NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 4 Food, Nutrition and Health, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Food, Nutrition and Health

Chapter: 4



Activity 1: List five dishes that you can prepare at home by mixing proteins from two different sources. Example – Khichri.


S.No.Name of dishProtein sources
1.BiryaniMeat, rice
2.DosaUrad dal, rice
3.KheerMilk, rice
4.UppamaSuji,bengal gram dal, black gram dal
5.Soya Bean pullaoRice, soyabean 

Activity 2: List down five fats and oils that are used in your home. 

Ans: 1.Butter.

2. Cream.

3. Ghee.

4. Oil.

5. Margarine.



Q. 1. Define food.

Ans: Item which is edible and nourishes the body.

Q. 2. List the three functions of food. 

Ans: Social, psychological and physiological functions.

Q. 3. Give one example (other than those given in the text) of each function of food.

Ans: 1. Energy giving. 

2. Body building.

3. Regulatory function and protection from disease.


Q. 1. Answer the following questions: 

(a) What is nutrition?

Ans: In a more limited sense, the process by which the living tissues take up, from the blood, matters necessary either for their repair or for the performance of their healthy functions.

In the broadest sense, a process or series of processes by which the living organism as a whole is maintained in its normal condition of life and growth.

(b) List the main functions of nutrients.

Ans: Nutrient is a substance present in food and used by the body to promote normal

• growth.

• maintenance. and

• repair.

The major nutrients needed to maintain health are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water.

Nutrients are frequently categorised as essential or non-essential. Essential nutrients are unable to be synthesised internally (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and so must be consumed by an organism from its environment.

(c) Give at least two examples of the following foods:

(i) Food rich in proteins.

Ans: Food rich in proteins: meat, milk

(ii) Food rich in carbohydrate.

Ans: Food rich in carbohydrate: sugar, potato. 

Q. 2. Indicate whether true or false. Give reasons for your answer:

(a) The energy giving function is the major function of protein.

Ans: (a) False.

Reasons: Humans can derive energy from a wide variety of fats, carbohydrates, proteins. The most important function of protein is to

• build up.

• keep up. and

• replace the tissues in your body.

Proteins serve various functions in the body. The structure of a protein determines its function.

(b) Dietary fibre is the unavailable carbohydrate.

Ans: True.

Reasons: Most dietary fibre is not absorbed by the human digestive but is in digestion and absorption of otherwise harmful function substances. 

(c) Combination of cereals and pulses in a meal improves the quality of protein.

Ans: True.

Reasons: Animal sources of protein such as meat, eggs, and dairy products are “complete proteins.” That means that each protein found. in an animal product contains each of the nine essential amino acids. Vegetarians and vegans may need to pay a little more attention to the dietary proteins. Plant proteins are called “incomplete proteins.” Each plant protein is missing at least one of the nine essential amino acids. However, every amino acid is found in some type of plant, so you can combine different plant proteins to get all of the amino acids you need. So one can make a combination like

• Grains plus legumes. Try black beans and rice.

• Nuts and seeds plus legumes. Lentil soup with a serving of almonds on the side.

• Corn plus legumes.

(d) Fats are liquid at room temperature.

Ans: False.

Reasons: Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words “oils”, “fats” and “lipids” are all used to refer to fats. “Oils” is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while “fats” is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. “Lipids” is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.


Q. 1. Classify the vitamins A,B,C,D,E and K as: 

Water soluble vitamins

Fat soluble vitamins

Ans: Water soluble: Vitamin B end C.

Fat soluble: Vitamin A,D,E,K

Q. 2. State whether the following statements are ‘True’ or ‘False’, correcting the statement wherever necessary. 

(i) Vitamin C is produced when the body is exposed to sunlight.

Ans: False, Vitamin-D.

(ii) Vitamin A helps to keep our eyes healthy.

Ans: True.

(iii) Vitamin K plays a role in our feeling hungry.

Ans: False, Vitamin-K is necessary for clotting the blood. Vitamin-B complex helps in digestion and make us feel hungry.

(iv) Vitamin E is necessary for clotting of blood.

Ans: False, Vitamin-K.

(v) Vitamins A and B are necessary for strong and healthy teeth and bones.

Ans: False, Vitamin-C.


Answer the following questions: 

Q. 1. What is the difference between iodized salt and normal salt?

Ans: Iodised salt is used to prevent a health problem now called as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). It is the common salt to which very small quantity of an iodine compound is added. Iodised salt looks, tastes and smells exactly like common salt and it is used in the same way.

Iodine is obtained from iodized salt.

Q. 2. What is the importance of calcium?

Ans: Bone development, blood clotting and muscular coordination. 

