NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 6 Nutritional Status

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NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 6 Nutritional Status

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 6 Nutritional Status, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Nutritional Status

Chapter: 6




Q. 1. What is Nutritional Status’?

Ans: The condition of health of a person that is influenced by the intake and utilisation of nutrients is called nutritional status.

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements by choosing the appropriate words from those given in the brackets:

(deficiency, overnutrition, obese, undernutrition, normal)

(i) Malnutrition refers to both ___________ and ___________.

Ans: undernutrition, overnutrition.

(ii) Undernutrition results due to __________ of one or more nutrients.

Ans: deficiency.

(iii) If you eat too much of energy-rich foods, you may become ___________.

Ans: obese.

(iv) Eating balanced food and having normal utilisation of nutrients leads to ___________ nutritional status.

Ans: normal.


Q. 1. Enlist the most important causes of malnutrition (undernutrition). 

Ans: 1. Decreased availability of food.


3. Ignorance.

4. Less intake during pregnancy and lactation.

5. Infection.

6. Lower production of food.

Q. 2. Malnutrition may even lead to __________, of many people.

Ans: death.

Q. 3. The consequences of malnutrition are __________, and __________.

Ans: poor physical growth, mental growth, physical handicaps, deaths.


Fill in the crossword puzzle using the clues given below:

(i) Physical growth can be determined by measuring __________, and __________. (1,2 across)

(ii) IDD is seen in the form of __________ in young children. (3 down)

(iii) Two forms of PEM are __________ and _________. (4,5 across)

(iv) __________ is a symptom of Vitamin A deficiency. (6 down)

(v) Low level of haemoglobin means __________. (7 across)



Q. 1. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Justify your answer.

(i) The only beneficiaries of the ICDS programme are children below 5 years of age.

Ans: False, ICDS scheme benefits not only children but adolescents, pregnant and lactating women and all women between 15-45 years of age.

(ii) National IDD control programme aims to decrease the prevalence of night blindness in our country.

Ans: False, the aim is to prevent iodine deficiency disorder. 

(iii) Massive doses of vitamin A are given orally to children below 6 months of age.

Ans: False, beneficiaries are children from 6 months to 5 years of age.

(iv) Iron and folic acid supplements are given to prevent anaemia.

Ans: True, these are especially for pregnant and lactating women and all women in the age group of 15-45 years. 

Q. 2. Rearrange the jumbled words to find out the names of ongoing major nutrition programmes of our country.

(i) D C S I.

Ans: ICDS.

(ii) P M D M.

Ans: MDMP.

(iii) P C N D I D.


(iv) P N A N C.



Q. 1. What do you mean by nutritional status? Discuss.

Ans: Nutritional status is the balance between the intake of nutrients by an organism and the expenditure of these in the processes of growth, reproduction and health maintenance. Because this process is highly complex and quite individualised, nutritional status assessment can be directed at a wide variety of aspects of nutriture. These range from nutrient levels in the body, to the products of their metabolism, and to the functional processes they regulate. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals as well as for populations. Accurate measurement of individual nutritional status is required in clinical practice. Population measures are more important in research. They can be used to describe nutritional status of the group, to identify populations or population segments at risk for nutrition-related health consequences, and to evaluate interventions.

Q. 2. Describe the various methods of assessing nutritional status of a person. 

Ans: The assessment of nutritional status is commonly summarised by the mnemonic “ABCD,” which stands for anthropometric measurement, biochemical or laboratory tests, clinical indicators, and dietary assessment. This review will focus on anthropometric and dietary techniques.

Anthropometric Approaches to Nutritional Status Assessment:

For adults, body weight and height are used to evaluate overall nutritional status and to classify individuals as at healthy or unhealthy weights-the emphasis for unhealthy weight is overweight and obesity.

In children, growth charts have been developed to allow researchers and clinicians to assess weight-and height-for-age, as well as weight-for-height. For children, low height-for-age is considered stunting, while low weight-for-height indicates wasting. In addition to weight and height, measures of mid-arm circumference and skinfold measured over the triceps muscle at the mid-arm are used to estimate fat and muscle mass. Anthropometric measures of nutritional status can be compromised by other health conditions. For example, edema characteristic of some forms of malnutrition and other disease states can conceal wasting by increasing body weight. Head circumference can be used in children 36 months and younger to monitor brain growth in the presence of malnutrition. Brain growth is better spared than either height or weight during malnutrition.

