Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements and select need one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Social Movements

Chapter: 10

SOCIOLOGY

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE  QUESTIONS

Q.1. What is a socio-reform movement? 

Ans: A social reform movement is a sustained collective effort that focussed on some aspects of social change and reform. 

Q.2. Why were tribal movements started in India? 

Ans: In India tribal movement started on various issues. One main issue was acquisition land, which were habitat of the tribal people for large size dam or irrigation projects. Cultural issue like safeguarding their own identity and economic issue like inequality were also prominent cause for growth of tribal movements in India. 

Q.3. What is the difference between social welfare and social reform? 

Ans: Social welfare means doing works for the welfare of society. On the other hand social reform means reforming society. 

Q.4. What is a political movement? 

Ans: In political movement, political parties play central role. Generally political movement centres around political issues. 

Q.5. What is a cultural movement? 

Ans: A cultural movement arose centering around cultural issues like protecting identity of a particular group of people. 

Q.6. Who are dalits? 

Ans: Broadly speaking, ‘the untouchables ‘ of the Hindu Caste system are officially known as te Scheduled Castes. The same category of castes is also called Harijan, the children of God a term coined by M. K. Gandhi in 1933. However, the world Harijan has now acquired a synonymous meaning. The members of these castes prefer to be called dalit, the oppressed. 

Q.7. What is meant by resources mobilisation? 

Ans: McCarthy and Zald proposed the resource mobilization theory and argue that the success of a social movement depends on its ability to mobilise resources of different sorts. If a movement can muster resources such as leadership organizational capacity communication facility and can use them, it is more likely to be effective. 

Q.8. What is meant by the reformist social movement? 

Ans: Reformist social movements strine to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual, meremental steps. 

Q.9. What is meant by redemptive social movement? 

Ans: Redemptive social movements aims to bring about change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual members. 

Q.10. What is meant by revolutionary social movements? 

Ans: Revolutionary social movements attempt to radically transform social relations, often by capturing state power. The Bolshevik revolution of Russia and the Naxalite movements of India are examples of revolutionary social movements. However, one must remember that most social movements have a mix of redemptive reformist and revolutionary elements. 

Q.11. Why were ecological movements started? 

Ans: Ecological movements started mainly due to devastating use of natural resources by the government or big companies which created havoc for the local people. As for example big dams displaced people from their homes and sources of livelihood. 

Q.12. Why were peasant movements started before independence? 

Ans: Peasant movements during the colonial period were localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. As for example Bengal revolt of 1859-62 arose against the indigo plantation, Deccan riots against money lenders etc. 

Q.13. Why were workers movement started during colonial India? 

Ans: In the early years of colonialism, labour was very cheap and the colonial government did not regulate either wages or working conditions. At that time food shortage and sharp increase in prices increased the misery of the poor. As a result the workers movement started. 

Q.14. Why were dalit movements started? 

Ans: Dalit movements started in the country as a quest for equality, self-dignity and cradication of untouchability. It was a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings. 

Q.15. Name of two examples of caste based movement? 

Ans: Dharma movement in Punjab and Mahar movement in Maharashtra. 

Q.16. Mention any two features of social movements. 

Ans: The two features of social movements are :-

(i) Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue. 

(ii) Social movements chart out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion. 

Q.17. Give two examples of peasant movement in India. 

Ans: ‘Deccan riots’ of 1857 and Champaran Satyagraha. 

Q.18. What is a trade union?  

Ans: A trade union or organisation of working people linked by common interests in their working lines in production, in the sphere of service etc. 

Q.19. In which year the first trade union was established? 

Ans: The first trade union was established in 1918 in madras by B.P.Wadia .

Q.20. Who was the leader of the social movement for Jharkhand? 

Ans: Birsha Munda 

Q.21. What is dikus?

Ans: The word ‘dikus’ means outsiders Dikus were the people who made the tribal people dependent upon them, thereby causing them a lot of misery and suffering. These outsiders were composed of traders and money lenders. 

Short type question and answer

Q.1. What changes can be brought with the help of socio reform movements? 

Ans: With the help of socio-reform movements various changes can be brought on public issues. Socio-political-economic and environmental issues can be addressed through socio-reform movements. 

Q.2. Write any four characteristics of social movements. 

Ans: The four characteristics of social movements are :-

(i) A social movements requires sustained collective action over time. Incidents which flares up and dies down can’t be called a social movement. 

(ii) Social movements need organisation. Organisation included leadership and a structure that defines how members relate to each other, make decisions and carryout them. 

(iii) Social movements arise with the aim of bringing about changes on public issue. 

(iv) Social movements chart out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media etc. 

