Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change and select needs one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change
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Social Institutions: Continuity & Change
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Give the meaning of caste?
Ans: Caste implies to an ascriptive group, membership of which is determined by birth.
Q.2. Define caste?
Ans:According to Arnold Green,”caste is a system of stratification in which mobility, up and down the status ladder, at least ideally may not occur. ”
Q.3. How caste provides social security?
Ans: Castes are traditionally linked with occupation. A person born into a caste can practice the occupation associated with that caste. Moreover at present day, caste works as an element of social cohesion.
Q.4. What is tribe?
Ans: Tribe means a social group consisting of collection of families and lineages or class based on shared ties of kinship, ethnicity, common history, territorial political organisation etc. A tribe is a single inclusive group though it may have division based on class or lineages.
Q.5. Define tribe?
Ans: Tribe is a modern term, which refers to communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. The tribal communities didn’t practice a religion with a written text, didn’t have state class divisions and they didn’t have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. The term tribe was used in the colonial era mainly for administrative convenience to refer to a very disparate set of communities.
Q.6.what do you mean by inter caste marriage?
Ans: Marriage between two different castes are known as inter caste marriage.
Q.7. Give the meaning of family?
Ans: Family is that unit of social life whose every member is related either through blood relation or marriage or adoption. Maclner and Page define family by saying that it is a group defined by relationship, sufficiently practiced and endured to provide for the procreation and upbringing of the children.
Q.8. What is a nuclear family?
Ans:In common patience, a nuclear family is a small
family in which generally a couple lives with their minor or unmarried children.
Q.9.Define joint family?
Ans: A joint family can take different forms. However, a joint family has more than one couple and often more than two generations living together. This could be a set of brothers with their individual families or an elderly couple, their sons, grandsons and their families.
Q.10. What is polygamy?
Ans: The practice of having more than one wife or husband at the same time is known as polygamy.
Q.11. What is a patriarchal family?
Ans: In a patriarchal family man exercises authority and dominance over the family.
Q.12. What is a matriarchal family?
Ans: When the women of a family exercise authority and dominance in that family, it is termed as matriarchal family. Matriarchal family is a theoretical rather than practical concept.
Q.13. What is a matrilineal family?
Ans: In matrilineal families, women inherit property from their mothers.
Q.14.What is a patrilineal family?
Ans:In a patrilineal family, a son inherits the property of his father.
Q.15. What is a matrilocal family?
Ans: In a matrilocal family, the newly married couple stays with the woman’s parents.
Q.16. What is a patrilocal family?
Ans: In the patrilocal family, the newly married couple stays with the man’s parents.
Q.17. What is kinship?
Ans: In common parlance, kinship is understood as part of culture which deals with notions of or ideas about relatedness or relationship through birth and marriage.
Q.18. Differentiate between ‘jati’ and ‘varna’?
Ans: The most common difference between ‘jati’ and
‘varna’ is that while the four varna classification is common to all of India, the hating hierarchy has more local classification that vary from region to region.
Q.19. Give the meaning of marriage?
Ans: Marriage is a socially acknowledged and approved sexual union between two adult individuals. When two people marry, they become kin to one another.
Q.20. Who established satya shodhak Sarah and why?
Ans: Jyotiba Phule. Satyashadhak Samaj was created to secure Human Rights and social justice for low caste people.
Q.21. When are the untouchables castes given the name of schedules?
Ans: During the colonial period particularly after the census of 1901, the British govt. Make a schedule of untouchable castes. From then, the untouchable castes, which were included in the schedule became known as schedule caste.
Q.22.What is meant by market?
Ans: Generally, market means a place where things are bought and sold. Sometimes, it may refer to a place, like a wholesale market, station market etc. In another sense, market refers to an area or category of trade or business. It may also refer to the demand for particular products or services, such as the market for IT professionals.
Q.23. What is meant by market economy to Adam Smith?
Ans: Adam Smith in his famous work ‘The Wealth of Nations ‘ attempted to understand the market economy that was just emerging at that time. According to Smith, market economy is made up of a series of individual exchanges or transactions, which automatically create a functioning and ordered system. This happens even though none of the individuals involved in millions of transactions had intended to create a system.
Q.24. What is meant by policy of laissez faire?
Ans:Laissez-faire is a French phrase, which means ‘leave alone ‘ or ‘let it be ‘ Laissez-faire is an economic philosophy that advocates a free market system and minimal government intervention in economic matters. Adam Smith supported the idea of a free market.
Q.25. What is a weekly market?
Ans: In most agrarian and ‘ peasant’ societies around the world, periodic markets are a central feature. In India, the weekly market is a very common sight in rural and even urban areas. The weekly market is the major institution for the exchange of goods as well as for social intercourse.
Q.26. What is meant by exchange?
Ans:Exchange is the process of giving something and receive something else in return.
Q.27. What is Hundi?
Ans: In India, traditional trading communities or castes had their own system of banking and credit.hundi was an important instrument of exchange and credit like the modern bill of exchange, which allowed merchants to engage in long distance trade. As in ancient India, trade took place within the caste and kinship networks; a merchant in one part of the country could issue a hundi that would be honored by a merchant in another place.
Q.28. What is liberalization?
Ans: Liberalization is a process, whereby state control over economic activity is relaxed and left to the market forces to decide. Liberalization includes policies such as privatisation of public sector enterprise, loosening of government. Regulations on capital, labour trade etc.
Q.29. What is globalization?
Ans: Globalization is a complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural and political changes that have increased the interdependence, integration and interaction among people and economic actors (companies) in disparate locations.
Q.30. What are the reasons for liberalisation?
Ans: The revolutionary changes that took place in the field of science and technology is one of the prime reasons for liberalization. The growth of the market economy all over the globe created the environment for the growth of liberalization.
Q.31. What is privatization?
Ans:Socialist and democratic countries have a mixed type of economy. This type of economy has public enterprises which are under direct control of the government. Sometimes the government gives control of these public enterprises to private parties so that they could earn more and more profit. This process of giving public enterprise to private hands is known as privatization.
Q.32. Who was savitribai phule?
Ans:Savitri Bai Phule was the first woman in pune who opened the first school for girls and devoted her life to educating shudras and Atshudras. She served plague in pune.
Q.33. Mention the name of the act passed to give legal recognition to the schedule caste and tribe.
Ans: Government of India Act. 1935.
Q.34. Caste is more a product of colonialism than of ancient Indian. (True/False)
Q.35. When was the term ”TRIBE” introduced?
Ans: The term ‘TRIBE’ was introduced in the colonial period.
Q.36. What is market economy?
Ans: Adam Smith in his famous work “The wealth of Nations ” attempted to understand the market economy that was just emerging at that time. According to him, market economy is made up of a series of individual exchanges or transactions, which automatically create a functioning and ordered system. This happens even though none of the individuals involved in millions of transactions had intended to create a system.
Q.37. What is NASDAQ?
Ans: NASDAQ is the name of a major electronic stock exchange located in New York. It operates exclusively through computerised electronic communications. It allows stock brokers and investors from around the world to buy and sell shares in the companies.
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