Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Swadesh Adhyayan Question Paper Solved English Medium

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Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Swadesh Adhyayan Question Paper Solved English Medium

Class 12 AHSEC 2022 Swadesh Adhyayan Question Paper Solved English Medium

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1. Find out the correct answers from the following:

(a) In Assam, under which sector of economic activities the highest number of people have been engaged? 

(i) Primary 

(ii) Secondary 

(iii) Agriculture Sector 

(iv) Quaternary.

Ans: (iii) Agriculture Sector.

(b) In which year Sikkim was included as one of the states of North Eastern Region of India?

(i) 1947

(ii) 1963

(iii) 1972

(iv) 2002

Ans: 2002.

(c) How many Sustainable Development Goals have been adopted by United Nations General Assembly in 2015?

(i) 11

(ii) 15

(iii) 17

(iv) 21

Ans: 17.

(d) In which year the availability of petroleum crude in Assam first detected?

(i) 1822

(ii) 1889

(iii) 1921

(iv) 1953

Ans: (iv) 1953.

(e) In which type of map-scale the units like centimeter, inch, feet etc. are not mentioned?

(i) Statement Scale

(ii) Graphical Scale

(iii) Representative fraction

(iv) Ordinal Scale

Ans: (iv) Ordinal Scale.

(f) Area-wise, which one of the following National Parks of Assam found smallest?

(i) Manas

(ii) Orang

(iii) Nameri 

(iv) Dibru-Saikhowa.

Ans: (ii) Orang.

2. Write short answer of the following questions: (any four)

(a) Name two types of biodiversity.

Ans: Two types of biodiversity:

1. Species Diversity.

2. Genetic Diversity.

(b) Name two places of Assam where petroleum refineries are there.

Ans: Noonmati refinery and Namuligarh Refinery.

(c) Which two foreign countries share international boundary with Assam?

Ans: Bangladesh and Bhutan.

(d) Write the names of two wildlife sanctuaries of Karbi Anglong district.

Ans: East Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary and North Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary.

(e) Name two major types of pollution.

Ans: Air pollution and Water pollution.

3. Answer the following questions: (any five)

(a) Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic resources.


Biotic resourcesabiotic resources
Biotic resources are found in the biosphere which are obtained from living and organic materials.Abiotic resources are the non-living parts of an environment.
Biotic resources depend on abiotic resources for their survival.Abiotic resources do not depend on biotic resources for their survival.

(b) Discuss briefly the demographic characteristics of Assam. 

Ans: According to the 2011 census, 61.47% were Hindus, 34.22% were Muslims. Christian minorities (3.7%) are found among the Scheduled Tribe and Castes population. Other religions followed include Jainism (0.1%), Buddhism (0.2%), Sikhism (0.1%) and Animism (amongst Khamti, Phake, Aiton etc. communities).

As per 2011 census, Assam state had around 31.2 million people, out of which (15 million) were Assamese speakers comprising 48% of the state population, while (9 million) were Bengali speakers comprising 29% of the state population, and 3.21% spoke Hindi and its dialects.

(c) Explain, why Majuli island is so important. 

Ans: The world’s largest river island and it attracts tourists from all over the world. Majuli is also a strong contender for a place in UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites. Mostly inhabited by Tribals, the culture of Majuli is unique. It is also called the cultural capital of Assam. 

1. Majuli Island rapidly erodes due to floods each year Majuli Island sits slap bang in the middle of the Brahmaputra River. Each year the river levels rise higher and cause major flooding which consumes a massive part of the island.

2. In 20 years’ time it may not exist The future of this beautiful riverine island is uncertain for the Majuli tribes.

This is because the Majuli Island Protection & Development Council estimates that the island is at risk of completely submerging in 15 – 20 years’ time.

3. You can only access Majuli Island by ferry and it’s not 24 hours The only way to reach Majuli Island is to catch the ferry that runs 20 kilometres out of the main nearby city of Jorhat.

To make your way over to the Neemati Ghat ferry dock, you need to catch one of the many government rickshaws (30 rupees) or a private taxi.

(d) Discuss the problems caused due to population migration to Assam.

