NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 27 Care and Maintenance of Textiles, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Care and Maintenance of Textiles

Chapter: 27




Q. 1. Write short notes on:

(i) Sorting.

Ans: Sorting:

1. Delicate fabrics which require a gentle cycle will need to be separated from heavier items.

2. Separate whites from colours, and pastels from dark colours.

3. Since soil can travel from one garment to another in the laundry, it is also advisable to wash heavily soiled garments separately.

4. Check pockets and remove tissues before washing. Wash heavy lint shedders, especially blankets, chenille bedspreads or rugs and woollens separately and clean out the lint filter in your washing machine regularly.

(ii) Washing and Rinsing.

Ans: Washing: The clothes are washed using appropriate detergent or soap and also the right method of washing. Process of washing helps in releasing the dirt from the fabric.

Rinsing: The soaps or detergents or chemicals used must be removed from the fabric. So clothes are rinsed two-three time using fresh water every time. In fact rinsing should continue till soap or detergent is removed.

(iii) Ironing and Pressing.

Ans: Ironing and Pressing: Wrinkling or creasing of clothes and other fabric items is caused by heat and/or pressure. If you can remove these two causes as quickly as possible during the laundry process. Most ironing is done on an ironing board, a small, portable, foldable table with a heat resistant top, irons should he clean and smooth. Clothes such as shirts, trousers, and skirts are typically ironed; underwear, socks, sheets, sweaters, and materials where wrinkling is not a factor are not, although this depends on the culture and circumstances. If regular use of a hot iron will not harm a product, it is not necessary to indicate a temperature setting. Ironing information must be given on a care label if ironing will be needed on a regular basis. If a garment will be harmed by ironing, even if ironing is not regularly needed, the label should state “Do not iron” if a consumer could reasonably be expected to iron the product.


Q. 1. State whether the following statements are true or false and write the correct response for false statement.

(i) Soaps and syndets are detergents.

Ans: True.

(ii) Raw material for all cleansers are available in nature.

Ans: False, syndets are obtained chemically.

(ii) Syndets have deeper penetrating action than soaps. 

Ans: True.

(iv) Use of syndets makes the fabric appear grey and dull.

Ans: False, syndets do not leave any deposits on the fabric. Thus, they do not appear dull and grey.


Q. 1. State whether the following are true or false and write the correct response for the false statement.

(a) The fabric should not be rinsed with water after bleaching and the bleach should be allowed to remain in it.

Ans: False-Bleach should never be allowed to remain in the fabric, it can cause serious damage.

(b) Bleaches whiten or lighten the fabric by chemical action. 

Ans: True.

(c) Sunlight and moisture have bleaching effect on the fabric.

Ans: True.

(d) Hydrogen peroxide can be safely applied on animal fibres.

Ans: True.

Q. 2. Give one word for the following statements:

(a) A chemical compound which is capable of removing colouring matter from fabric making them whiter and brighter.

Ans: bleach.

(b) The oldest and cheapest method of stain removal.

Ans: cotton.

(c) A bleaching agent which is used to remove brown stains from the fabric.

Ans: oxalic acid.

(d) A bleaching agent which can be safely applied on animal as well as vegetable fibre.

Ans: Hydrogen peroxide.

(e) Pure white wool and silk turn yellow in colour in due course of time due to application of this bleach.

Ans: Reducing bleach.


Q. 1. For removing each of the following stains, choose the most appropriate method out of the four given:

(i) Old tea stain on a white cotton fabric

(a) use salt water.

(b) soak in glycerine.

(c) soak in lime juice. 

(d) pour boiling water.

Ans: (b) soak in glycerine.

(ii) Old blood stain on a coloured cotton fabric

(a) ase salt water.

(b) soak in glycerine.

(c) soak in hot water.

(d) wash with hot water and soap.

Ans: (a) ase salt water.

(iii) Lipstick stain

(a) use salt water.

(b) soak in glycerine.

(c) soak in methylated spirit.

(d) wash with hot water and soap.

Ans: (c) soak in methylated spirit.

(iv) Rust stain

(a) use salt water.

(b) use lime juice and salt.

(c) soak in methylated spirit.

(d) wash with soap and cold water.

Ans: (b) use lime juice and salt.

(v) Fresh butter stain on silk 

(a) wash with cold water.

