Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion and select needs one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion
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Social Inequality & Exclusion
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is backwards class?
Ans: A backward class is socially and educationally backward. A backwards class is neither part of forward castes at the upper end of castes hierarchy nor of the Dalits at the lowest end. But they share some traditional occupation identification and similar worse socio – economics status.
Q.2. What is a totem?
Ans: Totem is a natural object or animals believed by a particular society to have spiritual meaning and adopted by it as an emblem.
Q.3. When was the ‘untouchability offence Act ‘ passed?
Ans: In 1955,the untouchability offence Act was passed.
Q.4. What are deprived groups?
Ans: The Dalits, Adivasis, various tribal groups, the groups designated as schedule castes and those groups who belongs to Other Backward Class are deprived groups.
Q.5. Mention few crimes committed against women?
Ans: Sexual harassment, dowry murders, rape, rape in police custody, witch-hunting etc.
Q.6. Name a few laws passed for women before independence?
Ans: Name few law passed for women before independence are:-
(a) Abolition of Sati Act,
(b) Child Marriage Prevention Act.
(c) Widow Remarriage Act.etc.
Q.7. What do you mean by disability?
Ans: In India the common perception views disability as a retribution for past karma (actions) from which there can be no reprieve. The popular images in mythology portray the disabled in an extremely negative fashion. In India all deviations from the ‘perfect body’ signify abnormality defect and distortion. Destiny is seen as the culprit and disabled people are the victims. Thus, in India the disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but society renders them so.
Q.8. Why did child marriage and Pardah system start?
Ans: Mainly due to lack of education and wrong interpretation of religious texts evils like child marriage and pardah system started.
Q.9. What is the reform movement?
Ans: A movement which starts with the aim to reform a society is a reform movement. A reform movement normally targets the evils of a society.
Q.10. What do you mean by social disability?
Ans: The social construction of disability is known as social disability. Social disability implies the close relationship between disability, and poverty, malnutrition etc.
Q.11. What is social about social inequality?
Ans: Social inequality and exclusion are social because they are not about individuals but about groups. Moreover, they are social because they are not economic, though there is a close link between social and economic inequality.
Q.12. What are prejudices?
Ans:Prejudices refer to preconceived opinions or attitude held by members of one group towards another. The word literally means ‘prejudgement ‘I.e .an opinion formed in advance of any familiarity with the subject, before considering any available evidence. Prejudices may be either positive or negative, but common usage is for negative or derogatory preconceptions.
Q.13. What is untouchability?
Ans: ‘Untouchability’ is an extreme and particularly vicious aspect of the caste system – whereby members of the lowest castes are considered to be ritually impure to such an extent that they cause pollution by mere touch. In some regions of India, the notion of ‘distance pollution ‘ also existed where the mere presence or the shadow of an ‘untouchable’ person is considered polluting. The institution of ‘untouchability refers not just to the avoidance or prohibition of physical contact, but to a much broader set of social sanctions.
Q.14. What does the term “Dalit” literally mean in Indian language.
Ans: The term ‘Dalit’ literally means’downtrodden and conveys the sense of an oppressed people.
15. The term “Dalit ” was coined by Dr. Ambedkar (true/false)
Q.16. Who is Anita Ghai?
Ans: Anita Ghai is one of the leading activists and scholars of disability in the Indian context. She argues that the invisibility of the disabled can be compared to the ‘invisible Man’ of Ralph Ellison.
Short type question and answer
Q.1. Give four problems of tribal people.
Ans: The problems of tribal people are as under:
(2)Loss of forest is a major blow for the tribal people.
(3) Heavy migration of non-tribals to tribal areas.
(4)Displacement due to construction of big dams, factories etc.
Q.2. How could Harijans be motivated to get education?
Ans: Harijans could be motivated to get education by giving incentives like – scholarships, free study material, free hostel facility etc. Moreover, reservation of seats for the Harijans in educational institutions along with the provision of reservation of service for them can go a long way in motivating them to get education.
