabrics to add smoothness and lustre. The process works by passing fabric between two rollers, which may or may not be heated – this makes the fabric flat and smooth.

Mercerisation: The treatment of cellulosic textiles in yarn or fabric form with a concentrated solution of caustic alkali whereby the fibres are swollen, the strength and dye affinity of the materials are increased, and the handle is modified.

Q. 4. “Dyeing is finishing with colour.” Explain.

Ans: Dyeing operations are used at various stages of production to add colour and intricacy to textiles and increase product value. Primitive dyeing techniques included sticking plants to fabric or rubbing crushed pigments into cloth. The methods became more sophisticated with time and techniques using natural dyes from crushed fruits, berries and other plants, which were boiled into the fabric and gave light and water fastness (resistance), were developed.

Today, dyeing is a complex, specialised science. Nearly all dyestuffs are now produced from synthetic compounds. This means that costs have been greatly reduced and certain application and wear characteristics have been greatly enhanced. In the West, natural dyeing is now practised only as a handicraft, synthetic dyes being used in all commercial applications.

Natural dyes can be used on most types of material or fibre but the level of success in terms of fastness and clarity of colour varies considerably. All animal fibres are based on proteins. Natural dyes have a strong affinity to fibres of animal origin, especially wool, silk and mohair and the results with these fibres are usually good. Fibres of plant origin include cotton, flax or linen, ramie, jute, hemp and many others. Plant fibres have cellulose as their basic ingredient. Natural dyeing of certain plant based textiles can be less successful than their animal equivalent. 

Q. 5. Name the various stages at which textiles can be dyed. Explain them using diagrams.

Ans: The stages are as follow: 

(i) Yarn dyeing: It occurs before the cloth is woven or knitted, is used to produce gingham checks, plaids, woven stripes and other special effects.

(ii) In piece dyeing : It is used primarily for fabrics that are to be a solid colour, a continuous length of dry cloth is passed full-width through a trough of hot dye solution. The cloth then goes between padded rollers that squeeze in the colour evenly and removes the excess liquid.

(iii) Batch dyeing: the dyeing of textile products, altogether at one stage of a process at a time.

(iv) Cross dyeing: The dyeing of a fabric that consists of two or more fibre types.

(v) Stock /Fibre dyeing: The dyeing of the textile product at the fibre processing stage.

(vi) Space dyeing: A method of dyeing fabric or yarn at intervals along their length.

(vii) Batik-Batik dyeing, Batik printing: It is a method of dyeing using a wooden block, or a paint brush which is used to, add a resist to areas of fabric using either wax or gum, or starch resist. 

(viii) Tie-dye: A resist method of dyeing in which fabrics or yarns are tied then dyed.

(ix) Discharge printing: A method of printing that allows the removal of white or another colour from a fabric.

(x) Garment dyeing: The process where garments or part garments are dyed after manufacture (garments are made up). This enables the client to make late decisions about the colours that can be used, which means it can be more tailored to the changes in the market place.

Q. 6. Define printing.

Ans: Textile printing includes the various processes by which fabrics are printed in coloured design. It is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs.

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