(b) wash with cold water and soap.

(c) apply salt and leave in the sun.

(d) wash with warm water and soap.

Ans: (d) wash with warm water and soap. 

(vi) Nail polish stain on a polyester fabric

(a) soak in methylated spirit.

(b) soak in warm water.

(c) soak in cold water.

(d) soak in warm water and soap.

Ans: (a) soak in methylated spirit.

(vii) Fresh ink stain on a woollen fabric

(a) wash with cold water and soap.

(b) wash with boiling water and soap.

(c) use salt and lime juice.

(d) soak in methylated spirit.

Ans: (a) wash with cold water and soap.


Q. 1. Fill in the blanks using the most appropriate words from those given in brackets:

(i) Clothes must be ___________ before washing. (dried, mended, ironed, starched)

Ans: mended

(ii) ___________ articles should not be soaked before washing. (coloured, white, dirty, small) 

Ans: coloured.

(iii) Soaking of clothes helps to ___________ dirt. (increase, decrease, loosen, prevent)

Ans: loosen.

(iv) Starching is done to give cotton clothes a ___________ look. (dull, shining, rough, yellow) 

Ans: shining.

(v) ___________ should not be starched. (table linen, sarees, kameez, undergarments)

Ans: undergarments.

(vi) Coloured cotton articles should be dried in the ___________. (sun, shade, daylight, night)

Ans: shade

(vii) Overexposure to sunlight makes fabric ___________. (bright, dull, blue, yellow)

Ans: yellow.

(viii) Ironing should not be done directly on the ___________. (collars, cuffs, sleeves, buttons)

Ans: buttons.

(ix) When cotton articles are stored wet, they develop ___________. (dullness, brightness, mildew, smoothness) 

Ans: mildew.

Q. 2. What do you understand by the following symbols?

Ans: (i) Do not use bleach.

(ii) Do not wash.

(iii) Drip dry.

(iv) Hand wash (Do not machine wash).


Q. 1. What does the word “laundering” mean?

Ans: Laundering of clothes mean:

(i) the process of removing dirt. and

(ii) the process of finishing them to regain the appearance of neatness as a new fabric. 

Q. 2. Why is it important to launder clothes?

Ans: Whether you are laundering or dry-cleaning, giving proper care to fabrics has its benefits:

(i) Maintain a fresh appearance longer.

(ii) Minimise colour fading.

(iii) Reduces damage to fabric when laundering or dry-cleaning. 

(iv) Extend the life of fabrics, making your money go further.

Q. 3. List the two main methods of laundering and their suitability to fabrics.

Ans: Washing: Broadly speaking there are two ways of washing clothes – by hand or with machines.

Hand Washing: Hand washing was once thought to be the least abrasive method of laundering, and allowed the user to pay special attention to those areas that required it. 

• Application of friction.

• Application of light pressure. 

• Application of suction.

Washing machines vary. You will have to specify water temperature or wash cycle on some of them. Check your garment care labels for specific information.

Washing by Kneading and Squeezing

Some articles of clothing require hand washing. The most basic method of washing is:

• Fill luke-warm water in a bucket and add about 1/4 cup detergent.

• Leave enough space for soaking of clothes. 

• Put your clothing in the water and get it thoroughly wet and soapy. If it’s stained, you may want to let it soak for a while.

• Knead the clothing with your hands in the water for a few minutes. Knead and squeeze the soiled fabric in the warm soapy water without lifting out of the water.

• Drain soapy water and start the water running. Rinse your clothing until the water runs clear, not soapy.

• Wring out and hang to dry.

This method of washing is very suitable for delicate fabrics to which hand friction cannot be applied as in wool, silk, rayon and coloured fabrics.

Q. 4. What is a stain? How would you identify a stain?

Ans: A stain is a discoloured area that may be on clothes. It may be caused by unwanted oil, dirt, food, or dye etc.

Before treating the stain or taking it to the cleaners, identify the stain or its location and colour. Some spills may dry invisible, but will show up later. It’s crucial to identify the stain correctly and use the proper stain-removing agent or technique. Old oil stains may smell rancid, but appear dry. Food stains are often on the front of garments; perspiration stains around collars and underarms; black grease is often on pants or skirts at car door latch levels. Stain colour may be misleading. Rust-coloured stains may be tea, coffee, lemonade (caramelised sugar), cosmetics containing benzoyl peroxide (which can bleach many colours to look rusty), felt marker, or many other things. If a heavy waxy or gummy residue is present, the stain may respond best to spot treatment with a dry-cleaning fluid.