Q.3. Why do socio-reform movements were started in India? 

Ans: In the 19th century India, the social reform movements were emerged to the challenges that colonial India society faced. At that time Indian society was plagned by social evils like sati, child marriage, widow remarriage, caste discrimination etc. To remove these social evils, social reform movements were started. 

Q.4. What are the features of revolutionary movements? 

Ans: The features of revolutionary movements are :-

(i) Revolutionary social movements attempt to radically transform social relations. 

(ii) Revolutionary social movements often tries to capture state power. 

(iii) In revolutionary social movements generally violent means are used to bring social reforms. 

Q.5. What are the features of reformist movements? 

Ans: The features of reformist movements are :-

(i) Reformist social movements strive to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradually, incremental steps. 

(ii) Reformist social movements arose as a reaction against social evils as well as injustice that prevails in existing society. 

(iii) Reformist social movements are peaceful. 

Q.6. Distinguish between old and social movements. 

Ans: Firstly, the historical context between Old and New social Movements are quite different. The old social movements were either class based such as working class or parents movements or anti colonial movements. Thus old social movements clearly saw reorganization of power relations as a central goal. On the other hand, new social movements are neither class based nor about reorganization of state power. 

Secondly, the old social movements functioned within the framework of political parties. As for example, the Indian National congress led the Indian National Movement. But new social movements are non-partisan character. New social movements like woman’s group, environmental movements and tribal activists are non-political and non-partisan in characters. 

Moreover, old social movements were national in characters while a large number of new social movements are global in scope. As present problems like environmental and health problem, fears of nuclear warfare are global in nature, social movements have also acquired global character. 

Q.7. Write a few lines on Chipko Movement. 

Ans: The chipko movement is a good example of ecological movements in the Himalayan foothills. In this movement villagers allied together to some the oak and rhododendron forest near their villages. When the govt. forest contractors came to cut down the trees, villagers including large numbers of women hugged the trees to prevent their being felled. Actually the means of the Hindi word – chipko is long. Thus, the villagers saved the forest on which the villagers depends for fire woods, fodder and other daily necessities. 

Thus, the question of cutting trees was actually a question of villagers substance. Hence, chipko movements placed the livelihood needs of poor villagers against the government desire to generate revenues from selling timbers. This movement also raised the issue of ecological sustainability. Cutting down natural forest was a form of environmental destruction which resulted in devastating flood and landslide in the region. Moreover,this chipko movement also expressed the resentment of hills villagers against a distant government headquarter in the plains which is quite indifferent of their concerns. Thus, the chipko movement underlined the economical, ecological as well as political concerns. 

Q.8. What is the difference between social change and social movements?  Give eg. 

Ans: It is important to distinguish between social change in general and social movements. Social change is continuous and ongoing. The broad historical processes of social change are the sum total of countless individual and collective actions gathered across time and space. Social movements are directed towards some specific goals. It involves Long and continuous social effort and action by people. We can view Sanskritization and westernization as social change and see the 19th-century social reformers efforts to change the society as social movements. 

Q.9. Why the study of social movements is important for sociology? 

Ans: The study of social movements is important for sociology. Because one of the factor of social change is social movements. The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution of England etc. social movements  have great contribution in the social change. The French Revolution was the violent culmination of several movements aimed at overthrowing the monarchy and establishing liberty, equality and fraternity. 

In Britain the industrial revolution was marked by great social up heaval. Though the industrial revolution brought various development in European society but due to the revolution various other problems arise among the labourers or workers who engaged in industry and factory. It is the one of the duty of the sociologists to understand these social problems and find the solution of these problems. It is important to note that the subject of sociology itself established to solve these problems. So, there is a close connection between role of sociologists and social change and social development. 

Q.10. Explain the different types of social movements with eg. 

Ans: A social movements has a general orientation way of approaching to bring about change on a public issue. There are different kinds of social movements. 

They can be classified as :- 

(i) Redemptive or transformatory social movement. 

(ii) Reformist social movement, and

(iii) Revolutionary social movement. 

(i) Redemptive or transformatory social movement :- This social movements aims to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual member. For instance, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala were led by Narayana Guru to change their social practices. 

(ii) Reformist social movement :- This type of social movement strive to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual incremental steps. The 1960s movement for the reorganisation of Indian states on the basis of language and the recent Right to Information campaign are examples of reformist movements. 

(iii) Revolutionary social movements : This movement attempt to radically transform social relations, often by capturing state power. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia that deposed the Tsar to create a communist state and the Naxalite movement in India that seeks to remove oppressive landlords and state officials can be described as revolutionary movements.

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