NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 26 Selection of Textiles and Clothing, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Selection of Textiles and Clothing

Chapter: 26




Q. 1. Select the correct alternatives from the four given below each statement. Complete the statement using the selected word. 

(i) Staple fibres give fabric a __________ look.

(a) rough.

(b) smooth.

(c) lustrous.

(d) shiny.

Ans: (a) rough.

(ii) Filament fibres give fabrics a __________ look.

(a) dirty.

(b) smooth.

(c) rough.

(d) dull.

Ans: (b) smooth.

(iii) __________ fabric does not becomes dirty easily.

(a) cotton.

(b) organdie.

(c) denim.

(d) silk.

Ans: (d) silk.

(iv) Most suitable fabric for making baby garments is __________.

(a) silk.

(b) cotton.

(c) nylon.

 (d) denim.

Ans: (b) cotton.

(v) A poor conductor of heat is __________.

(a) wool.

(b) silk.

(c) cotton.

(d) denim.

Ans: (b) silk.

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks by choosing the correct alternative given along with each statement. Justify your choice in the given space.

(i) __________ can be scrubbed hard while washing. (cotton/rayon)

Ans: Cotton, as it gains strength when wet.

(ii) __________  is used for industrial purposes. (cotton/nylon)

Ans: Nylon, due to it’s strength.

(iii) __________ keeps you warm in winters. (wool/polyester) 

Ans: Wool, as it is a bad conductor of heat.

Q. 3. Tick (✓) the statements which are true for knitted fabrics. 

(i) Made by interlooping yarns. 

(ii) Have a rough look

(iii) Have a smooth look 

(iv) Are very absorbent

(v) Are generally stretchable.

Ans: In making cloth, a knitting machine forms loops in yarn and links them to one another by means of needles. The finished fabric consists of crosswise rows of loops called courses and lengthwise rows of loops called wales. Looped structure makes knitted fabrics more elastic than woven cloth. This looped structure makes knitted fabrics more elastic


I. State true or false and correct the false statement.

1. Synthetic fibres are ideal for baby’s undergarments. 

Ans: False, synthetics clothes are non-absorbent. These can be very uncomfortable as baby’s clothes.

2. Doctors wear white coats to look fashionable

Ans: False, doctors must be neat, clean and efficient. They must protect themselves from infections. That is why they wear white coats.

3. Clothing for travelling should preferably be of light colours. 

Ans: False, during travelling clothes become very dirty. So, light colours should be avoided.

4. Delicate fabrics like silk are ideal for a long train journey

Ans: False, one must wear strong and tough fabric during a long train journey. Only strong fabrics can withstand the wear and tear of a long journey. 

5. Cotton shirts that are easy to slip on or that have double breasted front openings with snaps are some easy to wear styles for infants. 

Ans: True, as a baby is mostly lying down such clothes are not only easy to wear but also does not hurt the delicate skin of an infant.

II. Match column I with column ll

Column IColumn II
1. Baby garments(a) variety to mix-n-match
2. Teenagers(b) denim
3. Active children(c) made of absorbent cottons
4. School going children(d) glamorous
5. Grandmother(e) strong and durable
(f) bright clothes
(g) dresses with front opening


Column IColumn II
1. Baby garments(c) made of absorbent cottons
2. Teenagers(a) variety to mix-n-match.
(e) strong and durable.
3. Active children(d) glamorous.
(f) bright clothes
4. School going children(b) denim
5. Grandmother(g) dresses with front opening


Given below are the clues for different types of labels.Use these clues to fill in the cross word:


1. Of acceptable standards (13) 

2. Company identity mark (5)

3. Information of maintenance (4)

4. Printed on fabrics (7)


5. Content characteristics (11) 

6. Stating product performance (11)



Crack the Code

can How you become an alert consumer? Using the code given below, decipher the qualities of an aware and alert consumer.

Ans. 1. Watch the fabric being measured.

2. Check the price printed on the product

3. Read the label and marking.

4. Do not hesitate to use consumer protection regulation act


I. Justify the given statements. 

(i) A closely woven fabric is more serviceable and stronger.

Ans: Justification: Closely woven fabric is more serviceable and will less. 

(ii) Long floats in weave should be avoided.

Ans: Justification: Long floats in weave should be avoided as they tend to sung easily.

(iii) No powdery dust should appear when fabric is rubbed between the fingers.

Ans: Justification: Visible powder is an indication of too much starch. Manufacturers use high degree of sizing to conceal poor quality of fabric. Silk is also gummed heavily to increase its weight since the price increases with weight.