The Nine Signs for Clinical Assessment of Nutritional (CAN) Status in the Newborn:

1. Hair.

• Large amount, smooth, silky, easily groomed. 

• Thinner, some straight, “staring” hair.

• Still thinner, more straight, “staring hair which does not respond to brushing. 

• Straight “staring” hair with di-pigmented stripe.

2. Cheeks

• Progression from full buccal pads and round face, to significantly reduced buccal fat with narrow, flat face.

3. Neck and Chin

• Double or triple chin fat fold, neck not evident (4); to thin chin. No fat fold, neck with loose, wrinkled skin, very evident. 

4. Arms

• Full, round, cannot elicit “accordion” folds or lift folds of skin from elbow or tricep area; to a striking “accordion” folding of lower arm, elicited when examiner’s thumb and fingers of the left hand grasp the arm just below the elbow of the baby and thumb and fingers of the examiners right hand circling the wrist of the baby are moved towards each other; skin is loose and easily grasped and pulled away from elbow.

5. Legs

• Like arms.

6. Back

• Difficult to grasp and lift skin in the inter- scapular area; to skin loose, easily lifted in a thin fold from the interscapular area.

7. Buttocks.

• Full round gluteal fat pads; to virtually no evident gluteal fat and skin of the buttocks and upper posterior high loose and deeply wrinkled.

8. Chest.

• Full, round, ribs not seen; to progressively prominence of the ribs with obvious loss of intercostals tissues.

9. Abdomen

• Full, round, no loose skin; to distend or scaphoid, but with very loose skin, easily lifted, wrinkled and “accordion” folds demonstrable.

Q. 3. Make a list some of the common nutritional deficiency diseases. State signs and symptoms of each.

Ans: Nutritional deficiencies may take the form of inadequacies of

(i) total caloric intake.

(ii) protein intake. or

(iii) certain essential nutrients such as the vitamins and, more rarely, specific amino acids (components of proteins) and fatty acids.

