Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 4 Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 4 Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition and select need one.
Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 4 Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition
Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 4 Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.
Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition
Chapter – 4
LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY
VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Transform the following sentences into proposition symbol:
(a) Wise men are generally flexible.
Ans : Logical form :- Some wise men are flexible:-
(b) Most students are not expert in football.
Ans : Logical form : – Some students are not expert in football.- (O)
(c) Only the uneducated are superstitious.
Ans : Logical form : – All superstitious persons are uneducated.
(d) Kindness is a great quality.
Ans : Logical form :- Kindness is a great quality – (A)
(e) Each disease is not non-curable.
Ans : Logical form : – Some diseases are not non-curable.
(f) Teachers are generally wise.
Ans : Logical form :- Some teachers are wise.- (I)
(g) Who loves the dishonest?
Ans : Logical form :- No persons are those who love the dishonest.(E)
(h) Less people are rational.
Ans : Logical form :- Some people are not rational. (O)
(i) Scholars are always honoured.
Ans : Logical form :- All scholars are honoured.(A)
(j) All students are not easily efficient.
Ans : Logical form :- Some students are not equally efficient. (O)
(k) Maximum people are absent in the meeting.
Ans : Logical form :- Some people are absent in the meeting.
(I) Only the male can enter the mosques.
Ans : Logical form :- All persons which can enter in mosques are male. (A)
(m) Only the men are rational animals.
Ans : All rational animals are men.(A)
(n) Everest is the highest peak in the world.
Ans : Everest is the highest peak in the world. (A)
(o) Almost all Indians are religious. (O)
Ans : Logical form :- Some Indians are religious. (O)
(p) Triangles can never be squares.
Ans : Logical form :- No triangles are those who can ever be square. (E)
(q) Caste systems never brings unity.
Ans : Logical form :- No caste systems are those which can ever brings unity. (E)
(r) Wise men alone are peacemakers.
Ans : Logical form :- All peacemakers are wise men.
2. Fill in the blanks :
(a) A proposition has its parts ———-
Ans : three.
(b) In simplification the logical forms are ———-
Ans : reduced.
(c) In simplification the ———- should not be change the ordinary sentences.
Ans : Propositions.
(d) In case of proposition the first word used is ———–
Ans : subject.
(e) ———– remains between subject and predicate.
Ans : Copula.
(f) Sentences with the words ‘Less’, ‘Few’ etc should transformed into ———–
Ans : proposition.
|Unit – 1||Logic|
|Unit – 2||Proposition|
|Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition|
|Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition|
|Modern Classification of Proposition|
|Unit – 3||Inference, Categorical Syllogism|
|Unit – 4||Symbolic Logic|
|Unit – 5||Philosophy|
|Unit – 6||Indian Philosophy|
|Unit – 7||Theory of Knowledge|
|Rationalism & Empiricism|
|Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana|
|Unit – 8||Realism and Idealism|
SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTIONS ANSWERS
3. Give answer to the following questions:
(i) What do you mean by simplification of proposition? Write with example.
Ans : From the Universal and Particular. Both Uņiversal and Practice propositions can be subdivided into Affirmative and Negative according to their quality. A Universal Affirmative proposition is represented by the symbol ‘A’, a Universal negative proposition by the symbol ‘E’, a particular Affirmative proposition by symbol ‘I’ and lastly, a Particular Negative proposition by symbol “O’.
Universal Affirmative :- All men are mortal. (A)
Universal Negative :- No men are perfect. (E)
Particular Affirmative :- Some men are intelligent.(I)
Particular Negative :- Some men are not wise.(O)
(ii) After simplification how many and what forms do we get?
Ans : After simplification we get four forms of proposition. They are Universal Affirmative, Universal Negative, Particular Affirmative and Particular Negative proposition. Symbolically they are known as A, E, I and O proposition.
(iii) To which form do we transform Universal Negative Sentences? Write with examples.
Ans : We transform Universal Negative Sentences into “Proposition. For example
Universal Negative Sentence :- No lazy man prosper in life.
Logical Form :- No lazy men are persons who prosper in life. (E)
(iv) Why do we give negative form to te sentences containing words like ‘Few’, ‘Seldom’, ‘Scarcely’, ‘Hardly’ etc.
Ans : The words like ‘Few’, Seldom’, ‘Scarcely’, ‘Hardly’ etc. means “almost none’. As these words carry negative force,, so its logical equivalent is ‘some not’. Such words should be treated as O proposition or negative form.
(v) Write three rules which we use in any kind of transformation of sentences into logical form of propositions.
Ans : Three rules which we use in transformation of sentences into logical form of proposition are :
(a) We must first of all find the copula, very often which is not separately expressed but it is mixed up with the main verb. In such cases we must bring out the copula and when we do so, the true subject and the true predicate are also brought out and so it becomes easy to determine the quantity and the quality of the proposition.
(b) Adjective do not become subjects of proposition. In some sentences, particularly in poetry, we find the predicate is placed first. In those cases, when expressed in logical form, we should maintain the logical order i.e. subject-copula-predicate.
(c) Propositions with ‘all’, ‘Every’, ‘Each”, “Any’ without the sign of negation, are to be treated as A i.e., Universal affirmative proposition.
(vi) How do we transform sentences containing definite singular subject? Write with positive and negative example.
Ans: Sentences containing definite singular subject should be treated as Universal. They are affirmative and negative as they contain the sign of affirmation or negation. For example
Positive example:- Alexander the Great was a great conqueror.
Logical form:- Alexander the Great is a great conqueror. (A)
Negative example:- Alexander the Great was not a Roman.
Logical form:- Alexander the Great is not a Roman. (A)
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