Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Social Change and the Polity The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Social Change and the Polity and select need one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Social Change and the Polity
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Social Change and the Polity
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Which type of state is India?
Ans: India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, Democratic Republic.
Q.2. What is a constitution?
Ans: Constitution is a legal book or documents in which ways and system to administer the country are written.
Q.3. What is a state?
Ans: State is a political entity comprising four essential elements; territory, population, government and sovereignty.
Q.4. What is a welfare state?
Ans: A state concerned with the public’s health, unemployment etc.and taking a large share of responsibility for the publics welfare.
Q.5. When did the Indian constitution came into force?
Ans: 26th January, 1950.
Q.6. What are interest groups?
Ans: Interest groups are association formed to promote a sectional interest in the political system. Thus trade unions, professional association are usually referred to as interest groups.
Q.7. Who was the chairman of the Drafting Committee of the constitution?
Ans: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
Q.8. What is meant by Panchayati Raj?
Ans: Panchayati Raj is the system of democratic decentralisation -which aims of taking democracy to the grassroots level.
Q.9. Which are the three levels of Panchayati Raj?
Ans: The three levels of panchayati Raj is – (1) Gaon Panchayat, (2) Anchalik Panchayat and (3) Zila Parishad.
Q.10. What is law?
Ans: That system of rules which is being implemented by the government on people is known as law.
Q.11. What is gram sabha?
Ans: Gram Sabha is formed in village and it is the base of panchayati Raj. All the adult males and females of villages are the members of Gram Sabha and these people or members of Gram Sabha forms the panchayat.
Q.12. Name three sources of income of panchayat.
Ans: The main income of the panchayat includes tax levied on property, professional, animals, Cess on land revenue and grants received through the Zilla Panchayat.
Q.13. What are pressure groups?
Ans: An interest group is organized to pursue specific interest in the political arena, mainly by lobbying the members of legislative bodies and without attempting to place its members in formal government capacities.
Q.14. What is a political party?
Ans: Political party is an organization established with the aim of achieving governmental powers through the electoral process.
Short type question and answer
Q.1. Give the main feature of panchayati Raj system.
Ans: The panchayati Raj system as revised by the 73rd constitutional amendment act introduced a three tier structures – Gram panchayat at village level, Anchalik panchayat at intermediate level and Zilla parishad at the district level.
Gram Sasha consists of all the citizens of a village. Ideally, gram Sasha ought to provide an open forum for discussion and village level development activities.
(1) This act conferred constitutional recognition to the panchayati Raj institution and treated them as the third tier of govt.
(2) This act provided for an uniform structures of panchayati raj I.e. their tier system.
(3) This at fixed the tenure of PRISC at five years i.e. elections to these bodies should be conducted every five years.
(4) This act provided for reservations of one – third seats for women at all the levels of two P. R. Is as well as for SC and ST.
(5) This act constituted district planning committee to develop plans for the district as whole.
Q.2. Explain the three tier system of panchayati Raj.
Ans: The panchayati Raj institutions got constitutional recognition only in 1992,when the 73rd constitutional amendment act was passed.
The panchayati Raj system as revised by the 73rd constitutional amendment act introduced a three tier structures – Gram panchayat at village level, Anchalik panchayat at intermediate level and Zilla Parishad at the district level.
Q.3. Write a brief note on the function of panchayati.
Ans: Constitutionally, panchayats should be given power and authority to function as institution of local self govt. The following power and responsibility were delegated to the panchayats.
(1) To prepare plans and schemes for economics development.
(2) To promote schemes that enhances social justice
(3) To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls, tees etc.
(4) To help in the devolution of government responsibilities.
As the unit of local self government, panchayat have to bear the burden of some social welfare responsibility.
Some such responsibility are:
(1) Maintenance of burning and burial ground.
(2) Recording status of birth and death.
(3) Propagation of family planning.
(4) Establishment of child welfare centres.
(5) Promotion of agricultural activities etc.
Q.4. What is participatory democracy? Give example.
Ans: In the present time, there has been increasingly a feeling that democracy ought to involve people more regularly and should not just mean casting vote. So, the concept of participatory democracy is gaining momentum. Participatory democracy refers to a system of democracy in which the members of a community participate collectively in the taking of major decision. Participatory democracy is evident in recent U. K. U. S.and European countries. Plebiscites, refenda, focus groups, political action groups etc.are example of participatory democracy.
Q.5. What were the three condition forwarded by than Stwart mill for the success of democracy?
