NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Meal Planning, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Meal Planning

Chapter: 5




Q. 1. In how many ways can foods be classified?

Ans: Two:

(a) on the basis of physiological function.

(b) on the basis of nutrients.

Q. 2. List the five food groups.

Ans: (a) Cereals and grains.

(b) Pulses and legumes. 

(c) Milk and meat products.

(d) Fruits and vegetables.

(e) Fats and sugars.

Q. 3. What is food exchange? Give one example.

Ans: Substitution of one food item with the other in such a way that the nutrients provided by them are the same is called food exchange. Example wheat and rice.

Q. 4. Tick mark (✔) the most appropriate answer:

(i) A balanced diet should consist of:

(a) both plant and animal foods.

(b) only plant foods.

(c) only animal foods.

(d) only cereals and pulses.

Ans: (a) both plant and animal foods

(ii) A balanced diet is one which has: 

(a) some nutrient in referred amount.

(b) food from one food group in correct amounts.

(c) all the nutrients in correct amount. 

(d) all these foods that a person likes to eat in correct amounts.

Ans: (c) all the nutrients in correct amount.


Q. 1. Answers the following questions:

(a) What are the qualities of a well planned meal?

Ans: Nutritious, and include all food groups.

(b) Differentiate between seasonal foods and out of season foods.

Ans: Seasonal foods are cheap, nutritious and abundant. Out of season foods are less nutritions and expensive. 

(c) List at least two points you will keep in mind in order to prepare an attractive and appealing meal.

Ans: Colour, texture. 

(d) List the different types of work. Which kind of work requires maximum energy? 

Ans: Heavy, sedentary and light. Heavy work requires maximum energy.

(e) Your brother does not like lauki but your sister is very fond of it. How will you solve this problem?

And: By making lauki kofta instead of lauki curry. This is planning meal according to likes and dislikes of family members. 

Q. 2. Select nutritious snacks from following food items:

(i) Poha.

(ii) French Fries.

(iii) Dokla.

(iv) Vegetable cutlets.

(v) Pizza.

(vi) Upma.

Ans: Nutritious snacks –

(i) Poha.

(iv)Vegetable cutlets.

(v) Pizza.



Q. 1. Write short notes on:

1. Qualitative modification.

Ans: Qualitative modification: It refers to the change in nutrients consistency, flavour, amount of spices and fibre content of the diet. For example, the increased protein requirement of a pregnant woman can be met. by increasing the quantity of protein rich foods in her diet. You must have seen mothers taking out some boiled dal in a separate bowl, mashing it and feeding it to babies between the age of 6 months to 1 year. Dal does not contain any spices, except salt and turmeric. Slightly older children are fed well cooked and mashed ‘Khichri’. Older people need a diet soft in consistency and less spicy. This is a qualitative modification of diet.

2. Food exchange.

Ans: Food exchange: If you are modifying the same meal for different family members, then how will you decide on how much of one item is equivalent to another one? If you are not sure about how to go about exchanging one food item with another in the correct proportion, then you may not be able to fulfil everyone’s requirements correctly. For example, if you are exchanging milk with egg then you should know how much of milk is equivalent to one egg or if one does not want to eat egg, in that case, how much of pulses should be given instead?

Food exchanges help you to modify the diet for an individual according to needs, likes, dislikes and food habits and help you to make the diet more flexible and interesting.

3. Quantitative modification.

Ans: Quantitative modification: This refers to the increase or decrease in the number of times a meal is taken and/or the portion size (Portion size the amount of a particular dish eaten at a meal). For example, pregnant women, sick people or older persons need to eat smaller meals but at shorter intervals, that is, they may need 6-8 meals instead of four meals a day. Similarly, adolescent boys’ needs larger portions at each meal (may be more rice/chapattis, more dal/curd) and also more frequent meals to meet their nutritional needs. Persons who are dieting are advised to reduce the amount of food eaten at each meal. This will force the body to use stored reserves which will help in reducing boy weight.