Q.3. What was the impact of western education on Indian women?
Ans: As an impact of western education, reform movements were started in India. Raja Rammohan Roy started the campaign against sati while Ranade led the widow re-marriage movements in Bombay. As a direct impact of western education, women education started in India.
Q.4. Which social reformers in modern age contributed towards the welfare of women?
Ans: Raja Rammohan Roy, M. G.Ranade, Jyotiba Phule, Sir syed Ahmed Khan etc.
Q.5. What is the relation between poverty and disability?
Ans: There is a close relationship between disability and poverty. Malnutrition, inadequate immunisation programmes, accidents in over crowded homes, all contribute to an incidence of disability among poor people at a much higher rate than people living in easier circumstances. Moreover disability creates poverty by increasing isolation and economic strain.
Q.6. How can tribal people be encouraged to get education?
Ans: By providing scholarships can encourage the tribal people to get education. Moreover, reservation of seats at educational institutions for tribal people can prove to be effective in this direction. Setting up educational institutions at the localities of the tribal people is also necessary. By following reservation policy I.e. reserving governmental jobs for educated tribal youth, we can encourage them to get educated.
Q.7. Which are the problems faced by tribal people.
Ans: On the political and economic front, tribal societies were faced with the incursion of money lenders. They were losing their land to non-tribal immigrant settlers. Governmental policy of reservation of forests and the introduction of mining operations restricted their access to forest.
National development during the Nehriian era disposed of their land. During this period, many big dams, factories and mine were set up. As the tribal areas were located in mineral rich and forest covered parts of the country for building dams and for exploitation of minerals, the tribes were evicted. Thus, this kind of development benefitted the mainstream at the expense of the tribes.
The loss of forest was a major blow for the tribal. Forest started to be systematically exploited in British times and this trend continues after independence. The government decision making land a private property also adversely affected tribal people.
Many tribal regions have also experienced the problems of heavy migration of non-tribals. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm tribal communities and cultures, besides accelerating the process of exploitation of trials. As for example, a state like Tripura had the tribal share of its population halted within a single decade, reducing the tribals to a minority.
Q.8. Which steps are being taken by the state govt.for welfare of tribal people?
Ans: For the welfare of the tribal people, particularly after independence, the Indian government has taken various steps which have already changed the social economic and political status of the tribal people. The constitution provided for the reservation policy to uplift the tribes. Under reservation policy not only governmental jobs but also seats in educational institutions were also reserved. Moreover giving opportunity to the tribal people, relaxation was provided in terms of cut off marks and upper age limit. They have also been provided with attractive scholarships. Moreover,the government through the 73rd constitutional Amendment Act reserved a position and seat at Panchayati Raj Institutions.
Q.9. Which are different names given to the untouchable castes?
Ans: Untouchables are known by various names. Gandhi called them ‘Harijan’ (children of God). The ex-untouchable communities and their leaders have coined the term ‘Dalit’ which has now become the generally accepted term for referring to the untouchables. This word received wide currency during the caste riots In Mumbai in the early 1970’s.
Q.10. What was the impact of the reform movement on the status of women?
Ans: The nineteenth century social reform movements had tremendously changed the status of Indian women. During that period evils like sati, child marriage, polygamy, etc. Were practiced and women’s right to education was also denied. In India, women’s movements started with the campaign against sati. After Raja Rammohan Roy’s campaign against sati, other issues like child marriage, widow remarriage, right to education of women were taken up by social reformes like Remade, Phule, sir Sayed Ahmed Khan etc. As a result of these movements legislation were made to eliminate these evil practices. Simultaneously, women’s education also started. Phule established the first educational institution exclusively for women. Thus, social status of women changed as a result of these movements.
Q.11. What are the reasons for improvement in the status of women?