Ans: Declining of forest land: large areas of forest land and wasteland were occupied by immigrants for settlement and cultivation. Declining of forest land areas and settlement of immigrant has posed a serious threat to the wildlife and biodiversity of Assam.

1. Immigration during pre-British period: at an early stage, Mongoloid and Austro-Mongoloid people

were come to Assam. Simultaneously, Aryan people came from northern and Eastern India to this region. Sukapha established the Ahom dynasty in Assam. He also came to Assam after crossing the Patkai Mountains. All groups of people inhabiting in Assam have come from different places at different times of history.

2. Immigration during British Rule: In 1826, Yandaboo Treaty was signed between the British and

the Burmese. As a result, Assam went under the British colonial rule. The British government encouraged large scale of immigration into Assam. The British developed the tea industry in Assam. 

3. Immigration during partition: In 1947, Bengal was partitioned into the Indian state of west Bengal

and the Pakistan province of East Bengal. The majority of East Bengali came and settled in the city

of Kolkata. Later, a number of people moved to the Barak valley of Assam and Tripura.

4. During Bangladesh war, 1971: In 1971, East Pakistan became an independent country and East Pakistan named was replaced as Bangladesh. During Bangladesh war, around 10.

(e) Give a short description of the Brahmaputra river course after entering India.

Ans: The Brahmaputra Valley has an average width of about 80 Km. The main river of the valley, Brahmaputra is one of the largest rivers in the world and rank fifth with respect to its average discharge. The river originates from the Kailash ranges of Himalayas at an elevation of 5300 M. After flowing through Tibet it enters India through Arunachal Pradesh and flows through Assam and Bangladesh before it joins Bay of Bengal.

The catchments area of Brahmaputra in Tibet is 2, 93,000 Sq. Km; in India and Bhutan is 2,40,000 Sq. Km and in Bangladesh is 47,000 Sq. Km. The Brahmaputra basin extends over an area of 5,80,000 Sq. Km up to its confluence within Bangladesh.

(f) Discuss briefly on the biodiversity indices. 

Ans: Several biodiversity indices have been developed that mathematically combine the effects of richness and eveness. Each has its merits, and may put more or less emphasis upon richness or eveness. The most widely used is the Shannon – Weaver Index. 

This index is explained in the handout titled “Biodiversity Index.” Read this and be familiar with the concepts behind biodiversity and the Shannon/Weaver index. We will be using this to calculate indices for several fish habitats.

4. What do you understand by map projection? Mention the basic difference between the major types of map projections. 

Ans: Map projection is the method of transferring the graticule of latitude and longitude on a plane surface. It can also be defined as the transformation of spherical network of parallels and meridians on a plane surface. As you know that, the earth on which we live in is not flat. It is geoid in shape like a sphere. A globe is the best model of the earth. 

Due to this property of the globe, the shape and sizes of the continents and oceans are accurately shown on it. It also shows the directions and distances very accurately. The globe is divided into various segments by the lines of latitude and longitude.

The horizontal lines represent the parallels of latitude and the vertical lines represent the meridians of the longitude. The network of parallels and meridians is called graticule. This network facilitates drawing of maps. Drawing of the graticule on a flat surface is called projection.

The only factor that distinguishes different cylindrical map projections from one another is the scale used when spacing the parallel lines on the map.

While the areas near the Equator are the most likely to be accurate compared to the actual Earth, the parallels and meridians being straight lines don’t allow for the curvature of the Earth to be taken into consideration.


Discuss the importance of remote sensing in geographical studies. Write briefly the application of Geographical Information System in map making.

Ans: Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data of dangerous or inaccessible areas. Remote sensing applications include monitoring deforestation in areas such as the Amazon Basin, glacial features in Arctic and Antarctic regions, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths. Military collection during the Cold War made use of stand-off collection of data about dangerous border areas. Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed.

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. GIS can show many different kinds of data on one map, such as streets, buildings, and vegetation. This enables people to more easily see, analyze, and understand patterns and relationships.

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. By relating seemingly unrelated data, GIS can help individuals and organizations better understand spatial patterns and relationships.

5. Find out the correct answers from the following:

(a) In which year the Sipoy Mutiny in India outbreak against the Britishers?

(i) 1833

(ii) 1838

(iii) 1853

(iv) 1857

Ans: (iv) 1857.

