NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 1 Home, Family and Home science, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Home, Family and Home science

Chapter: 1



Activity: Observe the combinations of science and art in your daily life. Give at least one example each for the following:

1.The meal that you eat
2.The clothes that you were 
3.The arrangement in your kitchen 
4.Caring for a child 

Ans: 1. When you are able to select various dishes having those necessary nutrients and serve them attractively to your family, it is an “art”.

2. The cut of the dress is artistic but colour, texture, drape and fabric are based on the knowledge of science.

3. The kitchen centers are scientifically arranged for saving time, and energy but the use of colour with other gadgets is combined into unity by creativity.

4. The milestones of development of children are scientifically collected but how you achieve it is an art.



Q. 1. Fill in the appropriate word in the blank space:

(a) A place where we reside __________.

Ans: home.

(b) One who discharges household responsibilities ___________.

Ans: homemaker.

(c) Subject that promotes healthier and happier living __________.

Ans: Home Science . 

(d) Earning salary by working for someone or in some organisation __________.

Ans: wage employment. 

(e) Small scale innovative business for a profit __________.

Ans: entrepreneurship.

Q. 2. Tick(✓) mark the correct answer. Give a reason to justify your answer:

(i) Home Science caters to the needs of daily living of:

(a) boys only.

(b) girls only.

(c) both boys and girls.

(d) the society.

Because ______________.

Ans: (c) both boys and girls.

Because: 1. Today, more and more women are working-whether they go out or do some thing on their own from their home itself. As a result, the responsibility of the home has to be shared by the men as well.

2. You can learn to manage your own resources better by learning about the various areas of Home-Science.

3. You and your family members can achieve more satisfaction and use the skills gained to improve your economic condition.

(ii) Home applies knowledge for well-being of individuals by drawing principles from:

(a) science alone.

(b) arts alone.

(c) sometimes science and sometimes arts.

(d) both science and arts.

Ans: (d) both science and arts.

Because: Home Science teaches you the

art of using things so that a beautiful, harmonious whole is achieved and an overall pleasant effect is created. At the same time, it gives you all the knowledge of the scientific procedures involved in making a home beautiful. Let us take an example-Home Science will teach you about the different nutrients required by the body and the different functions they perform. This is the “science”.


Q. 1. List any three misconceptions about Home Science. 

Ans: (i) The study of Home Science does not lead to a career.

(ii) You can learn about it from your mother/ grandmother. 

(iii) Home Science is limited to cooking, laundry and needlework.

Q. 2. Write any two scope(s) for each area of Home Science.

Ans: Resource Management: Develop artistic values in clothing and interior design; Manage and improvise resources.

Human Development: Acquire knowledge in maternal child health care; Understand the concept of social, emotional and cognition development in children.

Fabric Science: Select, use and care for different fabrics; Develop skills in garment construction and soft furnishings; 

Food and Nutrition: Develop artistic values in the selection, preparation and serving of food; Preserve and store foods.


Q. 1. Following are some examples of wage employment in Home Science. In the column given on the right-hand side, write how you can change each of the wage employment situations to self-employment:

Wage-employment Self-employment
(a) Employee of nursery school____________
(b) Staff in a government emporium____________
(c) Manager of catering services ____________
(d) Cook at a canteen____________
(e) Employee of savings and investment schemes____________
(f) Conducting cookery classes at an institute____________
(g) Working with a supplier of home-based food services____________
(h) Caretaker in a guest house____________
(i) Salesperson____________


Wage-employment Self-employment
(a) Employee of nursery school(a) Opening your own nursery school. 
(b) Staff in a government emporium(b) Owner of a gift shop.
(c) Manager of catering services (c) Starting your own catering service.
(d) Cook at a canteen(d) Running your own canteen. 
(e) Employee of savings and investment schemes(e) Agent of saving and investment schemes.
(f) Conducting cookery classes at an institute(f) Starting your own cooking classes.
(g) Working with a supplier of home-based food services(g) Supplying home-based food items.
(h) Caretaker in a guest house(h) Running your own guest house.
(i) Salesperson(i) Opening your own boutique.



Rachna went to the employment agency to look for a new job. But when she got there all the titles had been jumbled up. Mr. Jain the Manager, will give Rachna a job if she can unscramble all the job titles. Can you help for?

Ans: 1. Baker Helper.

2. Guest Service Clerk.

3. Showroom Assistant.

4. Sales Representative.

5. Elder care worker.

6. Teacher Aide.

7. Fabric Estimator.

8. Emeroi Derer.


Q. 1. Giving suitable examples differentiate between the following:

(a) Wage employment and self-employment.

Ans: Wages is a payment usually of money for labour or services according to contract on an hourly, daily, or piecework basis. Wage-earner is one who works for wages; a teacher in a school, a clerk in a office is example of a wage- earner.

A self-employed person is earning a living by working independently of an employer, either freelance or by running a business thus earning income directly from one’s own business, trade, or profession rather than as a specified salary or wages from an employer. A businessman, a doctor running a medical centre are some of the examples of self-employment.

(b) Home and household.

Ans: Home is the place where one lives. What makes a house-or an apartment, a condo, a cabin or even a yurt-a home? It is the feeling among people living there which make it a home. The feeling of home comes from an intimate relationship between us and our most personal place. Home give us comfort, pleasure and sanctuary.

