Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Change and the Economy

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Change and the Economy The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Change and the Economy and select need one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Change and the Economy

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Change and the Economy Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Social Change and the Economy

Chapter: 8

SOCIOLOGY

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE  QUESTIONS

Q.1. What is the main occupation of rural people? 

Ans: Apart from agriculture, a large number of artisans such as potters,carpenters,weavers,ironsmith are found in rural areas. 

Q.2. What is agrarian structure?

Ans: The term agrarian structure is often used to refer to the structure or distribution of land holding. 

Q.3. What is required to increase from production? 

Ans: To increase from production utilisation of modern scientific knowledge as well as tools and techniques is almost necessary. 

Q.4. Give two reasons for bringing land reform? 

Ans: Land reform is necessary to redistribute land so that the landless poor can get land. Secondly, land reform is also necessary to increase agricultural production as well as to ensure social justice. Moreover, land reform is necessary to remove the layer of intermediaries between cultivators and the state. 

Q.5. Why did North Indian states get more advantages from the Green revolution? 

Ans: Green revolution programmes were introduced only in areas that have assured irrigation, because sufficient water was necessary for the new seeds and methods of cultivation. As the North Indian state already had a good irrigation system, the benefitted largely from the first wave of green revolution. 

Q.6. What is economic development? 

Ans: Economic development means rise of national income, per capita income, gross domestic product etc. 

Q.7. What is a green revolution. 

Ans: Green revolution was a government programme of agricultural modernization. It was largely funded by international agencies that was based on hybrid seeds along with pesticides, fertilizers etc. Green revolution programmes were introduced only in areas that had assured irrigation. It targeted mainly at the wheat and rice growing areas. 

Q.8. What is an elite group? 

Ans: Elite is a descriptive term which refers to those who had a high position in a society. 

Q.9. What is contract farming? 

Ans: In the ‘contract farming ‘ system, the farmers enter into contracts with multinational companies to grow crops. In this system the company identifies the crop to be grown and provides the seeds and other inputs such as technical know-how and working capital. In return the farmer is assured of a predetermined fixed price. 

Q.10. Mention any two policies on law for land reform introduced after independence. 

Ans: (1) Abolition of zamindari system. 

(2) Tenancy Abolition and Regulations Act. 

(3) Land ceiling Acts. 

Q.11. What is meant by informal sector? 

Ans: Informal sectors are not registered with the government. 

Q.12. What is meant by small scale industry? 

Ans: Government has defined a small scale industry according to the investment of capital made in it. These days, that industry is known as a small scale industry in which capital of up-to RS. 1 crore is invested. This limit was Rs. 5 lakh in 1950.

Q.13. What is a labour union? 

Ans: When all the labourers of any industry, factory come together and from a union or organisation to protect their interest then this union is known as labour union. All the labourers working in the industry are it’s members. 

Q.14. What is meant by outsourcing services? 

Ans: At present time, all over the globe, multinational companies are arranging for work to be done outside the company mainly in smaller companies of the Third World countries where labour is cheap. This trend is known as outsourcing. 

Q.15. What is privatisation not preferred by workers in state owned units? 

Ans: The employees oppose the disinvestment process mainly due to the fear that disinvestment with lead to job cut and they may also lose their jobs. The modern foods was the first company to be privatized where 60% of workers were forced to retire in the first five years. 

Q.16. List any two characteristics of the organised sector? 

Ans: Two characteristics of the organised sector are :-

(1) Organised sector employ ten or more people throughout the year;  and

(2) The units are registered with the government to ensure that the employees get proper salaries,pension and other benefits. 

Q.17. Distinguish between ‘lockout’ and ‘strike’. 

Ans: In lock out the management prevents-worker from coming to the factory, while in strike the workers don’t go to the factory as a protest against harsh working conditions. 

Q.18. What is alienation in context of industrialization? 

Ans: Industrialization, involved detailed division of labour, where workers don’t see the end result of their work and keep producing only a small part of a product. Thus, the nature of work becomes repetitive and exhausting, yet in order to survive, workers keep themselves engaged in such type of works which is not at all enjoyable for them. Marx described this situation as alienation. 

Q.19. What is underemployment?

