Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 2 Terms The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 2 Terms and select need one.
Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 2 Terms
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Chapter – 2
LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY
VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Fill in the blanks :
(a) ———— is an example of a singular term.
Ans : This book.
(b) ————- is an example of a general term.
Ans : Book.
(c) A term which refers to a single object is a ———— term.
Ans : Singular.
(d) A general term expresses the idea of a ————-
Ans : Connotation.
(e) A connotation term has both ———– and ———-
Ans : Denotation and Connotation.
2. Find the correct answer :
(a) A term having only denotation is connotative/non-connotative.
Ans : Non-connotative.
(b) The denotation of a term means things/quality.
Ans : Things.
(c) The connotation of a term denotes things/connotes attributes.
Ans : Connotes attributes.
(d) A connotative term has denotation/connotation/both denotation and connotation.
Ans : Both denotation and connotation.
(e) A term having only connotation is called connotative/non connotative.
Ans : Non-connotative.
3. Define :
Ans : A term is a word or a combination of words, which by capable of being used as subject or predicate of a logical proposition
(b) Singular term.
Ans : A singular term is one which when used in the same sense can denote only one single object.
(c) General term.
Ans : A general term is one which can be applied in the same sense to any one of an indefinite number of objects which resemble one another in certain essential qualities.
(d) Significant singular term.
Ans : Significant singular term points out one individual thing by referring to some attribute peculiar to it.
Ans : The denotation of a term consists of the thing or things to which it applies.
Ans : The connotation of a term consists of the attribute or collection of attributes which it implies.
SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTIONS ANSWERS
4. Distinguish between :
(i) Term and word.
Ans : A term is a word or a combination of words which by itself is capable of being used as subject or predicate of a logical proposition. In the proposition – Man is mortal’, the words Man and Mortal are used as the subject or the predicate of a proposition, so they are terms.On the other hand, a words consists of a letter or a combination of letters conveying some meaning,
(ii) Denotation and Connotation of a term.
Ans : The denotation of a term consists of a thing or things to which, applies. For example the term Man’ denotes all things to which the term is applicable i.e. to ‘all men”.
While the connotation of a term consists of of the attribute collection of attributes ‘animality’ and ‘rationality.Thus a term denotes things and connotes attributes.
(iii) Connotative and Non-Connotative terms.
Ans : A connotative term denotes things as well as connotes attributes, Hence, a connotative term possess both denotation and connotation. For example- term ‘man’ is connotative because if denotes all ‘men’ and connotes the attributes ‘animality’ and ‘rationality
A non-connotative term possesses either denotation or connotation. For example the term “whiteness’ is a non connotative term, because it only connotes and attributes but does not denote anything
(iv) Absolute and Relative terms.
Ans : An absolute term is the name of a thing or an attribute, which has an intelligible meaning by itself but does not necessarily refer to any other thing or attribute. For example- tree, horse, etc.
A relative term is a name which derives its meaning only from its relation to something else. A relative term denotes an object which cannot be though of without reference to some other object or except, as part of a larger whole. For example- ‘Parent cannot be thought of except in relation to child’ so these two terms are relative terms.
|Unit – 1||Logic|
|Unit – 2||Proposition|
|Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition|
|Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition|
|Modern Classification of Proposition|
|Unit – 3||Inference, Categorical Syllogism|
|Unit – 4||Symbolic Logic|
|Unit – 5||Philosophy|
|Unit – 6||Indian Philosophy|
|Unit – 7||Theory of Knowledge|
|Rationalism & Empiricism|
|Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana|
|Unit – 8||Realism and Idealism|
5. Answer the following :
(i) ‘All words are terms’- Is the statement true?
Ans : No, not true.
( ii) What is term? What are its different kinds?
Ans : A term is a word or a combination of words, which by itself is capable of being used as subject or predicate of a logical proposition.Terms are of many kinds.
But there are three important kinds of terms :
( a ) Singular and general terms.
( b ) Connotative and Non-connotative terms.
( c ) Absolute and relative terms.
(iii) ‘All terms are words but all words are not terms.’Explain?
Ans : A term is a word or a combination of words, which by itself is capable of being used as subject or predicate of a logical proposition. Therefore, every word is not a term, though every term is a word or a combination of words. Because word or combination of words become terms only when they are capable of being used either as the subject or as the predicate of a proposition. All words are not so capable and so are not terms. Some words such as “of”, “the”, “and”, “only” etc can neither be the subject nor the predicate of a proposition. So these words can never be terms by themselves.
(iv) Explain with examples the relation between the denotation and the connotation of a term.
Ans : The Denotation of a term consists of the thing or things to which it applies and the connotation of a term consists of the attribute or collection of attributes which it implies.
Now, the question arises regarding the relation between the denotation and the connotation. As an answer to this question has been said that the denotation and the connotation of term vary inversely. That means an increase or decrease in either one follows a decrease or increase in the other.
(i) If denotation increases, connotation decreases,
(ii) If Denotation decreases, connotation increase.
(iii) If connotation increases, denotation decrease.
(iv) If connotation decreases, denotation increases.
Let us take the term ‘man’, which denotes “all men’ and connotes ‘animality’ and ‘rationality’.
Now, if we increase the denotation of the term ‘man’ by adding ‘all other animals’ (man + all other animals = all animals), then the connotation will decrease and the remaining attribute will be animality’ only (connotation of man-rationality = animality) So, when denotation increases, connotation decreases.
If we decrease the denotation of the term ‘man’ by excluding dishonest men’ (denotation of men- dishonest men = honest men), the connotation will increase by adding the quality honesty’ (connotation of man + honesty = connotation of honest men). Thus, when denotation decreases, connotation increases.
Again, when we increase the connotation of the term ‘man’ by including the attribute ‘wise’ (connotation of man + wise = connotation of wise men), the denotation will decrease and will consist of ‘wise men’ and not all men (denotation of men’ – – unwise men’ wise men). So, if connotation increases, denotation decreases.
Again, when we decrease the connotation of the term ‘men’ by excluding the quality rationality, (connotation of ‘man’s rationality = ‘animality’) the denotation will increase because now the common attribute ‘animality’ will be possessed not only by men, but by ‘all animals’ (denotation of ‘man’ + all other animals all animals). So, we see that when connotation decreases, denotation increases.
(v) Mention three limitations of the rule of inverse variation.
Ans : Three limitations of the rules of inverse variation are :
(a)The rule of inverse variation holds good only when and increase or decrease in th denotation or the connotation of a term leads to the formation of a new term.
(b) The relation between the denotation and connotation of a term does not depend upon an individuals knowledge. A person’s knowledge may increase or decrease about the denotation of the connotation of a term, but it does not affect the denotation or the connotation of term.
(c) The rules must not be imported in the mathematical sense of numerical variation. There is no exact ratio by which we can measure the increase or decrease of the denotation or the connotation of a term.
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