Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society and select needs one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society
Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…
Structure of Indian Society
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1 What is colonialism?
Ans: Colonialism simply means the establishment of rule by one country over another.
Q.2. When did nationalism originate in India?
Ans: In India nationalism emerged as a protest movement against the British colonial rule.
Q.3. What is communalism?
Ans: Communalism is the belief that religion supersedes all other aspects of a person’s or group’s identity. It is usually accompanied by an agremine and hostile attitude towards persons or groups of other religions.
Q.4. What is ethnic group?
Ans: An ethnic group is one whose members share a distinct awareness of a common cultural identity, separating them from other groups around them.
Q.5. Define community?
Ans: Community stands for any distinctive group whose members are connected to each other.
Q.6. What is meant by social class?
Ans: A social class is an economic grouping based on common or similar position in the social relationship of production ,levels of income and wealth, lifestyle and political preferences.
Q.7. Define class.
Ans: According to maclver, “A social class is a portion of community marked off from the rest by social status”.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff “A social class is the aggregate of a person having essentially the same social status in a given society “.
Q.8.What is a social map?
Ans:A social map tells one about his or her location society.
Q.9. What is meant by generation gap?
Ans: Generation gap is a friction between older and younger generations. This is a social phenomenon, common to many societies and many time periods.
Q.10.What is population structure?
Ans: Population structure means things like relative proportion of women, men and different age groups in a particular population.
Q.11. What is population density?
Ans: The ratio of number of people living in a particular region or country and area of that particular region or country is known as population density.
Q.12. What is life expectancy?
Ans: Life expectancy refers to the estimated number of years that an average person is expected to survive.
Q.13. What is meant by population explosion?
Ans: When the population of any country increases unexpectedly then it is known as population explosion. When population increases to such an extent that it’s results could become destructive. India is also facing this type of problem.
Q.14.What is family planning?
Ans:Meaning of family planning is to keep family small in size. Size of the family should remain in control so that the income of the family should be more than expenditure. Giving birth children according to one’s wish is called family planning. Very limited numbers (1 to 2) of children are given birth to it.
Q.15.What is the literal meaning of the word ‘demography’?
Ans: Demography is the systematic study of population. Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population, including changes in population size, patterns of births, deaths and migration, the structure and composition of the population such as the relative proportions of women, men and different age groups.
Q.16. When was the first and the last census carried out in India?
Ans: The first census survey was carried out in India during British rule in between 1867-72.The last census was carried out in India in 2011.
Q.17. What is the dependency ratio?
Ans: Dependency ratio is a measure comparing the portion of a population which is composed of dependents I.e. elderly people, who are too old work and children who are too young to work, with the portion that is in the working age group, generally between 15-64 years. Thus,dependency ratio is equal to the population below 15 or above 64,divided by population in the 15-64 age group. Dependency ratio is usually expressed as a percentage.
Q.18. What is ‘jajmani system’?
Ans:Jajmani was a non-market exchange system prevalent during the pre-colonial period in the North Indian villages. Agricultural products and other goods and services were circulated without use of money. This system was based on the caste system and customary practices.
Q.19.What is meant by infant mortality rate?
Ans:The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of babies before the age of one year per 1000 live births.
The maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die in childbirth per 1000 live births.
Q.20. Mention the latest state initiative to tackle the problem of hunger and starvation in rural areas.
Ans:The latest state initiative to tackle the problem of hunger and starvation in rural areas is the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
Q.21. Mention the name of the state where the declining sex ratio is highest.
Ans: The highest sex ratio is the state Sikkim.
Q.22. What is the total population of Indian according to the census of 2001?
Ans: The total population of India according to the census of 2001 is 1.03 billion.
Q.23. Mention any two factors responsible for the decline in the child sex ratio.
Ans:Demographers and sociologists have offered several reasons for the decline in the child sex ratio. Following are two factors responsible for this-(1)levels of nutrition, and (2)General education and awareness as well as the availability of medical and communication facilities improves.
Short type question and answer
Q.1. What is meant by class system?
Ans: A class is an economic grouping based on common or similar position in the social relationship of production, levels of income and wealth, lifestyle and political preferences. A social system which is based on class is known as a class system.
