NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 3 Family, Health and Security, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Family, Health and Security

Chapter: 3



Q. 1. Write a note on the safety measures observed at your home, keeping the following points in mind: 

(i) Kitchen

– How safe is the cooking range/chullah? 

– Gadgets you have, their condition and safety in use. 

– Sharp tools-condition and safety in use

– Floor

Ans: Kitchens can easily be either the center of a rich and busy family life or a dangerous place. Most accidents that happen at home take place in the kitchen. Since electrical appliances and cooking gas are used in the kitchen, fire safety precautions are a must. All members of the family must follow kitchen safety measures. Slips and falls, strains and sprains, cuts and lacerations, and burns are the four leading categories of kitchen injuries.

Prevent Fires Caused by Cooking:

• Always stay in the kitchen while cooking.

• Keep things that can burn, such as dishtowels, paper or plastic bags, and curtains at least three feet away from the range top.

• Before cooking, roll up sleeves and use oven mitts. Loose-fitting clothes can touch a hot burner and catch on fire.

Prevent Fires Caused by Heating:

• Store matches and lighters in a locked cabinet.

• Keep space heaters at least three feet away from things that can burn, such as curtains or stacks of newspaper. Always turn off heaters when leaving the room or going to bed.

• Keep things that can burn away from your fireplace and keep a glass or metal screen in front of your fireplace.

• Don’t plug in too many appliances at once.

Prevent Fires Caused by Candles:

• Never leave burning candles unattended.Do not allow children to keep candles or incense in their rooms.

• Always use stable, candle holders made of material that won’t catch fire, such as metal, glass, etc.

• Blow out candles when adults leave the room.

• Once you have completed cooking, make sure that you have turned off the stove and other appliances in the kitchen. Especially so before you lock the house and leave.

• LPG or cooking gas is actually a colourless, odourless gas. An artificial odour is added to the gas, so that the consumer can smell it, in case of a leak take appropriate measures to seal the leak. Smell cooking gas and learn the smell, so that you can identify a gas leak if one occurs.

• Do not repair gas appliances by yourself. Get a professional to repair it.

• Take the lighter in one hand and then ignite the stove, instead of, opening the knob completely and then igniting.

• Get all gas appliances serviced regularly. 

• Get a professional to install your gas appliance.

• Do not tamper with the safety valves for any reason.

• Turn off the gas cylinder before you leave your home and before you go to bed each night.

• Use gas appliances that are approved and are of good quality. Ensure that all the parts have proper certification.

• If you smell gas in the kitchen, when the stove is not in use, turn off the cylinder/ regulator immediately. This will cut off the gas supply and an accident may be averted. Open all windows and doors of the kitchen, so that there is adequate air supply. Do not turn on any electrical appliance in the kitchen at this time. 

(ii) Bathroom

– Floor – for safety from falls.

– Any other fixture if it comes in the way and can hurt. 

Ans: Just like the kitchen, the bathroom can become a safe and pleasant place for bath time.

• Is the thermostat on the hot water heater set below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (49 degrees Celsius)?

• Are razor blades, nail scissors, and other sharp tools stored in a locked cabinet? 

• Are childproof latches (installed on all drawers)? 

• Do the outlets have grounded circuit breakers?

• Are toilets always left closed? Is there a toilet-lid lock on the toilet?

• Are all hair dryers, curling irons, and electric razors unplugged when not in use?

• Are there nonskid strips on the bottom of bathtub?

• Are there nonslip pads under loose rugs to hold them securely to the floor?

• Are all prescription and prescription medications, and cleaners stored in a locked cabinet?

• Are bottles of mouthwash, perfumes, hair dyes, hair sprays, nail and shoe polisher and nail polish removers stored in a locked cabinet?

(iii) Windows and glass panes.

– If these can be conveniently closed and opened. 

-Any broken glass panes that can hurt.

Ans: Check the following:

• Have you installed a finger pinch guard on doors?

• Have you removed the rubber tips from all door stops or installed one-piece door stops?

• Have you placed doorknob covers on doors so that your toddler won’t be able to leave the house?

• Do all glass doors in the house contain decorative markers so they won’t be mistaken for open doors?

• Do all sliding doors have childproof locks?

• Are there safety bars on window guards installed on upper-story windows?

• Are window blind cords tied with clothespins or specially designed cord clips



Q. 1. Pick the correct alternatives. Give reasons for your selection.

(i) In a joint family the purse is

(a) common for the whole family. 

(b) with every head of small unit.

(c) with every female head of small unit.

(d) with both male and female heads.

Ans: (a) common for the whole family 

(ii) In a joint family all the decisions are made by

(a) only male head of the family.

(b) only female head of the family.

