Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change and select need one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change
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New Areas of Social Change
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is meant by the electronic economy?
Ans: At present time banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse, Mainly due to the communication revolution. This facility is simply known as electronic economy.
Q.2. What are World Trade organizations?
Ans: The World Trade organization, founded on January 1, 1995, works as the custodian of world economy.
Q.3. What is meant by globalised village?
Ans: Globalisation simply means growing interconnectedness and interdependence among the nations of the word. Globalised villages means that this growing interconnectedness and interdependence has transformed the whole word into a globalised village. A simply means the disappearance of differences on the basis of time and space.
Q.4. What is meant by culture of consumption?
Ans: In the globalised word careful with money is no longer a virtue. On the other hand consumerism emerged as a new cultural trend. People now want to consume more and more. Growth of multinational shopping malls, multiplex, amusement parks etc. are symbol of growing consumer culture.
Q.5. What is corporate culture?
Ans: Corporate culture is a branch of management theory that seeks to increase productivity and competitiveness through the creation of a unique organizational culture involving all members of a firm. Corporate culture sometimes refers to way of doing things, promotion and packaging products etc. It also involves company events, ritual and traditions which are supposed to enhance employee loyalty and promote group solidarity.
Q.6. Write the meaning of globalisation.
Ans: Globalisation simply means growing interconnectedness and interdependence among the nations of the world. Only one way of understanding cannot explain the full concept of Globalisation. Different academic disciplines may focus on different aspects of globalisation.
Q.7. In how many parts means of communication can be divided?
Ans: Means of communication can be divided into two parts print media and electronic media.
Q.8. What is meant by mass communication?
Ans: Mass communication simply means the mass media like Radio, News paper, Magazines.
Internet, Telephone, Television etc. Which are used to communicate the names.
Q.9. What is local culture?
Ans: Local culture simply means culture of the local people of a particular area.
Q.10. What are included in print media?
Ans: Newspaper, Magazine, Journals etc. are included in print media.
Q.11. What are the important means of electronic media?
Ans: Aakashvani and Doordarshan are important means of electronic media. Radio and T.V.are included in it.
Q.12. What is the main function of man media?
Ans: The main function of man-media is to disseminate news, information etc. for mass audiences.
Q.13. Name few means of mass communication.
Ans: Radio, T.V.Newspapers, Magazine, Internet, Telephone etc. are few means of mass media.
Q.14. Name the first news paper published in India?
Ans: Bombay samachar in 1882.
Q.15. Mention two factors that have led to the growth of print media.
Ans: Increasing literacy rate as well as growing urbanisation have led to the growth of print media.
Q.16. Name 4 News papers being published in India.
Ans: The 4 News papers being published in India are :
(1) The Times of India,
(2) The Telegraph,
(3) The Hindu and,
(4) Dainik Bhaskar.
Short type question and answer
Q.1. What is impact of globalisation on social sector?
Ans: In the social sector, the impact of globalisation is varied and divergent one hand it has led to the growth of consumerism and corporate culture and the other hand it has carried a threat. Globalisation infect carry a threat to many indigenous craft, literary tradition as well as knowledge system. As for example, about 30 theatre groups, which were active around the textile mills of area of Parel in Mumbai have become defunct as most of the mill workers are out of jobs in there.
Similarly, some traditional manners of Andhra Pradesh home committed suicide while some others discarded this traditional profession mainly because their products are not able to compete with the machine made products. Thus, indigenous craft is facing hard challenge from big firms. Similarly, various farms of traditional knowledge system especially in the fields of medicine and agriculture is in danger. Contract farming and use of hybrid seeds and fertilizers produced by a MNCs have contributed largely in wiping out local variants and indigenous knowledge of production.
Q.2. What is meant by liberalisation?
Ans: Liberalisation is the process whereby state controls over economic activity are relaxed and left to the market forces to decide. In general, it implies the process of making laws more liberal or permissine.
Q.3. What is the relation of globalisation with labour?
Ans: With globalization a new international divisions of labour has emerged in which more and more routine manufacturing production and employment is done in Third World cities. Out sourcing is very popular method adopted by the MNCsthrough which worlds are being leased to the smaller firms of Third World countries. The multinational corporations normally shifts their production units to the places where labour cost comparatively low and thus try to keeping production cost low. As for example in 1996’s the production centre of Nike, a sports goods producer, was at Japan, but when labour cost increased in Japan, it shifted it’s production centre to South Korea in mid seventies. Again when labour cost increased in South Korea it shifted it’s production centre to Thailand and Indonesia in the 1980.
Thus globalisation involves system of flexible production at dispersed locations. Another by issue regarding globalisation and labour is the relationship between employment and globalisation. As globalisation process proceed, employment avenues increased many fold. People have come to know about more new jobs like sales executive, call center jobs etc. Mainly IT revolutions opened up new career opportunities.
Q.4. What are transnational corporation?
Ans: Transnational corporations are those companies which operate across national boundaries. Transnational corporations have capital from all over the globe production units as well as selling points in different parts of the world.
Q.5. What type of programmes are broadcasted on. T.V?