Q. 5. What are the general precautions to be taken for removing stains?

Ans: Stain removal techniques come in two basic types. You can use a stain remover that interacts with the stain chemically, or you can physically loosen or remove it from the surface. Treat all stains within 24 hours. Older stains are more difficult to remove. Blot up any excess liquid with a clean white cloth or paper towel. Remove excess solids by gentle scraping or chipping with a dull knife or metal spatula. Never rub a fresh stain with bar soap. Soap sets many stains. Do not iron or press stained fabrics until the stain is completely removed. Heat sets most stains. Avoid using hot water on stains of unknown origin. Hot water can set protein stains like milk, egg, or blood.

Q. 6. How will you remove the following stains from a silk fabric?

(i) Coffee.

(ii) Nail Polish.

(iii) Blue ink.

(iv) Grass.

(v) Pann (Beetal leaf).

Ans: Successful stain removal depends on the fibre content of the garment, whether it is washable or dry cleanable only, the type of stain it is and how long it has been there

Coffee and Tea: It is Tannin water-based stain; these should be attended to while wet and fresh pour hot water on the stain. For old stains pour hydrogen peroxide solution and gently rub to remove the stain.

Grass and other Garden Foliage: It is dye stain. For fresh stain wash with luke warm water with detergent and bleach. For old stain dip the stain portion in methylated spirit. Soak in a solution of sodium percarbonate or sponge with methylated spirits. Remove this with warm water and where possible wash the article using laundry powder or liquid.

Ink: It is combination stain. Combination stains contain a variety of ingredients, but all usually have an oily/waxy component and a dye/ pigment component. Remove the oily/waxy portion of the stain.

1. Wash out as much as possible or soak the stain in lime juice, curds or sour milk overnight. Then wash out.

2. Spread salts of lemon over the stain. Pour boiling water through. Wash and boil.

3. Bleach in hot solution of potassium permanganate and use oxalic acid solution to remove the brown stain.

Nail polish: For fresh stain scrape out all excess stain. Rub gently with spirit or kerosene. For old stain repeat the above method two or three times.

Betel leaf: For fresh stain apply a paste of onions and leave in sunlight. For old stain repeat the method a couple of times or more.

Q. 7. List the three basic steps to be followed for laundering any kind of fabric.

Ans: The three basic steps are as follow:

1. Preparation: Just like everything else in life, laundry works best with a little preparation. Here then, are a few helpful tips to remember as you toss your dirty clothes into the washing basket…

– Empty your pockets.

– Turn down cuffs on your shirts.

– Turn your jeans inside out if you don’t want them to fade as quickly. 

– Close all zips, poppers and hooks, and tie strings together.

2. Sorting: When sorting laundry there are some basic steps which should always be followed: 

– Read and follow care labels.

– Separate dark colours from light colours and from whites.

– Sort delicate fabrics from heavier ones.

– Sort by temperature to ensure best results for individual garments and never exceed the temperature on the fabric care label.

– Wash very dirty clothes separately (as dirt pass on to the less soiled clothes in the càn washing machine).

– Sort by agitation to maintain the appearance of the garment.

3. Steeping: Clothes need to be soaked in water and soap solution before washing. This way loose and soluble dirt is removed.

Q. 8. How will you wash a cotton garment? What precautions will you take and why?

Ans: 1. Boiling: If white cotton or linen clothes are very much soiled or if it seems desirable to sterilise them, they may be boiled. After first washing in hot water, therefore, wring the clothes, rub the soiled spots carefully with white soap, and place in a boiler containing cold water. Put a few soap chips or a little soap jelly into each boiler full of clothes, and heat the water gradually. Use a clothes-stick to keep the clothes stirred and pressed down. After the water has begun to boil, allow the clothes to remain in it about five minutes Boiling for a longer time tends to turn fabrics yellow.

2. Riasing: After taking clothes from soapy water, very careful rinsing is essential.

3. Bluing: Since the bluing process is resorted to for the purpose of covering up yellowness, it is not necessary for new clothes. But bluing white clothes that are no longer new is an important item of good laundering. If clothes become overblued, they may be whitened by placing them in cold water and heating them to the boiling point, repeating the process if necessary until all excess bluing is removed.