(c) both male and female head of the family.

(d) all members of the family. 

Ans: (a) only male head of the family 

(iii) In a joint family property is owned by

(a) only male head of the family.

(b) only female head of the family.

(c) both male and female head of the family.

(d) all members of the family.

Ans: (d) all members of the family.

Q. 2. List two characteristics which children living in joint family develop and two characteristics which children living in nuclear family develop.

Ans: (i) Joint Family:

(a) sharing.

(b) emotional bonding with all.

(ii) Nuclear Family:

(a) independence.

(b) decision-making.


Q. 1. Define health in your own words. 

Ans: Health for me is categorised by four requirements

• Body’s health.

• Mind’s health.

• Spiritual health

 • Social health.

The concept of health as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) is ‘it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.’ 

Physical Health: When we say healthy people, we mean people with bright eyes, glossy hair, shining skin, and firm, well-developed muscles. In other words, a person with physical fitness and a sense of well-being, but not a person ho is fat. This can be brought about by eating aight food in sufficient quantities, along with an adequate amount of exercise and attention to the rules of health.

Mental Health: Mental health is easily influenced by our emotions such as anger, sorrow, joy, tersion. When someone is depressed it affects his health, he will suffer from high blood pressure, indigestion, insomnia. When a person is happy he is able to eat well. If a person hears bad news or is worried, he is unable to eat. Sometimes it has the reverse effect, i.e. the person eats too much and becomes obese.

Social Health: A pleasantly behaved person is liked by one and all. When a person is physically fit or without any ailments he is able to behave well with others. Someone who is angry behaves very rudely or indifferently, and upsets others who associate with him. A social person helps others and is liked by all.

Q. 2. List ten characteristics of good physical health.

Ans: A person who enjoys good physical health is one who: 

1. is energetic.

2. has good posture.

3. weighs normal for age and height.

4. has all body organs functioning normally.

5. has a clear and clean skin.

6. has bright eyes.

7. has good textured and shining hair.

8. has a clean breath.

9. has a good appetite.

10. gets sound sleep.

Q. 3. List five characteristics each of mental and social health.

Ans: Mental health implies:

1. control on emotions.

2. sensitive to the needs of others.

3. confidence in one’s own abilities.

4. freedom from unnecessary tensions, anxieties and worries.

5. resiliency-being able to deal with life’s stresses and bounce back from adversity. 

A person with good social health:

1. gets well along with people around.

2. has pleasant manners.

3. helps others.

4. fulfills responsibility towards others. 

5. A zest for living-the ability to enjoy life, to laugh and have fun.


Mention two important indicators each for the following:

S.No.Parts of bodyIndicators

Ans: 1. Hands: smooth, easy painless movement.

2. Skin: shining and smooth.

3. Hair: shining and thick.

4. Eyes: shining and glossy.

5. Nails: pink and not brittle. 

6. Nose: clean and not flowing.

7. Ears: clean and internal ear not filled with sticky gum.


Mention two reasons each for:

(i) Regular Exercise.

Ans: Regular Exercise: 

1. Exercise makes you active physically and mentally, and ready for work.

2. Helps to reduce body fat.

(ii) Good Posture.

Ans: Good Posture:

1. If you stand or sit with your back bent; it will put extra pressure on the organs of your abdomen and chest. You will also develop a curved spine which will result in backache.

2. Maintaining a correct posture is important if you want to remain healthy.

(iii) Rest and sleep.

Ans: Rest and sleep:

1. Regular rest and sleep are necessary for the tired muscles to relax. 

2. Sleep not only relieves tired muscles but also mind.

(iv) Healthy Habits.

Ans: Healthy Habits:

1. Eating habits; if you want to be healthy, you must eat proper food which is balanced and provides you with all the nutrients. If you look around, you will find that many children are thin and small and may be very weak. 

2. Follow rules of personal hygiene.

(v) Clothing to suit climate.

Ans: Clothing to suit climate:

1. It is very important for us to select the right kind of clothes to wear according to the climate, otherwise we will be uncomfortable and this may also affect our health.

 2. You can be comfortable by wearing cottons in summer and silk or woollens in winter.

You will find synthetic or non-crushable fabrics more suitable for office or long time wear.


Q. 1. Define ‘security’. State its two types.

Ans: Security means being untroubled by danger or fear in life. One needs physical and psychological or mental security.

Q. 2. Observe the following in your family and write a short note on their contribution in promoting mental security.

(i) Members in the family.

(ii) Working members.

(iii) Closeness among members.

(iv) Division of labour among members.

(v) Any recent instance when one member has done something for the other.

Ans: Mother, father and brother, sister all have the opportunity to reward, ignore and punish each other’s responses. The child also has the power to delight and demoralise other family members by actions.