 A house or a building for people to live in; household is a house and its occupants. Household is a small group of people who use what they have to reach where they want to. A household, therefore, can be an individual, a family (by which we mean a group of individuals living together and related by marriage, birth, or adoption), or a small group of families or unrelated individuals (so long as they jointly use their resources to reach the same goals). A household includes related family members and all unrelated persons who share the separate living quarters.

(c) Vocation and entrepreneurship. 

Ans: Vocation is a regular occupation, especially one for which a person is particularly suited or qualified.

Entrepreneurship means the ability to make money by a person by starting new businesses. Such a person is creative and can imagine different situations easy and difficult before putting them into action.

Q. 2. “Home Science is meant for girls only.” Comment.

Ans: Misconception: Home Science is meant only for girls. Many people think that since Home Science teaches only about the home, it should be studied by girls only.

Fact: Today, men and women are sharing the responsibility of a home equally. This is because of a gradual change in the structure of our society. The joint family system is giving way to nuclear families where the man and woman have to manage their lives on their own accord. With more and more women going out of the home to work, the men have to learn to share the responsibilities. The basic preparation and orientation is given by the subject of Home Science alone. Hence boys should also study of this subject.

Q. 3. Explain the importance of Home Science being studied as a subject by both girls and boys.

Ans: Today, men and women share the responsibility of a home and a family equally and need an equal amount of preparation in making the best use of the resources available to make their lives comfortable. They can use the knowledge for the improvement of their life and home by using the skills gained to improve their economic condition. When family needs are fulfilled they will be in a better condition to take up responsibilities both at home and outside home. Time, energy, skills, etc. are some of the resources that one needs to manage and Home Science helps you to do exactly that.

Q. 4. How will you explain to your neighbour that Home Science is more than studying about cooking, sewing, cleaning and raising children?

Ans: Home Science is limited to cooking, laundry and needlework. The common perception is that these are the only things that are taught in Home Science. Hence parents of young girls readily agree to let them study this subject. They think it helps in preparing them for the responsibilities to come in later life. Cooking, laundry, and needlework are only a very small part of what is taught in Home Science. In fact, we learn about every thing that touches our life- the basics of how our body works, what we need to eat to remain healthy, the rules of personal and environmental hygiene that we need to follow, what we should do to avoid illness and how to manage when we or our dear ones become sick.

We learn about the different fibers and fabrics available in the market, the factors which influence our selection of fabrics for various uses. Children are an important part of our lives. We are all concerned about raising them safely and sensibly. It is in this course that we learn how they develop before and after birth, what we can do to see that they grow up to be good, responsible adults. We also learn to manage our resources like time, energy, and money so that we get maximum out of their use.

Home Science is defined as the study built on disciplines for gaining optimum well-being of the home and family life, within a changing society. Home science centered around home and family since its beginning. It is an interdisciplinary applied science drawing upon knowledge from physical, biological and social sciences to enhance family welfare.

It is a field which started as the need for training for girls in the context of changes in the socio-economic structure as well as changes in the family systems and functions.

In fact it is the only subject which prepares young learners for the two most important goals in their lives – looking after their home and family and preparing for a career or vocation in life.

Q. 5. Discuss four skills in each area of Home Science that you use in your daily life.

Ans: Resource Management:

(i) Making household budgets.

(ii) Savings and different modes of investments.

(iii) Effective management of the home household tasks such as food preparation, dishwashing, and laundry.

(iv) Organise household work and living spaces.

Human Development:

(i) Family relations

(ii) Recognizing different aspects of development from early to late childhood.

(iii) Understanding the physical changes, developmental tasks, characteristics and problems of adolescents.

(iv) Being sensitised towards special issues in human development.

Fabric Science:

(i) Understand fibre and fabric, designing of garments according to fashions, age, sex, body shape, activity, etc.

(ii) To provide clothing for ourselves and our families in efficient and economical ways.

(iii) Home sewing and mending of fabrics and apparel.

(iv) Optimal methods and products for washing stain removal, and drying. 

Food and Nutrition:

1. Prepare meals for different individuals according to their age, sex and activity. 

2. Food, its importance and also the diseases one suffers from due to their deficiency.

3. Prepare healthful and appetising meals on a modest budget. 

4. Recognizing the interrelationship of food, nutrition and health.

Q.6. Suggest two opportunities each for wage and self-employment in each area of Home Science.


Catering• Manager in canteen, restaurant
• Cook cofee/tea, shop, etc. 
• Service staff
• Owner of a canteen, restaurant, coffee/tea shop, etc. 
• Food service from house 
• Conducting hobby class
Food Preservation/ Bakery and confectionery• Production
• Training of service staff
• In-charge of a community centre
• Owner of a production unit.
• Home-based production services.
• Conducting hobby classes.
Interior decoration• Interior designer
• Furniture designer 
• Staff at show rooms
• Interior designer
• Furniture designer 
• Consultancy services from home/own shop.
Arts and crafts• Staff at Government emporiums/ show rooms/Antique shops 
• Designer for arts and crafts items
• Staff at production units
• Running own shop/enterprise.
• Home-based craft centre 
• Conducting hobby course/classes

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