Q. 2. List the factors you will keep in mind while making a tiffin for school going children. 

Ans: 1. Start by explaining how a nutritious lunch will give them the energy to finish the rest of the schooldays and enjoy after-school activities. 

2. Involve children in planning lunches from home.

3. Encourage kids to choose cafeteria meals that include fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and whole grains, such as wheat bread instead of white.

4. If you’re helping pack a lunch, start by brainstorming foods and snacks that your kids would like to eat.

5. Prepackaged lunches for kids are popular and convenient, but they’re also expensive and often less than nutritious. Instead, create your own pack able lunch using healthier ingredients.

6. Serve the Same Foods with a New Twist. Packing different lunches keep kids from getting bored and helps ensure they get the variety of foods needed for a nutritious diet.

7. Wash out lunchboxes every day or use brown paper bags that can be discarded or recycled.

8. School lunches must provide variety of foods from food groups and meet one-third of children’s daily calorie needs.

9. Limit the amount of fat to 30 percent or less of calories and saturated fat to 10 percent of calories when averaged over the course of a week.


Q. 1. Differentiate between the following:

(i) Normal diet and therapeutic diet.

Ans: Normal diet satisfies the nutritional needs of a healthy individual. But when a person falls sick there is a malfunctioning of parts of the body, therefore, the nutritional needs of a sick person changes. Under these circumstances, if one goes on eating normal food the system will be burdened and damaged. Hence, there is a need to modify the food eaten.

Therapeutic diet is the special diet given to a person suffering from a disease, to facilitate recovery. It is a modification of the normal diet.

(ii) Modification in diet consistency and modification in frequency of feeding.

Ans: In some diseases the thickness of the food has to be changed.

The food can then be served in two consistencies:

1. Liquid.

2. Semi solid.

Normally you eat 3-4 meals a day, that is, breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. In sickness, you Find it difficult to eat the amount you usually eat at one time. However, your body must get all the nutrients in correct amounts. Small amounts of food at intervals of 2-3 hours and as many as 8-10 small meals in a day instead of 3-4 meals facilitates speedy recovery.

Q. 2. Write ‘T’ against true and ‘F’ against false statements. Justify your answer:

(i) Sick people need only medicines for improving health.

Ans: False, nutritive diet builds the body’s ability to fight sickness.

(ii) Diet plays no role in helping the patient to get well.

Ans: False, diet facilitates recovery.

(iii) Liquid diet consists of foods like nimbu- pani, fruit juices, coconut water, etc.

Ans: True, as these are high in water content.

(iv) The normal diet meets nutritional needs of all sick individuals.

Ans: False, diet has to be adjusted according to the sickness.

(v) The modified diet should be as similar to the normal diet as possible.

Ans: True, as they have better acceptance.

Q. 3. In diet therapy modifications of a normal diet are in terms of:

Ans: (i) Consistency.

(ii) Nutrient content.

(iii) Interval and frequency of feeding.

Q. 4. Categories the following food stuffs into liquid and semi-solid foods: 

sago kheer, soup, custard, khichdi, lassi, fruit juice

Ans: Liquids: soup, lassi, fruit juice 

Semisolid foods: sago kheer, custard, khichdi.


Q. 1. Match the diseases given in column A with the therapeutic diets given in column B:

Column AColumn B
(i) Diarrhoea(a) Low sugar diet
(ii) Fever(b) Low fibre diet
(iii) Diabetes(c) Low salt diet
(iv) Hypertension(d) High protein, high energy diet
(v) Jaundice(e) High fibre diet
(vi) Constipation(f) High carbohydrate, Low fat diet


Column AColumn B
(i) Diarrhoea(b) Low fibre diet
(ii) Fever(d) High protein, high energy diet
(iii) Diabetes(a) Low sugar diet
(iv) Hypertension(c) Low salt diet
(v) Jaundice(f) High carbohydrate, Low fat diet
(vi) Constipation(e) High fibre diet

Q. 2. List five foods rich in each of the following nutrients:

(a) Carbohydrates.