Ans: Agricultural labourers more often than not paid below the statutory minimum wage and earn very little. Their incomes are low. Their employments is insecure. Most agricultural labourers are daily wage workers. And Don not have work for many days of the year. This is known as underemployment. 

Q.20. What do you understand by bonded labour? 

Ans: Lack of resources and dependence on the landed class for economic, social and political support, mean that many of the working poor were tied to landowners in ‘hereditary ‘ labour relationship (bonded labour), such as the  halpati system in Gujarat and the jeeta system in Karnataka. 

Short type question and answer

Q.1. How did Rick farmers get more advantage from green revolution? 

Ans: It was primarily the medium and large farmers, who were able to benefit from the first wave of green revolution. This was because inputs like tillers tractors, threshers, harvesters etc. We’re expensive and small and marginal farmers couldn’t afford to purchase these inputs. 

Q.2. How does economic development of a country depend upon agriculture? 

Ans: Economic development of any country, particularly those countries, which are industrially backward, largely depends upon agriculture. Economic development means growth of per capita income, growth in gross domestic product etc. Agriculture plays a vital role in economic development of a country. 

Q.3. What is meant by ceiling of land? 

Ans: Ceiling of land means imposition of upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family. According to the ceiling acts, the state is supposed to identify and takes possession of surplus land (above the ceiling limits)  held by each household and redistributed it to landless families of SC and ST categories. 

Q.4. How small scale industries are encouraged by government? 

Ans: The government tried to encourage small scale sector through special incentives and assistance. Many items like paper and wood products, glass and ceramics were reserved for small scale sector. The government also provided huge subsidies to the entrepreneurs. 

Q.5. Explain the condition of industrialization during early years of Indian independence. 

Ans: After independence the govt.  of India followed mixed economics policy where some sectors like transport communication, power mining etc., which are necessary for private industry to flourish were reserved for the government and others were open to the private sector. 

Moreover,before independence, industries were located mainly in the park cities like madras, Bombay, Calcutta etc. But after independence, through licensing policy, the govt. tried to ensure that industries spread over different regions of the country. 

The govt. also tried to encourage small scale sectors through special incentives and assistance. Many items like paper and wood products, glass and ceramics were reserved for the small scale sector. 

Q.6. What are the changes that come in Indian industries due to globalization and liberalization? 

Ans: After globalization private companies, especially foreign firms were encouraged to in next in sectors that were earlier reserved for government. Government withdrawn it’s licensing policy and now no license is required for opening industry. As a result of liberalization many Indian companies have been bought over by multinationals. As for example Indian company parle drinks was brought by coco-cola. Some Indian companies also become multinational companies. 

Q.7. What is the negative impact of industrialization labourers? 

Ans: Industrialization, involved detailed division of labour, where workers don’t see the end result of their work and keep producing only a small part of a product. Thus, the nature of work becomes repetitive and exhausting, yet in order to survive, workers keep themselves engaged in such type of works which is not at all enjoyable for them. Marx described this situation as alienation. 

Q.8. What are dangers and risks faced by mine workers? 

Ans: Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions due flooding the collapse of roofs and sides, emission of gases and ventilation failures etc. On the other hand workers of over ground mines have to work in both hot sun and rain and face injuries due to mine blasting. 

Q.9. From which word the term “Raiyatwari”  originated and what is the Raiyatwari system? 

Ans: The term “Raiyatwari” originated from the Telugu word ‘raiyat ‘ Raiyat means cultivators. In this system, the ‘actual cultivators’ (who were themselves often landlords and not cultivators)  rather than the zamindars were responsible for paying the tax. They were under direct British rule. 

Q.10. Write a short note about the Land Ceiling Act. 

Ans: One of the major category of land reform laws were the Land Ceiling  Acts. These laws imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family. The ceiling varies from region to region depending on the kind land, it’s productivity and other such factors. Very productive lands has low ceilings while unproductive dry land has a higher ceiling limit. 

According to these acts, the state is supposed to identify and takes possession of surplus land (above the ceiling limit)  held by each household, and redistributed to landless families and households in other specified categories such as SCs and STs. 

See Next Page No Below…

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!
Scroll to Top