Nutrients Incidence of DeficiencyTypical Symptoms and Diseases
BiotinUncommonDermatitis, eye inflammation, hair loss, loss of muscle control, insomnia, muscle weakness.
Calcium Average diet contains 40 to 50% of RDA.Brittle nails, cramps, delusions, depression, insomnia, irritability, osteoporosis,palpitations, periodontal disease, rickets, tooth decay.
Chromium 90% of diets deficientAnxiety, fatigue, glucose intolerance, adult-onset diabetes.
Copper 75% of diets deficient; average diet contains 50% of RDA.Anemia, arterial damage, depression, diarrhoea, fatigue, fragile bones, hair loss, hyperthyroidism, weakness.
Essential Fatty acidsVery commonDiarrhoea, dry skin and hair, hair loss, immune impairment, infertility, poor wound healing, premenstrual syndrome, acne, eczema, gall stones, liver degeneration.
Folic acidAverage diet contains 60% of RDA; deficient in 100% of elderly in one study; deficient in 48% ofadolescent girls; requirement doubles in pregnancyAnemia, apathy, diarrhoea, fatigue,headaches, insomnia, loss of appetite, neural tube defects in fetus, paranoia, shortness of breath, weakness.
Iodine Uncommon since the supplementation of salt with iodineCretinism, fatigue, hypothyroidism, weight gain.
Iron Most common mineral deficiencyAnemia, brittle nails, confusion,constipatio, depression, dizziness, fatigue,headaches, inflamed tongue, mouth lesions. 
Magnesium 75 to 85% of diets deficient: average diet contains 50 to 60% of RDAAnxiety, confusion, heart attack, hyperactivity, insomnia, nervousness, muscular irritability, restlessness, weakness.
Manganese Unknown, may be common in womenAtherosclerosis, dizziness, elevated cholesterol, glucose intolerance, hearing loss, loss of muscle control, ringing in ears.
NiacinCommonly deficient in elderlyBad breath, canker sores, confusion, depression, dermatitis, diarrhoea, emotional instability, fatigue, irritability, loss of appetite, memory impairment, muscle weakness, nausea, skin eruptions and inflammation.
PantothenicAcid (B5)Average elderly diet contains 60% of RDAAbdominal pains, burning feet, depression, eczema, fatigue, hair loss, immune impairment, insomnia, irritability, low blood pressure, muscle spasms, nausea, poor coordination.
Potassium Commonly deficient in elderlyAcne, constipation, depression, edema, excessive water consumption, fatigue, glucose intolerance, high cholesterol levels, insomnia, mental impairment, muscle weakness, nervousness, poor reflexes.
Pyridoxine (B6)71% of male and 90% of female diets deficientAcne, anemia, arthritis, eye inflammation, depression, dizziness, facial oiliness, fatigue, impaired wound healing, irritability, loss of appetite, loss of hair, mouth lesions, nausea.
Riboflavin Deficient in 30% of elderly BritonsBlurred vision, cataracts, depression, dermatitis, dizziness, hair loss, inflamed eyes, mouth nervousness, neurological symptoms (numbness, loss of sensation, “electric shock” sensations), seizures, sensitivity to light, sleepiness, weakness.
SeleniumAverage diet contains 50% of RDAGrowth impairment, high cholesterol levels, increased incidence of cancer, pancreatic insufficiency (inability to secrete adequate amounts of digestive enzymes), immune impairment, liver impairment, male sterility
ThiaminCommonly deficient in elderlyConfusion, constipation, digestive problems, irritability, loss of appetite, memory loss, nervousness, numbness of hands and feet, pain sensitivity, poor coordination, weakness.
Vitamin A20% of diets deficientAcne, dry hair, fatigue, growth impairment, insomnia, hyperkeratosis (thickening and roughness of skin), immune impairment, night blindness, weight loss.
Vitamin B-12Serum levels low in 25% of hospital patientsAnemia, constipation, depression,dizziness, fatigue, intestinal disturbances, headaches, irritability, loss of vibration sensation, low stomach acid, mental disturbances, moodiness, mouth lesions, numbness, spinal cord degeneration.
Vitamin C20 to 50% of diets deficient Bleeding gums, depression, easy bruising, impaired wound healing, irritability, joint pains, loose teeth, malaise, tiredness.
Vitamin D62% of elderly woman’s diets deficient Burning sensation in mouth, diarrhoea, insomnia, myopia, nervousness, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, rickets, scalp sweating.
Vitamin E23% of male and 15% of female diets deficient Gait disturbances, poor reflexes, loss of position sense, loss of vibration sense, shortened red blood cell life.
Vitamin KDeficient in pregnant women and newborns common Bleeding disorders
Zinc68% of diets deficientAcne, amnesia, apathy, brittle nails, delayed sexual maturity, depression, diarrhoea, eczema, fatigue, growth impairment, hair loss, high cholesterol levels, immune impairment, impotence, irritability, lethargy, loss of appetite, loss of sense of taste, low acid, male infertility, memory impairment, night blindness, paranoia, white spots on nails, wound healing impairment

Q. 4. Explain the importance of National Nutrition Programmes. Give the services and beneficiaries of five important National Nutrition Programmes in our country. 

Ans: Importance: Five important national nutrition programmes in our country are as follow:

1. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme:


• Immunisation.

• Health check-ups. 

• Referral services.

• Treatment of minor illnesses.


• Supplementary feeding

• Growth monitoring and promotion 

• Nutrition and Health Education (NHE). 

Early Childhood Care Pre-School Education:

• To children in the age group of 3-6 years. 

2. Mid-Day Meal Programme (MDMP): The main aim of MDM Programme is to provide supplementary meal to primary school children between 6 and 11 years of age. This in turn ensures school attendance.

3. National Control Programme for Prevention of Nutritional Blindness due to Vitamin

This programme aims at preventing blindness due to vitamin A deficiency. The services provided under this programme include: 

(i) Promoting consumption of vitamin A rich foods.

(ii) Providing massive doses of vitamin A orally to children between 6 months to 5 years of age.


• Children between 6 months to 5 years of age 

• Pregnant women and lactating mothers

• All women between 15 and 45 years.

4. National Nutritional Anaemia Control Programme (NNACP): This programme aims at significantly decreasing the prevalance and incidence of anaemia in young children and women.

The services provided through this programme are: 

(i) Promotion of regular consumption of foods rich in iron

(i) Providing iron and folic acid supplements

(iii) Treatment of severe anaemic cases.


 • Children between 6 months to 5 years of age

• Pregnant women and lactating mothers. 

• All women between 15 and 45 years.

5. National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme (NIDDCP): The aim of this programme is to decrease the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in our country by providing iodine in the common salt (iodized salt). The services provided are:

(i) To assess the extent of the problem. 

(ii) To arrange for production/supply of iodized salt.

(iii) To take quality control measures in order to ensure supply of standard quality of iodized salt to the consumer.

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