4. Starching: Starching clothes means dipping them in a stiffening agent to give them body and a dressing similar to that in new material, and also to aid in keeping them clean. 

In the process of stiffening, the following precautions should be noted:

(i) The hotter the starch is, the lesser danger of its sticking.

(ii) Turn the garments wrong side out before dipping them into the solution and hang them on the line in this way. 

(iii) Wring out as dry as possible from the rinse or bluing water. All garments that are desired to be very stiff, and be sure that these are the first things to be dipped into the starch. 

Put white clothes into the starch while it is very hot.

Q. 9. Point out the differences in washing the following: 

(i) Silk and wool.

Ans: Silk and wool: It is preferable to dry-clean silk articles. In the case of washing in water, before emerging the article entirely, it is opportune to verify the solidity of the colours only wetting a corner. The articles should be washed in warm water and neutral soap; they should not be rubbed and wrung. They should be rinsed in warm water and hung to dry in a ventilated place and far from heat sources. Finally they should be ironed with a warm iron. Crepe-de-Chine is a silk cloth that shrinks with washing, but returns to its original form after ironing.

Laundry of wool: The main difficulty encountered in washing wool is shrinkage. Wool fibres have rough surfaces, but they are rougher in one direction than in another. In washing, when the wool is moved about in water or soap solution, the fibres tend to ride over each other. Each time the wool is squeezed, the fibres rub past each other, but when the pressure is released, some of the fibres will be unable to return to their original position, due to the roughness of the surface As the washing proceeds, there will be more entanglement of the fibres and the fabric will become smaller, thicker and harder. Hence the most important thing to prevent this felting is:

1 To avoid movement not only when the wool is in water, but also during drying when the wool is damp.

2. Avoid high temperature and too much soda, as these affect wool and cause felting to a certain extent.

3. Too much alkali in soap makes wool harsh and yellow after it has dried. Many of the dyes used on wool are very sensitive to alkalis and the colours may bleed. Hence use pure soap or pure soap-flakes for white or light-coloured woollens. For coloured woollens use reeta-nut solution or a sulphonated fatty alcohols to rinse soap from wool.

4. For white woollens, never use any domestic bleach liquor sold in bottles. If some sort of bleaching treatment is necessary, a very weak solution of hydrogen peroxide made faintly alkaline with ammonia or borax may be used. Add a trace of blue to the final rinsing water.

5. It is well to wash before it has got very dirty. If it becomes very dirty, it may be impossible to wash it completely clean without doing some damage to the wool.

(ii) Wool and cashmilon.

Ans: Washing and cashmilon: Wool is obtained from the coat sheep and certain other mammals, such as the goat and alpaca. Cashmilon wool is obtained from a goat native to the Himalayan regions of India and Tibet and prized for its wool.

Washing method: Fine woollens and knit- wear are liable to stretch out of shape. It is best for all beginners to mark the outline on a sheet of plain paper before wetting it. The garment after being washed can be placed on this outline and dried flat on the paper over a charpoy or a table. In this way the shape of the garment will be retained.

(iii) White and coloured cottons. 

Ans: White and coloured cottons: White cotton articles should be washed in the washing machine at 60°C, while coloured clothes, especially if dark, should be washed at lower temperatures. Normally it should be ironed on the right side. Dark articles should be first ironed on the inside and then on the outside, with a cloth, to avoid that the heat of the iron shine the cloth. White articles can be starched to give more consistency to the cloth and avoid it creasing easily. The starch for coloured clothes should be no warmer than lukewarm, as hot starch may affect the colour.

Q. 10. Answer the following questions:

(i) Why should very dirty cotton fabrics be soaked?

Ans: Soaking loosens the dirt, makes rubbing less necessary, and therefore saves both time and wear.

(ii) Why is light pressure used for washing silk?

Ans: Silk is made of animal fibres, which are dangerously affected by heat and rubbing. 

(iii) Why is vinegar added in the final rinse for silks?

Ans: To give luster to the fabric.

(iv) Why should woollens be dried on a flat surface?

Ans: So they will not go out of shape.

(v) Why should you not use a hot iron for ironing nylon?

Ans: The fabric will melt due to heat.

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