II. List at least two points that you would keep in mind for: 

(a) Selection of textiles on the basis of:

(i) Weave.

Ans: Weave textile designers can produce a great variety of cloths by proper selection of yarns, finishing processes, and quality of weave 2 x 2 twill fabrics are durable, they permeate air and shed soil easily

(ii) Finesh.

Ans: Whether fabric is destined for a world- class hotel, a five-star restaurant or your own home, finishes can protect it from fire, stains, water, mildew and everyday wear and tear without compromising the beauty and integrity of the fabric.

(b) Selection of garments on the basis of:

(i) Workmanship.

Ans: Workmanship: Most consumers already have the habit of buying readymade clothes are particularly concerned with the quality, workmanship and garments made to measure.

(ii) Care and maintenance.

Ans: Care and maintenance: Buying a costly and branded outfit is easy, but the maintaining that sustain its initial glaze is difficult. In the modern world, impressions made by one’s clothes and his way of carrying the clothes.


Q. 1. What is the difference between a label and a marking?

Ans: The indication of fibre content may be given either by a label or mark on the product. A “label” is any label, mark, sign, device, imprint, stamp, brand, or ticket. The Woolmark symbol identifies 100 percent wool products. 

Many labels appear on clothes and household textiles. If you take the time to read them, they can help provide the facts you need to make informed buying and care decisions.

Manufacturers often give trade names to fibres they produce. Usually these names appear in advertising and on labels of textile items. The Textile Fibre Products Identification Act requires that the information on fibre content labels:

(i) Identify the fibre by generic name (the name of the family of fibres with similar chemical composition or origin).

(ii) Give the percentage, by weight, of each kind of fibre in the product. Exclusive of Ornamentation or a similar phrase, is used to designate fibre ornamentation contained in a textile product where that ornamentation represents less than 5 percent of the total fibre weight. Ornamentation means any fibres or yarns imparting a visibly discernible pattern or design to a yarn or fabric.

(iii) Tell who the manufacturer is-by name or registered number-shown as RN. (The Federal Trade Commission has compiled a list of manufacturers and their RN numbers. For specific information call or write to them. See the end of this publication.)

(iv) Tell where the item was processed and manufactured. 

Fibre content labels do not have to be permanently attached to garments or household textiles. They do not have to tell how the fabric is made (whether knitted, woven, tufted, bonded, etc.) or the fabric’s weight. They do not have to tell about performance, finishes, dyes, shrinkage or care recommended for the product.

Marking on clothes is informative data on

(a) The mark name as a trade name. 

(b) The composition of the materials.

(c) The different sizes of clothes.

(d) Textile care symbols as clothes are to be cleaned.

Q. 2. What are the different malpractices prevalent in selling fabrics?

Ans: (a) Giving lesser quantity and/or poor quality of the product: Four metres of fabric bought for a suit often turns out to be 3.80 metres when you measure it. The retailer who does this either uses a short measuring rod or stretches the fabric while measuring it.

(b) Cheating on price: Traders charge more than the price displayed on the item or on the packet containing goods. They name some tax and add it to the price printed on to the lable. They may pick up some word on the label, e.g. ‘silk finish’ and charge extra for it.

(c) Selling defective goods: There are many places where traders sell materials of seconds as fresh and charge the price of fresh products.

(d) Providing false, misleading and incomplete labels and markings: When you buy fabric for curtains, the marking should tell about light fastness. If it does not, then it is incomplete information. Similarly, the terms used should be meaningful and not misleading. The information provided should be correct. The information provided on the label on a garment is often quite vague and incomplete. For example, a label on a ready-to-wear garment does not say anything about washing, drying, ironing, and storing of the item. So it is essential on our part as consumers to be alert and give no chance to the manufacturer or retailer to practice these malpractices and in case of complaint get in touch with concerned people to file our complaint. There is a Consumer Protection Regulation Act (1988) which covers all the above.

Q. 3. Collect 10 markings and write about the label of marking. State why it is good.

Ans: Textile products must be labeled or marked whenever they are put onto the market for production or commercial purposes. A “label” is any label, mark, sign, device, imprint, stamp, brand, or ticket. The stamp, tag, label or other means of identification, or authorised substitute therefore, required to be on or affixed to textile fiber products by the Act or Regulations and on which the information required is to appear. The manufacturer is responsible for proper labelling of textile fiber products when they are ready for sale or delivery to the consumer.

Wool labels: The Wool Products Labelling Act of 1939 requires that a label state whether the wool used in a textile item is new or virgin or recycled (includes fibers recovered from previously manufactured new or used cloth).