Q. 3. Name the two factors that enhance and interfere with the absorption of iron in the body.

Ans: Vitamin C and protein facilitate absorption and oxylates and phytates interfere with the absorption.

Q. 4. Which mineral is important for haemoglobin formation?

Ans: Iron.

Q. 5. Bones in our body are made up of which mineral?

Ans: Calcium.

Q. 6. The lack of which mineral causes mental retardation in children?

Ans: Iodine.


Q. 1. Tick mark (✓) the most appropriate answer:

(i) Nutrition is the process by which the food is taken in and

(a) digested in the body.

(b) absorbed in the body.

(c) utilised in the body.

(d) all the above.

Ans: (d) all the above.

(ii) The macro nutrients are carbohydrates, fats and:

(a) proteins.

(b) vitamins.

(c) minerals.

(d) all the above.

Ans: (a) proteins. 

(iii) Micro nutrients are:

(a) vitamins, water.

(b) vitamins, minerals.

(c) sugars and minerals.

(d) all the above.

Ans: (b) vitamins, minerals.

(iv) The amounts of nutrients required by different people are:

(a) the same.

(b) generally the same but occasionally different.

(c) at times the same and at different.

(d) different.

Ans: (d) different.


Test your word power-

Hope you have enjoyed learning about the functions of food. While studying this lesson you must have come across some new words. Let us see how well you have understood their meaning. Given below are the words and their possible meanings. Choose the option closest to the real meaning of the word.

1. Nutrient: 

(a) tasty food.

(b) balanced diet.

(c) essential substance for life and growth. 

(d) waste product.

Ans: (c) This is a substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and growth.

2. Edible:

(a) poisonous. 

(b) fit to be eaten.

(c) spiritual.

(d) part of building.

Ans: (b) fit to be eaten.

3. Digestion:

(a) process of converting food into substance used by body.

(b) growth.

(c) cooking food.

(d) chemical reaction.

Ans: (a) The process of breaking down the food in the stomach and using it for growth and development in the body.

4. Macronutrient:

(a) large quantity.

(b) visible to the naked eyed.

(c) fixed amount.

(d) substance required in large amounts.

Ans: (d) A substance required in relatively large amount by living beings.

5. Legume:

(a) cereal.

(b) dal.

(c) evergreen plant.

(d) cactus.

Ans: (b) Edible part of a leguminous plant used as food known in India as dal.

Ratings: 4-5: Excellent, 2-3: Good, 0-1: You need to read the lesson again.


Q. 1. List the food items you had for dinner and identify the energy giving and body building foods.

Ans: Energy giving foods: rice/wheat and potatoes.

Body building food: milk, dals.

Q. 2. Define macronutrients and micronutrients.

Ans: Our body needs about 40 different nutrients to maintain health: Some are required in relatively large quantities and are known as macronutrients, like carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Micronutrients are needed in smaller quantities and include vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

Q. 3. List the functions of carbohydrates and proteins.

Ans: The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy, but they also play an important role in:

(i) The construction of the body organs and nerve cells.

(ii) The definition of a person’s biological identity such as their blood group. 

(iii) A diet containing an optimum level of carbohydrates may help prevent body fat accumulation.

(iv) Starch and sugars provide readily accessible fuel for physical performance.

(v) Dietary fibre, which is a carbohydrate, helps keep the bowel functioning correctly. Proteins also contribute energy, but their more important role is to provide amino acids to promote growth (in children) and to repair body tissues.

Q. 4. Are the nutritional requirements of your family members the same or different? Give reasons.

Ans: Factors influencing meals: 

Age: Age of an individual influences both the intake and the quality of food.

For example: Infants drink only milk or eat semi-liquid foods-dalia or khichri. Young babies and children eat everything but in small quantity. They have to be fed more often as compared to adults.

Adults suffering from diabetes should not eat rice, potatoes, sugar and if suffering from constipation needs more of fibre as compared to other adults.

Sex: Men are more muscular than women and they can do more manual work as compared to strenuous woman. Hence, they need more protein and energy than the women.

Climate: We tend to eat more in winter than in summer. This is because in winter our body needs more energy and therefore, we tend to include more of the energy rich foods.

Occupation: People doing more manual work like farmers, players, labourers need more food which is rich in energy and proteins compared to those who work while sitting most of the time. 

Individual physical needs of the members:

(i) A growing child needs more protein.

(ii) A sick person needs a diet which is light and easily digestible.

(iii) A person suffering from constipation needs more fibre.

(iv) A pregnant woman needs food also for the foetus who is growing in her womb.

(v) A lactating mother has to feed her baby, hence her need for nutrients increases.

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