(b) Who discovered tea plants in Assam? 

(i) C. A. Bruce

(ii) Robert Bruce

(iii) Krishnaram Nayabagish

(iv) David Scott.

Ans: (ii) Robert Bruce.

(c) The Bishnoi religious sect is an inhabitant of

(Ai) Uttarakhand

(ii) Kerala

(iii) Western Thar Desert 

(iv) North of Himachal Pradesh. 

Ans: (iii) Western Thar Desert.

(d) In which state of India the ‘Chipko’ movement was started?

(i) Rajasthan

(ii) Uttarakhand

(iii) Kerala

(iv) Bihar

Ans: (ii) Uttarakhand.

(e) In which year the peasants of Phulaguri in Nowgong revolted against British Tax Policy?

(i) 1828

(ii) 1857

(iii) 1861

(iv) 1893

Ans: (iii) 1861.

(f) In which book Assam is called “The land of rearing silkworm”?

(i) Ramayan 

(ii) Mahabharat 

(iii) Rigveda

(iv) Bhagawata Purana.

Ans: (i) Ramayan.

6. Write short answers of the following: (any four) 

(a) Mention two places of Assam famous for bell-metal industry. 

Ans: Hajo and Sarthebari.

(b) Mention two types of human immigration.

Ans: 1. internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent.

2. external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent.

(c) In which years the two major earthquakes with magnitude above & Richter occurred in Assam?

Ans: Assam is an earthquake prone country. Among all the earthquakes that Assam has suffered from, the earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 are among the ten biggest earthquakes in recorded history. The following is a list of the only 7 recorded earthquakes with intensity of 8.5 or above (10,11) between 1895 and 1989.

(d) Mention two types of land classified during the Ahom rules in Assam.

Ans: Debottar, Dharmottar.

(e) Name two items made of ivory. 

Ans: okimono, netsukes.

7. Answer the following questions: (any five)

(a) Write briefly on the background of the Treaty of Yandaboo.

Ans: The Treaty of Yandaboo was signed by Gen. Campbell from the British side and Governor of Legaing Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin from the Burmese side on 24 February 1826.[8] The Burmese paid 250,000 pounds sterling in gold and silver bullion as the first installment of the indemnity, and also released British prisoners of war.

After the Treaty, British controlled Assam and thus became the masters of Brahmaputra Valley and they began to consolidate their rule. In 1830, the Kachari king Govinda Chandra was assassinated and the British annexed Kachari kingdom in 1832. Also later on the British included part of Goalpara district and Sylhet district of then Bengal into Assam which they (British) received in 1765, from Moghul Emperor Shah Alam.

(b) Mention the important steps taken by the Assam Association.

Ans: The Assam Association was formed in 1903. It was a political association. It served as the center of all political activities in Assam, even after formation of Indian National Congress.

The Association is in the process of completing the construction of the Srimanta Sankardev Bhawan, a cultural complex named after the 15th Century saint-social reformer-cultural icon Srimanta Sankaradeva and located at the Qutub Institutional Area near Jawaharlal Nehru University in South Delhi.

(c) Write briefly on the ‘Quit India’ movement in Assam.

Ans: The Quit India Movement was the definitive freedom movement of India’s Independence struggle. 

Like the rest of the nation, several prominent leaders from Assam made a significant contribution to the movement and were also arrested within days of adopting the movement.

In Assam, the Quit India Movement took place at Kamrup, Nagaon, Darrang, Sivasagar, Golaghat, and Barpeta. Assam witnessed an unmatched game of tears and blood during the 1942 Quit India Movement. For the first time, the role of Assam in the independence movement came to the fore. Several Assamese women, who were members of the Mrityu-Bahini or Santi-Sena were the backbone of the movement.

Here are some of the freedom fighters from Assam who played a significant role in the Quit India Movement:

Kushal Konwar: Kushal Konwar was the only martyr in the country who was hanged during the Quit India Movement. 

Hem Barua: Hem Barua was a freedom fighter, poet and social activist from Assam. he left the job of a lecturer to participate in ‘Quit India Movement’ for which he was imprisoned in 1943. He is regarded as one of the pioneers of the modern literary movement in Assam.