Ans: The three conditions forwarded by famous philosopher of England John Stuart mill for the success of democracy are :-
(1) The people must rise their perfect thought of mind to accept democratic ruling system.
(2) The people must be promised to protect their own independence and rights, and
(3) People must be conscious about doing their duty.
Q.6. Write a note about the panchayati Raj and the challenges of rural transformation.
Ans: Villages panchayats play an important role in various aspects of the rural life. Organisation, administration and progress of the rural society in India is very much based on village panchayats. They are in fact pillars of the village social system. But present state of affairs to the working of the institution of panchayati Raj is not at all completely satisfactory.
They are not carrying out the functions assigned to them as quickly as they should. The panchayati Raj system faced various problems in rural reconstruction.
Other problems or challenge are income patible relations among the three tires, undemocratic composition of various panchayati Raj institutions, political biased and uncordial relation between officials and people.
Q.7. Mention any four characteristics of Indian constitution.
Ans: Following are four characteristics of Indian constitution :-
(1) Indian constitution can be called the largest written constitution in the world because of its contents. It consisted of 395. Articles and 12 schedules and more than 80 amendments.
(2) The constitution of India is neither purely rigid nor purely flexible. There is a harmonious blend of rigidity and flexibility.
(3) The constitution of India affirms the basic principles that every individuals is entitled to enjoy certain basic rights and part lll of the constitutional deals with those rights which are known as fundamental rights.
(4) A novel feature of the constitution is that it contains a chapter in the Directive Principle of State Policy.
Long type question and answer
Q.1. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Ans: In a democratic government, every person have the right to pursue his/her interest. As it is difficult for a person to press forward his/her demand, people policy is the result of bargaining negotiation and compromise between representation of different sectors of society and there is nothing wrong in influencing this process. Here lies the importance of interest group in democracy. In democracy, interest groups work towards influencing political parties, while groups are also represented by political parties – who take up their case. When certain groups feel that their interests are not being taken up, they may move to another party or from alternative parties. Thus interest groups are part and parcel of democracy,
Q.2. What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
Ans: The prime difference between political party and pressure group is that while the former is established with the sole goal of capturing political power the latter doesn’t take part in electoral politics. Pressure groups only try to exert influence upon political decision makers. Moreover,so far as the organisational structures are concerned, political parties are more broad based than pressure groups. Comparing with political party pressure groups are short liked organisations.
Q.3. Write the functions done by interest groups in democratic society.
Ans: (Almost same with the Q. no. 1,(above) )
Q.4. What were the sources of inspiration for Indian democracy?
Ans: The working of democratic system in India during the last six decades have shown that democratic values and traditions are becoming firm rooted on Indian soil. During the last six decades many Government came to power and many powerful leaders calmly accepted their defeat in election. Very smoothly transfer of power took place. Constitutional norms and values were saluted. People have shown interest in electoral politics. With the passing of the 73rd constitutional amendment act,indian democracy expanded to the grassroots. These are some sources of inspiration for Indian democracy.
Q.5. What is the difference between law and justice and how is this relationship expressed in constitutional norms?
Ans: There is a difference between law and justice. The essence of law is its force. A law is low because the power of the state is behind it. But the essence of justice is fairness.
A constitution is basic norm of a country. An other laws are made as per the procedures the constitution prescribes. Laws are made and implemented by authorities specified by the constitution. But simultaneously, a constitution is the embodiment of the basic norms of social justice. It is not just a ready reference of Do’s and don’ts for social justice. A constitution has the potential for the meaning of social justice to be extended.
Q.6. Write a short essay on the core values of Indian democracy as expressed in the preamble to our constitution.
Ans: The constitution of India begins with a preamble which specifies the objectives of the constitution. The preamble begins with “we, the people of india” – which express the concept of popularity. Sovereignty. It declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic. The preamble lists four cardinal objectives which are to be “secured for all its citizens”. These objectives are justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. The Indian constitution seek to secure justice-social, economic and political, for all its citizens. Social dimension of justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizens on ground of caste, creed, colour, religion, sex etc. Political justice means equal, free and fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process.
The preamble declares liberty to be the second cardinal objective to be secured by the Indian state, it lists liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship as the objectives to be secured to all the people.
The preamble makes equality as the third major objective – which includes equality of status and equality of opportunity.
The preamble makes fraternity i. e. a feeling of spiritual and psychological unity as the fourth major objective of our constitution. It is designed to secure dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.
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