1. Woolmark and Woolblend symbols: The Woolmark and Woolblend. Mark are promotional symbols of the Wool Bureau. Woolmark’, the global badge of purity, quality and excellence, The popularity of Woolmark led to the launch of two more brands of quality.

2. WoolLendmark in 1971, which was later re-christened as ‘Woolmark Blend’ to identify wool-rich blend products.

3. ‘Wool Blend’ in 1999 to identify wool blend apparel products containing at least 30 percent but less than 50 percent of new wool. 

Wool labels

The Wool Products Labeling Act, 1939, and its amendments govern wool labeling. “Wool” refers to any new wool never before used in cloth.

“Virgin” is a popular marketing term that means the as “wool “”Lambswool” means the wool is from younger animals, it tends to be soft and pleasing to touch Angora, alpaca, camel, cashmere, llama, mink, and rabbit wools must be present in amounts of 25 percent or more to alter the appearance and performance of wool blend fabrics. The WoolmarkTM symbol can be used only on products made of 100 percent wool. The Woolblend Mark™ symbol can be used on products that contain a minimum of 60 percent pure wool and a balance of either natural or synthetic fibres. Use by manufacturers is voluntary 

4. Fur product labels: The Fur Products Labelling Act, 1951, requires that fur products be labeled honestly. These labels state:

• the species of animal.

• the country of origin.

• inclusion of paws, tails, or reused fur.

• dying, coloring, or bleaching of fur. and

• the name or registration number of the manufacturer.

5. Permanent care labels: The Care Labelling Rule covers textile wearing apparel and certain piece goods. It does not cover home furnishings (eg, sheets and towels), fur, or leather apparel. Care labels explain to both consumers and dry cleaners what kind of care the manufacturer of an item recommends. Manufacturers and importers of home sewing fabrics also must give the care instructions on the end of the bolt or roll of fabric. Care labels may specify hand washing, machine washing, or dry cleaning. If ironing is needed for appearance, instructions must be given, but if hot ironing is safe, temperatures need not be listed. If bleaches are safe to use on a regular basis, their mention is not required. If no bleach is safe, the label must say “no bleach.” If some solvents are not safe for dry cleaning, a recommended one must be listed.

6. Seal of Cotton

The seal of cotton and natural blend

The Seal of Cotton™ (Figure 2) identifies 100 percent cotton products.


Fibres differ in appearance, texture. durability and care required. In a fabric blend of two or more fibres, usually 15 percent of one fibre is needed to make a difference in the fabric texture or performance.

7. Shrinkage labels: Fabrics may shrink or stretch out of shape during use and care, but generally blends that contain synthetic fibres will shrink less than will 100 percent cotton or wool. However, blends with synthetic fibres are heat sensitive and may shrink in the dryer if overheated. Trademarked finishes to reduce fabric shrinkage sometimes are noted on labels. General terms describing shrinkage are:

• 3 percent shrinkage-equivalent to reducing the garment by about one size, altering fit. 

• pre-washed-less likely to shrink when washed; with denim, this usually means a soft, faded look. 

• preshrunk-a meaningless term that is not.helpful. It fails to tell how much more the product will shrink when washed again

8. Other common label terms: Some voluntary label terms are listed here.

• Carded-shorter, thicker cotton fibres providea soft, durable fabric, eg, muslin.

• Combed-longer, straight cotton fibres lie parallel and provide a smooth, lustrous and strong fabric, eg, percale.

• Madras-a soft, cotton plaid fabric, often from India, yarn-dyed with natural vegetable dyes that tend to fade or “bleed” in laundry, giving blended colours; Commonly imitated by other processes.

• Permanent or durable press, wrinkle free, or wrinkle resistant-a chemical treatment for cotton fabrics that increases wrinkle resistance. 

• Pima-cotton plant variety that gives high quality long, lustrous and smooth fibres. 

• Pure-indicates only one fibre type is used in the fabric. “Pure cotton” is 100 percent cotton and not a blend.

• Ramie-a cellulosic fibre grown in Asia that has characteristics similar to linen.

• Raw silk-a rather stiff, crisp textured fabric that has not been degummed (boiled) to remove the natural gum from the silkworm.

• Textured yarn-a synthetic fibre yarn that has increased bulk, warmth and elasticity because it has been heat set with crimp.

9. Care Labels: A care label is a permanent label or tag that contains regular care information and instructions. If a garment can be either washed or dry cleaned, only one of the cleaning methods has to be mentioned on the care label. Care information also must appear on the end of each bolt or roll of certain piece goods-fabrics sold at retail on a piece-by-piece basis from bolts, pieces or rolls for use in home sewing. Instructions must be given in the following order: Washing/dry cleaning, bleaching, drying and ironing.