Q.2. What is reflexivity?
Ans:’Self -reflexivity’ or simply reflexivity literally means turning back on yourself. Sociology teach one to look at oneself ‘from the outside ‘- which is known as ‘self – reflexivity ‘. This is the ability to reflect upon yourself to turn back your gaze (which is usually directed outward) back towards yourself.
Q.3.why the process of emergence of nationalism in colonies is related with the anti-colonial movement?
Ans: Colonial rule unified all of India for the first time. The shared experience of colonial domination helped unify different sections of the community. The emerging middle class began with the aid of western style education to challenge colonialism on its own ground. Colonialism and western education, also gave the impetus for the rediscovery of tradition. This led to the developments on the cultural and social front, which solidified emergent forms of community at the national and regional levels.
Q.4. What is a personalized perspective?
Ans: By ‘personal troubles’, Mills means the kinds of individuals worries, problems or concerns that everyone has. As for example, one may be happy or unhappy about the way elders of his/her family treat or other such matters concerning job, individual identity etc. All these aspects of a person are known as personalised perspectives.
Q.5. Why are rural people moving towards urban areas?
Ans: Rural people are moving towards urban areas mainly to seek employment. The other factors are educational opportunities, better health care etc . Factories, shop and business establishments in a city provide employment opportunities and to grab these opportunities rural people move towards urban areas. The decline of economic value of agricultural products have accelerated the process.
Q.6. How is population explosion responsible for our lower standard of living?
Ans: When the population of any country increases unexpectedly then it is known as population explosion. According to Malthus, human population rises in geometric progression while the means of human subsistence like food, cloth etc. Can grow in arithmetic progression. Hence, humanity is compelled to live in poverty forever due to population explosion.
Q.7. Why is population necessary?
Ans: The concept of state or nation is incomplete without population. In fact, population is an indispensable element of state. The growth rate of a state depends upon the structure of its population. A rising dependency rate is always a cause of worry for the countries. Actually, for defence and production and distribution or resources population is necessary.
Q.8. What are demerits of increasing population?
Ans: According to Malthus, increasing population compels the entire humanity to live in poverty forever. For Malthus, population rises in geometric progression while agricultural production only grows in arithmetic progression. Thus, increasing population brings poverty. Generally increasing population demands more infrastructures like school, health care units, roads, foods and shelter etc.and hence it creates extra burden and state.
Q.9. What are the merits of decreasing population?
Ans: While population explosion puts extra pressure on the existing basic needs like food, shelter and other infrastructures, a decreasing population helps in raising the living standard of the population. Declining infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate, increasing life expectancy along with decrease of poverty are some of the merits of decreasing population.
Q.10. How does population affect economic development?
Ans: Population affects the process of economic development. When the population of a particular country increases manifold, it puts extra pressure on the basic needs of human life as well as basic infrastructure. On the other hand a decreasing population accelerated the growth rate. Similarly age structure of population also affects the growth pattern of that state. Demographic dividend is the benefit flowing from the changing age structure. When the dependency ratio falls down, it becomes a source of economic growth and prosperity. Thus, population affects economic development of a particular state.
Q.11.what is the importance of demographic data?
Ans:Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
Q.12. What is the difference between formal demography and social demography?
Ans: Formal demography is primarily concerned with the measurements and analysis of the components of population change. Its focus is on quantitative analysis for which is has a highly developed mathematical methodology suitable for forecasting population growth and change in the composition of population. On the other hand, population studies or social demography enquiries into the wider causes and consequences of population structures and change. Social demographers believe that social processes and structure regulate demographic processes.
Q.13.Mention any two reasons for population explosion?
Ans:Following are two reasons for the population explosion :
(1) Advanced methods of disease control, and
Q.14. What is the replacement level?
Ans: Replacement levels is the rate of growth required for new generations to replace the order ones that are dying out. When the difference between ‘birth rate ‘ and ‘death rate’ is zero or in practice very small, it is said that the population has stabilized or reached the replacement level.
Q.15. What is pandemic?
Ans: A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through the human population across a large region, for instance, multiple continents or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis.
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