Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India and select need one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Process of Social Change in India
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Process of Social Change in India
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is modernization?
Ans: Earlier, modernization referred to the improvement that science and technological development brought out to the society. Increasingly, the terms has been used to refer to the path of development that Europe and America had taken. As a sociological concept, it means that people are influenced not just by local, but universal contexts. Modernization often implies the growth of scientific attitude.
Q.2. When did modernization start in India?
Ans: In India, the process of modernization started with the coming of the Britishers to India.
Q.3. What is Urbanization?
Ans: Urbanization simply means the process of development of towns and cities. What the advent of industrialization the pace of urbanization is increasing.
Q.4. What is industrialization?
Ans: Industrialization is a process in which production from house level reaches to the level of large scale factories and it starts to come on a large scale.
Q.5. What is meant by colonialism?
Ans: Colonialism simply means the establishment of rule by one country over another.
Q.6. What is structural change?
Ans: Changes which come in our social relations and social institutions are known as structural change. Changes which occur in family, marriage etc. are also a part of structural change.
Q.7. Mention any two structural change brought by colonialism?
Ans: Industrialization and Urbanization.
Q.8. Who founded Ram Krishna Mission?
Ans: Ram Krishna Paramhonse.
Q.9. Who founded Indian Brahmo Samaj?
Ans: Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Q.10. Where did Jyotia phooley open the first school for women?
Ans: In pune, Maharashtra.
Q.11. What is social reform?
Ans: Social reform means the attempt in eradicating various social evils from society and thereby reforming society in peaceful means.
Q.12. Name any three social reformers?
Ans: Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Jyotia Phooley, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan etc.
Q.13. Who are Dalits?
Ans: The untouchable castes are known as dalits. They were outside the caste hierarchy and we’re considered to be so ‘impure’ that their mere touch pollutes members of all other castes.
Q.14. Why did sati system prevail in our society?
Ans: Sati system prevailed in our society mainly due to ignorance, religious orthodoxy and mis interpretation of Hindu religious texts.
Q.15. Why did caste based movements start before independence?
Ans: Mainly due to classification of castes as scheduled tribes and scheduled castes by the Britishers as well as conferring previledges to them fueled the growth of caste based movements.
Q.16. What is meant by sanskritization?
Ans: Sanskritization can be defined as the process by which, a low caste or tribe takes over the customs, ritual, belief, ideology and style of life of a high and in particular a twice born (dwija) caste.
Q.17. What is secularization?
Ans: Secularization means process of decline in the influence of religion. The theorists of modernization believes that modern societies have become increasingly secular. Indicators of secularization are declining influence of religion organizations upon the people, declining levels of involvement with religions organizations etc.
Q.18. What is westernization?
Ans: According to M.N. Srinivas, westernization implies the changes brought about in Indian society and culture and a result of British rule at different levels like technology, institutions, ideology and values.
Q.19. What is culture?
Ans: Culture simply means socially established norms or patterns of behaviour.
Q.20. What is cultural change?
Ans: Changes which come in our culture, views, religion, institution, behaviour etc. is known as cultural change. It means that whichever changes came in our culture are the part of cultural change.
Q.21. What is a dominant caste?
Ans: Dominant caste is a middle or upper -middle ranking caste with a large population and newly acquired land ownership rights. This combination makes these castes politically, economically and therefore socially dominant in the countryside in many regions of India.
Q.22. What is meant by secular country?
Ans: Secular country means that the country has no official or state religion. The state makes no differentiation on the basis of religion.
Q.23. What is capitalism?
Ans: Capitalism is a mode of production based on generalized commodity production or a social system where :-
(1) Private property and market have penetrated all sectors and
(2) Two main classes exist capitalist and labourers.
Q.24. Who was the author of the book, “The source of knowledge “?
Ans: The author of the book “The sources of knowledge ‘ is kandukiri viresalingam.
Q.25. What are the consequences of colonisation?
Ans: Colonisation brought various changes that altered the structure of Indian society. Industrialization and urbanisation transformed the lives of people. Factories replaced fields as places of work for some. Cities are replaced villages, Living and Working arrangements or structures changed. Changes also took place in culture, ways or life, norms, values fashions and even body language.
Short type question and answer
Q.1. Write three negative impact of modernization.
Ans: Negative impacts of modernization are:-
(1) Modernization has weakened our old family lies.
(2) Modernization has also weakened the tribal, caste or community identity as well as social lies.
(3) Modernization has demolished our age old socio-cultural norms and values.
Q.2. What are the reason of increasing population in cities?
Ans: Population in the cities are increasing day by day due to the following reasons :-
(1) Seeking employment avenues, people are migrating to the cities.
(2) The decline of agricultural production has compelled the villagers to migrate to the towns for getting employment opportunity there.
(3) The decline of community resources like forests, ponds, lakes also have compelled the villagers to move to towns.