The label must specify whether the product should be washed by hand or by machine and an appropriate water tempera-ture, if regular use of hot water would harm the product.

For example: Machine wash, warm. Hand wash, cold. 

Meaning: Use washing machine and warm (not hot) water. Wash by hand (not by machine) in cold (not hot or warm) water. 

No special instructions are required if all commercially available bleaches may be used safely on a regular basis. If regular use of chlorine bleach would harm the product, but regular use of non-chlorine bleach would not, the label must say: “Only non-chlorine bleach when needed.” If all commercially available bleaches used regularly would harm the product, the label must say; “No bleach” or “Do not bleach.”

For example: Machine wash, warm. Only non chlorine bleach when needed.

Meaning: Non-chlorine bleach can safely be used, but regular use of chlorine bleach would harm the product.

The label must say whether the product should be dried by machine or by some other method. If regular use of high temperature will harm the product, an appropriate temperature setting is Drying Instruction required.

For example: Machine wash, warm. Tumble dry, medium.

Meaning: Medium or low dryer temperature settings can safely be used, but not hot.

Ironing information must be given if ironing will be needed on a regular basis. If regular use of a hot iron will not harm the product, no temperature setting need be mentioned.

For example: Machine wash, warm. Tumble dry, medium. 

Meaning: Medium or low dryer temperature settings can safely be used, but not hot.

If the consumer might reasonably think a washing procedure could be used when that procedure actually would harm the product, the label must contain a warning such as “Do not,” “No,” “Only,” or another clear wording to warn against the harmful procedure. For example, if a garment cannot safely be ironed, but the consumer might be expected to occasionally “touch up” the item, the label must state “Do not iron.” If a garment might cause harm to another item being washed with it, a warning must be given.

For example, if an item is not colorfast, the label must say, “Wash with like colours” or “Wash separately.” Warnings are not required for alternate procedures that may be harmful. For example, if the instructions state “Dry flat,” it is not necessary to state “Do not tumble dry.” If washing would be harmful, it is not necessary to state “Do not wash” when the instructions state “Dry clean.”

If all commercially available dry Dry cleaning section cleaning solvents can be used, the label does not have to specifically mention any particular type of solvent. If one or more solvents would harm the product, a solvent that is safe to use must be mentioned.

“Professionally dry clean” implies a special instruction or limitation for safely dry cleaning the product. The special instructions must be given with the care instructions. Because special handling is required, “Professionally Dry Clean” also means that the garment may not be cleaned in self-service dry cleaning machines.

For example: Professionally dry clean. Fluorocarbon or petroleum. 

Meaning: Item can be dry cleaned by any commercial establishment using fluorocarbon or petroleum. (Perchlorethylene solvent should not be used.)

Any part of the dry cleaning process that will harm the product must have a warning on the label. “Do not,” “No,” “Only,” or other clear wording must be used.

For example: Professionally dry clean. Reduced moisture.

Meaning: Moisture addition to solvent should be reduced to decrease solvent’s relative humidity. (Do not use moisture addition to solvent up to 75 percent relative humidity.) Professional dry clean. Cabinet dry warm. No. steam. Cabinet dry at a temperature up to 120 degrees F. (Do not tumble dry.) No steam should be used in pressing, finishing, steam cabinets or wands.

10. Some trade marks

Velcro a registered trademark of Velcro Industries VELCRO TEXACRO brand name.

Silk Mark Lables: Following labeling method is used for Silk mark Label.

(i) A paper hang tag on which a high security hologram is affixed. The hologram contains an unique serial number which can be identified for its Authorised User and period of use.

(ii) Sew in label.

Lycra (R): The DuPont trademark for its spandex fiber. Any time you see this fiber listed on a label, expect comfort, movement and shape retention that won’t wash away.

Coolmax (R): The DuPont trademark for A specific process at the fiber-making stage helps wick away moisture from the body, keeping it cool and comfortable.

Q. 4. What properties will you keep in mind while selecting fabric for curtains?

Ans: Velvet, silk, brocade and satin, alone or mixed, make a perfect style statement on the bed, sofas and accessories. Don’t judge a fabric by its look alone, you need to check the weight, weave, and dyeing process, and how the fabric should be cleaned.

If you expect to have your window curtains for a long time, choosing a strong fabric is Some fabrics, such as silk, will fade or deteriorate easily due to sun damage. These types of materials require lining or a special finish for protection.