Other significant fighters from Assam who made an untimely sacrifice for the country’s independence are – Mukunda Kakoti, Monbor Nath, Moniram Boro, Ratan kochari, Kumoli Devi, Kohuli Devi, Kolai Koch, Hemoram Pator.

(d) Discuss briefly the importance of Bamboo and Cane craft in Assam.

Ans: Bamboo and cane crafts of Assam is rich in sylvan resources and the availability of raw material of great versatility forms takes an integral part of the lifestyle and economy of Assam. The inhabitants of Assam have their own bamboo and cane products with distinctive style of creating typical designs in bamboo and cane crafts. The products of the plain districts differ from that of the hill districts in use, shape and design.

The bamboo and cane crafts of Assam have a variety of products like bamboo mats, sital pati, baskets of various sizes and shapes, winnowing trays, sieves, japi or chatta, various types of fishing implements, etc. that are manufactured in large numbers in the plains districts of the state. Items like Chalani (sieve), Kula (winnowing fan), Khorahi (small basket), Dukula or Tukuri (Big basket), Dala (bamboo tray), Duli (Assamese)or Tali (Bengali) that are big basket, Doon in Assamese or Kathi in Bengali, Dhol (big measure) are of immense importance to the people of Assam.

(e) Explain briefly the development of railway transport in Assam.

Ans: Assam got its first railway line in 1881 when the Assam Railway and Trading Company set up metre gauge track. Mainly used for the transportation of tea and coal, a 65-km-long metre gauge line was constructed from Dibrugarh to Margherita.

Since the beginning of the present century rail transport has been getting changed in its structure. It is observed that since 1902 railway development in Assam was meaningful in the sense that Assam was connected with the two great ports by two lines, one the Eastern Bengal Railway extended from Calcutta to Dhubri in 1902 and the other, the Assam Bengal Railway extended from Chittagong to Dibrugarh in 1904.

The impact of railways on Assam’s industrial sector can be analysed at the outset by examining to what extent railways have created a favourable climate for economic activities. 

(f) Give a brief description on the Land Policy of Ahoms in Assam.

Ans: there were practices whereby the Ahom King used to gift land to certain categories of people and institutions. Such grants of lands were free and devoid of any future transactions. 

The following divisions were made under the Revenue-free lands, also known as the Lakhirajdars granted by the King-

1. Debottar Lands: Lands were granted by the King to be dedicated to religious idols.

2. Dharmottar Lands: Lands that were granted by the King for religious activities or religious institutions

3. Brahmottar Lands: Lands which were granted by the King to be gifted to the Brahmins, priests, or the Highly-learned.

8. Explain the impacts of the immigration on Assamese culture and life.

Ans: A strong impact is also envisioned in the spheres of language and religion. Assam, being a Hindu majority state, fears that it will become Muslims dominated state due to influx of illegal migrants. This is also become a strong resentment between Assamese Muslims, who have made Assam their home for centuries.

The Assam Movement, started in 1979 to 1985, was a movement to retain the Assamese cultural pride, which was largely threatened by the growing illegal migration from Bangladesh. Assam, during that period, faced political instability in the state, collapse of state governments, imposition of President’s Rule, violence, agitation, frequent general strikes and civil disobedience campaigns crippling the state administration and normal life.

The large scale migration of people in the Northeast states represented a unique problem as it posed challenge the local community members who believed that it would threaten their culture and would also bring about exploitation of resources.


Briefly explain the causes of environmental degradation in Assam. Mention the major movements to protect environment occurred in India.

Ans: Assam has abundant natural resources such as land resources , forest resources , mineral resources and water resources. But these resources are getting depleted at a fast rate. The main reason for this rapid depletion is the immense pressure put on the ever- growing population of the state.

This Increasing population has put an impact on the natural resources in the following ways: 

(i) Growth of population has led to demand for more settlements.

(ii) High population means more food-crops need to be produced.As agricultural lands have been used for Agriculture.

(iii) Growing population also means parallel development of transport, industry and energy sectors leading to near exhaustion of non- renewal mineral resources.

Major Environmental Movements in India

1. Bishnoi Movement.

2. Chipko Movement.

3. Save Silent Valley Movement.

4. Jungle Bachao Andholan.

5. Appiko Movement.

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