Q.3. In what ways did colonial labour laws benefit the owner’s tea plantation?
Ans: Mainly due to shortage of labour and unwillingness of Assamese native people to work in the uninhabited hill sides (where tea gardens often located) in the tea planters of Assam had to import labour from other provinces. But as the tea planters of Assam are not willing to offer financial and other incentives to these important labour, they had resource to fraud and coercion. The colonial government by passing penal laws, aid and abet the tea planters. Under the provision of the transport of Native Labourers Act of 1863, the contractor were empowered to recruit labourers for tea industry in Assam.
Q.4. What is the relation of technology and urbanization?
Ans: Technology has increased the pace of urbanization. Growth in science and technology had created industrialization which in turns has also increased the pace of urbanization. But off late, the increased growth of technology are being used to check the growth of population in the urban areas. U unphenomenon growth in the sphere of telecommunications and means of transport had already decreased the distance between rural and urban areas. Using modern mode of communication like metro rail and mono-rail, governments are trying to check the population settlement in urban centres.
Q.5. What do you mean by structural changen.
Ans: Changes which comes in our social relations and social institutions are known as structural change. Changes which occur in family, marriage etc. are also a part of structural changes.
Q.6. Which problems occur due to urbanization?
Ans: Due to urbanization, urban centers become highly populated-which creates huge burden on infrastructures like roads, sanitation, water supply, communication system etc. Moreover growth of industrial township in the midst of villages totally uproot some villages. Influx of immigrant workers not only stimulates a demand for house and market but also creates problems or ordering relationship between native residents and immigrants.
Q.7. Why were coastal cities favoured by the colonial regime?
Ans: Colonial regime favoured the coastal cities mainly due to the communication facility. The Britishersfor conducting their trade and business depended mainly on waterways. That is why they favoured coastal cities like Hoogley, Bombay, etc.
Q.8. Why did social reform movement start in India?
Ans: Social reform movements in India started directly as a result of colonial rule. The Britishers came to India primarily as traders. But within a very short span of time, they established as the ruling power. During colonial period, they established educational institutions and introduced English education. The Christian missionaries also worked simultaneously in this direction. Industrialization process also picked up momentum in this period. As a result of all these factors social reform movement started in India.
Q.9. Name a few organisation of 19th and 20th century which initiated socio reform works.
Ans: Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Satya Samaj, Ram Krishna Mission etc.
Q.10. Explain the reform works done among Muslims?
Ans: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started social reforms among Muslim. Khan combined modern ideas of western liberalism and traditional literature. Sir Ahmed Khan’s interpretation of Islam emphasised the validity of free enquiry and the alleged similarities between Koranic revolution and the laws of nature discovered by modern science.
In 1914,the all India Muslim ladies conference was founded. This organization took active role in reforming Muslim society. Muslim social reformers actively debated the meaning of polygamy and purdah. A resolution against the evils of polygamy was propised by jahanara shah Nawas at the all India Muslim Ladies conference.
Q.11. Write the meaning of secularism?
Ans: Secularization means process of decline in the influence of religion. The theorists of modernization believs that modern societies have become increasingly secular. Indicators of secularization are declining influence of religion organizations upon the people, declining levels of involvement with religions organizations etc.
Q.12. Which processes are responsible for cultural changes in India?
Ans: The processes which are responsible for cultural changes in India are:
Sanskritisation, westernisation, modernization, secularisation etc.
Q.13. What is desanskritisation?
Ans: The term ‘desanskritisation” is just the reverse of sanskritisation. As a result of this process, members of the upper castes continue to their ideas and ways of life. They do not hesitate in adopting the occupation meant for the members of the lower castes.
Q.14. Discuss about the impact of sanskritisation?
Ans: The term ‘sanskritisation’ was coined by M. N. Srinivas sanskritisation is the process by which a ‘low’ caste or tribe or other group takes over the customs, rituals, beliefs, ideology and style of life of a high and in particular, a ‘twice born (dwija) caste.
The impact of Sanskritisation is many sided. Its influence can be seen in language, literature, ideology music, dance, drama, style of life and ritual.
Q.15. Discuss about the cultural change due to westernization.
Ans: M. N. Srinivas (1962) pioneer of sociology in India has used the term ‘westernisation ‘ to indicate the change, which took place in India during the British rule in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Westernisation implies changes in dress style of eating, manners etc.
The change in the medium of instruction also occurred in India. Westernisation started having its impact on the elite because they studied secular subjects with English as medium of instruction.
The Brahmins and other wasted with tradition of learning and tradition of science in the courts readily took to secular education with English as a medium of education.
Another big change introduced in the Indian society by the new system of education is that the schools were thrown open all type In contrast to the traditional school which were restricted to upper castes children.
Like these westernization had brought about changes in Indian culture.
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