Ans: Carbohydrates: Chapati, rice, bread, dalia, suji.

(b) Proteins.

Ans: Proteins: Milk, paneer, curd, egg, dals. 

(c) Fibre.

Ans: Fibre: Salads, guava, wheat (choker) whole grains, whole dals.


Q. 1. Rama likes to eat three full meals a day. She is suffering from fever. Suggest modification in her diet.

Ans: Diet during acute fever: The diet should be more of fluid and at frequent intervals during the first two to three days of fever. The fluid intake must be liberal to compensate for the losses from the sweat and to permit adequate   volume of urine for excreting the wastes. Milk, glucose water, soups, fruit juices and water can be included to meet this demand. The calorie requirement may be increased as much as 50% if the temperature is high. It may be difficult to meet the calorie needs during the peak of the fever but a high calorie diet with frequent feeding should be given as soon as fever is controlled. The carbohydrate should consist of glucose, sucrose, and starch. Glucose, which is less sweet and readily absorbed into the blood stream, is preferred. For starch, cereal and cereal grains cooked into gruel and pudding to be given to the patients. Fats in the form of butter, ghee, vegetable oil, and fried food should be avoided during fever. Protein intake is also increased to 50% in excess of the daily requirement due to the increased loss of tissue proteins during fever. The protein should be of high nutritive value and easily digestive such as milk, egg, and moong dal. High protein beverages are preferred to the regular meals. Fever increases the requirement for vitamin A, ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and B complex vitamins. Liberal intake of milk, fruits, fruit juices and two or three eggs will take care of the above requirement. As soon as the temperature comes down readily digestible blend food should be given to the patient for better digestion and rapid absorption depending on the patient’s need the food can be soft or normal consistency. Initially the interval of feeding should be 2 hours. Later on improvement it can be made into 4 hours interval or 4 meals a day.

Q. 2. Ashok is a factory worker. Every evening he plays foot ball with his friends. He has fractured his leg. Suggest modification in his diet so that he does not gain weight.

Ans: Some fractures may require minimal immobilisation and weight bearing is allowed, while others may require surgery, extensive casting, and non-weight bearing. Some fractures will heal with no long-term consequences, while others may result in long term problems, even with the best of care. Ashok will have to rest and elevate his limb as much as possible during the healing period. There is no scientific evidence for dietary supplements boosting the healing of a fracture in a person otherwise consuming a healthy diet.

• Maintain a diet that provides adequate calories and good quality protein.

• Do not attempt to restrict caloric intake (diet) while healing of fracture.

• Make sure that your daily supply of Vitamin D.

• Make sure that your daily supply of calcium meets the recommendations.

• For a healthy diet, replace unhealthy and fattening foods with healthier alternatives such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Limit foods that are high in calories or low in nutritional quality, including those with a high amount of added sugar.

Q. 3. What do you understand by the term ‘Balanced Diet’?

Ans: Balanced diet refers to intake of appropriate types and adequate amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for the maintenance of body cells, tissues, and organs, and to support normal growth and development A well-balanced diet acts to provide sources of energy and nutrition for optimal growth and development. A balanced diet is one that includes the Recommended Dietary Allowances, also called RDAS, for all the essential nutrients. These include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to good health and quality of life. The term well-balanced diet doesn’t imply that we need to eat something that we are not interested in. Eating is a pleasurable habit and more so because it helps us live. But the knowledge of what foods contain what kind of dietary elements helps in checking unhealthy eating attitude.

Q. 4. What is reference menu and how do you plan it?

Ans. The dietary allowances suggested for adults (by National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad) are for a reference man weighing 55 kgs. And for reference woman weighing 45 kgs. Diet planned for these in mind is called reference menu.

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