(i) Members in the family: Along with physical care, love and acceptance given by my parents helps me develop a basic sense of trust towards them and the whole world around me. It is a major safeguard against fear and anxiety, thus giving me the feeling of security I need. Thus, I face the future with confidence. I am also self-reliant. As my home atmosphere is harmonious, calm, compatible and happy I never feel mentally insecure for I always feel wanted.

My older brother and sister are at home with me. We come back together from school as we study in the same school. With them around I feel ‘someone there’, and it gives me an emotional sense of protection from being alone. Moreover they’re there to help; they’re around when I need them. They’re there to have a good time with as well siblings love.

Love between siblings is something special for it is teaches a lot of things such as: 

(i) It gives you a partner in whom you can confide. 

(ii) Staying together during tough times. 

(iii) It also teaches sacrifice and conceding as it happens with the elder brother or sister among the siblings. 

(ii) Working members: I understood, from an early age that everyone has a role in the house. Because of the love and warmth imparted by my parents I was able to explore my surroundings confidently and accept its demands even in their absence. They usually call me up many times from the office once I am back from school and take interest in what I am doing, how much homework there is to complete. They give me assurance of help in studies once they are back in the evening. I feel secure and at the same time through self-help develop my own competencies by doing work independently. My parents respect me for what I am. I feel very secure with my parents because they impart love and warmth to me.

They are good listener and remember what I tell them: They actively listen to what is being told. They look into the eye, and don’t try to do something else at the same time. I know they are not distancing when I talk, and I don’t have to press harder.

They don’t brush off excitement: If I walk in the door with something to tell – they put down the paper or book, turn off the television, put down the phone and listen. They don’t make me wait. So the excitement does not vanish.

They take advantage of opportunities: Good times to talk is in the car, during bath time, at the dinner table, after a bedtime story, during picnics, on a walk, while shopping, or while playing a game. Whenever the opportunity for listening presents itself, they take advantage of it.

They show respect: Their communication is interested, caring, polite, thoughtful and patient in short respectful. It allows for questions, curiosity, new ways of thinking and even. rebellion. I can ask for input on family decisions and take or give suggestions.

They understand what I am afraid of: They do not create a fear of being disliked, abandoned, yelled at or ostracised in me. They help to put fears into perspective and to recognize that fear is usually bigger than the reality it represents. They voice their thoughts fairly, compassionately and effectively.

(iii) Closeness among members: We relate to each other in a warm-positive way. There is companionship, friendship, devotion and love among all the family members in our house. We as a family seek maximum of participation in the activities that contribute to the welfare, happiness and development of each other. We feel happy at each other’s life fulfilment.

Talk and activity are the key elements in my relationships with brother and sister. There is gender difference. Talking together was a significant aspect of feeling close to my sister. Brother-sister relationships worked on male terms, with activities taking precedence over talk.

(iv) Division of labour among members: Chores go faster when everyone pitches in. Not only do we get to spend time with parents, but learn to value ourselves as a contributing member of the family team. Chores also go faster when things get a little silly (songs are sung backward) people race each other to see who is faster, a car wash is interrupted by a water fight. None of us expect the job to be done the way you would do it; but we value the child like joy in contributing.

There is a chart that tells each child what he or she is to do on a certain day; a visual daily reminder to keep us on track doing chores with when/then” technique. As an example, “When the pets are fed, then you may have your dinner.

As children we grew up perceiving chores as a normal part of life understanding that there are jobs that must be done to run a household. When you live in a home everyone needs to participate in the upkeep. My parents were very specific in instruction and demonstrate step-by- step as we children watched. The next step was to let us help them, followed by we child doing the chore as they supervised. When they felt that we as a child had mastered the job and could take over responsibility for it.

This is how we are assigned the task of division of labour.

Age Chores:

Pre-school (3-5 years): Focus on immediate self-care and imitation: dress self, pickup own toys, help clear table, help/imitate parents in other tasks.

Early Elementary School (6-8 years): Establish routines for self-care and expand into tasks for family welfare: clear and set table, empty garbage, put away clean clothes, pull weeds, feed pets.

Late Elementary (9-11 years): Increase self-management and skill level of chores: simple food preparation, wash car, sort laundry, simple yard work, exercise and groom pets.

Secondary School(12-16 years): Focus on skills for independent living and self or shared group responsibility: cook meals, do laundry, perform repairs to house and car.

(v) Any recent instance when one member has done something for the other: The best things are, both of them are fun to play with, they help me with my homework.

Recently my brother helped with the computer when something went wrong with the software… He like being older and he think he knows more. Well, he does, but when I don’t know things he makes it like I don’t know that much.

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