How the fabric should hang depends on the type of window treatment you want. Voile is often used for scarf swags because it is lightweight and hangs beautifully, but this sheer material may not have enough body for a pleated window treatment. Thickly woven fabrics, such as tapestry may be best suited to straight, not tieback, panels. In any case any fabric you choose should drape gracefully into tight or loose folds. A special finish adds to the durability of a fabric. It can provide resistance to sun damage, mildew, and stains. Some finishes give the fabric more body for better draping.

Q. 5. You have to buy a ready-made suit for yourself. How will you make a good purchase?

Ans: Colour: A slim figure can look big with the use of light colour, as light colour reflects all the light. Whereas heavy Egure can look small with the use of dark colour, as dark colour absorbs all the light.

Harmony in colour: An attractive and pleasing colour combination is that which is harmonious. The choice of colour should be with harmony of season, occasion, figure etc. Dark colours should be used in small areas as they are heavy colours.

Line: Straight lines seem to be stiff and stern. Vertical lines give a feeling of dignity and sophistication while horizontal lines are calm and gentle. Curve lines produce the same effects as straight lines of similar length and placement, but more subtly.

Light: Shiny fabrics reflect a great deal of light and make design to appear larger, while dull on surface will tend to minimise size. Heavy person looks nice in dull silk fabric rather than shiny satin. The dress would look very dressy and more flattering on them. Some fabrics both reflect and absorb light and also cast shadow. As long as the fabric is not a bulky one, it will not have a noticeable affect the apparent size of the figure.

Shape: When lines meet, shapes are formed. Shapes may be defined as the outlines of objects. Widely spaced, sharply contrast designs call attention to any figure size. Circular motifs give suggestion of roundness and flatter effect to a thin person. Lengthening effect can be made by using a border print, in the central panel running up and down within the dress. It will be more successful if border is narrow.

A small print on a large figure, or a large print on a small one, creates a contrast to be pleasing. These results can be modified, however, by choosing subdued and subtle print tones instead of ones that contrast.

Harmony in shape: To create harmony in shape all the objects used to decorate the dress should be according to the shape of the dress. A design can be made to look harmonious through the use of lines, colours and form repeatedly.

Texture: Texture refers to the surface quality of a fabric such as smooth, rough, shiny, or dull. Heavy fabrics increase the size of the wearer and conceal the actual outline of the figure. Pile and fuzzy texture tend to add bulkiness if they are of heavy weight and are used in large quantity

Transparent fabrics neither increase nor decrease the apparent size of the figure, but they reveal the true shape so definitely that a thin person may look thinner and a stout person may look stouter in them. Designed fabrics may be beautiful or unattractive, depending upon how good the designs are.

Harmony in texture: Fine and coarse texture cannot go with each other but by using medium texture with either of them, the harmony in texture can be brought.

Pattern: Pattern can be described as a repeating unit of shape or form. Like stripes print also can be used to create desirable effects. Prints usually make the figure look larger than a plain fabric in the same colour.

Usually designs of medium size with close colour contrast will prove the most flattering to any figure type. Light and bright colours, sharp contrasts and large motifs will tend to increase the apparent size of the wearer; while darker, blurred all over pattern will act to decrease size.

Motifs arranged to give vertical movement to the design seem to add height. When design is made up of colours that are close to value and motifs are closely spaced, the print will be flattering to a short figure. Border prints used at the hem line will have tendency to attract eye, particularly if border is bright and wide.

Similar types of patterning can be seen in many designed objects. Even complex works of art exhibit an underlying structure or pattern grid, although the mode of patterning may vary over the surface of a complex composition. Contrast in line, shape, value, colour or texture attracts the eye to the point of differences. A grouping of lines and shapes so that they become more significant than the others produces a focal point.

Proportion means the relation of all the parts of a design to each other and of these parts to the whole composition. When an interesting but pleasing relationship exists between the amounts or sizes, the design will be said to have good proportion. Repetition throughout a dress brings all the pieces together.

Q. 6. You have a college-going sister. What fabrics and dresses are most appropriate for her and why?

Ans: College-going student called Teenagers. Teenagers are very conscious about clothes and want to wear the ‘latest’ styles. They like to have variety in their clothes because they do not want to repeat the same dress everyday. For them, fit and style are important qualities of clothes and construction is not often considered. It is advisable to select clothes which they can mix and match so that they can achieve variety with few clothes e.g. few colours of churidars or salwars can be combined with few ‘Kameez’ which can go with all legwears. Similarly if a teenaged boy gets a couple of pair of jeans and a few T-shirts, he can combine them to achieve variety in his wardrobe.

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