Ans: Prior to adoption of liberalisation policy in India, there was one state controlled T.V. At that time, the main purpose of television programme were to educate, inform and entertain people. However, after 1991, private run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly. The coming of transnational television companies like Star T.V MTV. Channel (v), sonny etc. have changed two character and quality of programmes. Initially they broadcasted programmes produced at Hollywood. But most of the transnational television channels have through research realised that the use of the familion is more effective to attract Indian audiences. Hence, they started producing programmes on the basis of Indian language, culture and traditions. Perfectly, almost over types of programmes are broadcasted in Indian television. We have specialized TV channels for leads presently news, music, business, movies, entertainment, education, sports religions etc. are there in India.
Q.6. What is the impact of internet on the field of journalism?
Ans: Changing technology has also changed the role and function of a reporter. The basic tools of a news reporter a short hand notebook, pen, typewriter and plain old telephone has been replaced by new tools a mobile or satellite phone, a laptop or a PC and other accessories like modern, data traneller etc. All these technologies, particularly use of internet have increased the speed of news and helped newspaper managements to push their deadlines to down. They are also able to plan a greater number of editions and provide the latest news to the readers. At present time almost all newspaper have internet editions. A number of language news papers are using new technologies to bring out separate editions for each of the districts. Due to the use of internet, despite print centres are limited, the number of editions has grown manifold.
Q.7. What are the functions of mass media?
Ans: The prime functions of mass media are disseminating information, knowledge news and views etc. To the mass audience. The relationship between mass media and society is dialectical. Both inference each other. The nature and role of mass media is influenced by society while mass media also inference upon the society. During colonial period, mass media nurtured and channelized anticolonial public But after independence Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the country called upon the media to function as the watchdog of democracy.
The media was expected to spread the spirit of self reliance and national development among the people. In the early years of independence, media was seen as a means to inform the people about various development efforts of the government. Media was also encouraged to fight against oppression social practices like untouchability child marriage, illiteracy etc. Thus, functions of mass media change with the nature and requirements of society.
Q.8. What are the wrong impacts of mass media over the general masses?
Ans: The impact of mass media over general masses are both positive as well as negative. Television, internet, mobile phone etc. are getting very popular in present time. Most television channels are on through out the day in 24×7 mode. The television channels to increase their T. R. P. often broadcast sensational news, hard reality shows etc. Which imparts wrong impacts upon the general masses. Though internet is getting popular day by day and despite its tremendous advantage, we have to acknowledge that, it has become very easier now to even the school boys to experience various sex sites. There are some of the wrong impacts of mass media.
Q.9. What is the contribution of means of mass media in the field of education?
Ans: Mass media means the mediums of communication which reach mass audiences. Thus mass media includes television, news papers, films, magazines, radio, CD’s etc.
Under British rule newspapers and magazines, films and radio comprised the range of mass-media. Radio was wholly owned by the state. News papers and films, though autonomous from the state where strictly monitored by the Raj. News papers and magazines were not very aside circulated as literate public was limited . The 19th century social reform often wrote and debated in news papers and journals. Anti colonial public opinion was nurtured and channelized by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial period. Sometimes colonial government imposed censorship, for instance during the ilbert Bill controversy, some prominent news papers of that time were-kesari, matarubhumi, Amrit Bazar Patrika, Bombay samachar, etc.
In independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the country called upon the media to function as the watchdog of democracy. The media was expected to spread the spirit of self reliance and national development among the people, in the early years of independence, development was the central thrust and media was seen as a means to inform the people about various development efforts of the government.
Media was also encouraged to fight against oppressive social practices like untouchability, child marriage, illiteracy etc. Thus media was expected to promote a rational scientific ethos for building a modern industrial society.
Now, government uses various television channels over as radio for educational purpose. Vyas TV, Ekolovya etc. Are some television channels which are used for educational purpose.
Q.10. Explain means of mass communication.
Ans: So far as the means of mass communication are concerned it can be classified into two types print media and electronic media. News papers, magazines, Journals etc. are included in print media while television, radio, internet, mobile phone etc. are called electronic media. At present time social networking sites like facebook, tweeter, etc. are picking up moment as new means of mass communication.
Q.11. What are the direct effects of globalisation on farmers and rural society?
Ans: The impact or effects of globalisation on farmers and rural society is varied. On the one hand it helps the farmers and on the other hand it has carried a threat.
Globalisation in fact carry a threat to many indigenous craft, literary tradition as well as knowledge system. Many people discarded their traditional profession mainly because their products are not able to compete with the machine made products. The indigenous craft is facing hard challenges from big firms.
Similarly, various farms of traditional knowledge system especially in the fields of medicine and agriculture is in danger. Contract farming and use of hybrid seeds and fertilizers produced by MNCs have contributed largely in wiping out local variants and indigenous knowledge of production.
Q.12. What is knowledge economy?
Ans: In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer, primarily agricultural or industrial. The weight less economy is one in which products have their base in information as in case with computer software media and entertainment products, internet based services etc. A knowledge economy is one in which much of the work force Is involved not in physical production of goods but in their design development, technology, marketing, sale and servicing etc.
Q.13. What is TNCS? Give two eg of such companies.
Ans: TNCS or transnational corporations are those companies which operate across national boundaries. Transnational corporations have capital from all over the globe production units as well as selling points in different parts of the world.
Two examples of such companies are Coca Cola and Kodak.
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