Ans: The nineteenth century social reform movements had tremendously changed the status of Indian women. During the period evils like sati, child marriage, polygamy, etc.were practiced and women’s right to education was also denied. In India, women’s movements started with the campaign against sati. After Raja Rammohan Ray’s campaign against sati, other issues like child marriage. Widow remarriage, right to education of women were taken up by social reformers life Remade, phule, sir syed Ahmed Khan etc. As a result of these movements legislation were made to eliminate these evil practices. Simultaneously, women education also stansted. Phule established the first educational institution exclusively for women. Thus, social status of women changed as a result of these movements.
In the early twentieth century, a large number of women’s organisations arose both at all India and local levels. Then began the participation of women in the national movements itself. The declaration of the Karachi session of the Congress was fully committed to women’s equality.
As a result of these developments, the status of women changed prior to independence. But after independence, women issues re-emerged in the 1970s. Now issues like rape, dowry death, representation of women etc. We came up. Mainly legislation was enacted to address these issues. Thus, as a result of these developments status of women improved.
Q.12. What were the reasons for the lower status of women in Indian society?
Ans: In Indian society the age old traditions of Hindu society was the prime reason of lower status of women. Some Hindu religious texts considered women as inferior creature than male. Moreover practices like sati was there to exclusively undermine the status of women. Women were kept inside the house and the practice like ‘purdali ‘ was very common. Thus women’s right to education was also denied. This socio cultural environment was responsible for the lower status of women in India.
Q.13. What type of education should be given to women?
Ans: At present time this question has lost relevance as women are no more considered as inferior than male. Now, so far as education is concerned, difference is made as sexual grounds. However, in the early years of the nineteenth century, when social reform movements started in India, some social reformers like sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Dayananda Saraswati framed a curriculum for women. This curriculum included instructions in religious principle, training in arts of housekeeping and handicrafts and rearing of children etc.
Q.14. Explain something about Sati pratha?
Ans: The sati was an evil of Hindu tradition. According to this system.
Q.15. Explain some of the social disabilities of scheduled castes.
Ans: Historically the caste system classifieds people by their occupation and status. Moreover Each cast also had a specific place in the hierarchy of social status. The scheduled castes were in the lower ranks of caste status. The traditional occupations like fishing, pottery making, goldsmith, etc, were practiced by their lower castes. Some of the lower castes were prevented from entering temples which were maintained by the higher castes like Brahmin. Moreover, the lower castes were also debarred from sharing water from the same ponds, tanks etc. Earlier they were not permitted to go to traditional educational institutions.
These were some of the social disabilities of scheduled castes.
Q.16. What is social inequality?
Ans: In every society some people have a greater share of valued resources -money, property, education, health and power than others. Patterns of unequal access to these social resources are commonly called social inequality. Social inequality is not the outcome of ‘Natural’ difference between people but is produced by the society in which they live.
Q.17. What is social stratification and what are it’s characteristics?
Ans: Social stratification means hierarchical arrangements of different segments of society into ‘strata’ or subgroups whose members share the same general position in the hierarchy. Following are the characteristics of social stratification :-
(1) Social stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a function of individual difference.
(2) Social stratification persists over generations.
(3) Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief or ideology.
Q.18. What were the reasons behind the advice struggle?
Ans: There are various reasons behind the adivasi struggle. The adivasi, still today are facing land alienation as well as repeated displacement in the name of ‘development projects’ since independence projects Like sardar sarovar dam on the river Narmada and the polavaram dam on the river Godavari displaced hundreds of thousands of adivasis.
This process have become even more powerful since the 1990s.when the economic liberalisation policies were adopted by the Indian government. It is now easier for corporate firms to acquire large areas of land by displacing adivasis. Thus, land alienation as well as displacement problems are the main causes behind the adivasi struggle.
Q.19. State the most significant achievement of the adivasis movement in post independence India.
Ans: The most significant achievement of adivasis movements in post independence India include the attainment of statehood for Jharkhand and chattisgarh, which were originally part of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh respectively.
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