Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 12 Rationalism & Empiricism The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 12 Rationalism & Empiricism and select need one.
Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 12 Rationalism & Empiricism
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Rationalism & Empiricism
Chapter – 12
LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY
VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Fill in the blanks :
(a) According to rationalists is the source of knowledge.
Ans : Reason.
2. According to empiricists…………. is the source of knowledge.
Ans : Experience.
(c) Descartes was a ………….. philosopher.
Ans : Rationalist.
(d) Berkeley was a ………….. philosopher.
Ans : Empiricist.
(e) According to Locke, mind at birth is a…………….
Ans : Tabula rasa.
(f) Empiricism leads to ……………
Ans : Scepticism.
(g) According to Rationalism mind is………….
Ans : Full of ideas.
( h) According to Empiricism, mind is a…………… recipient of sensation.
Ans : Passive.
2. Illustrate :
(a) Lanate ideas.
Ans : The idea of causality.
(b) Adventitious ideas.
Ans : The idea of beautiful flower.
(c) Factitious ideas.
Ans : The idea of golden mountain.
3. Answer the following :
(a) ‘There is nothing in the intellect which was not previously in the sense’- Who said this?
Ans : John Locke said this.
(b) Name three rationalist philosophers.
Ans : Descartes, Spinoza. Leibnitz.
(c) Name three empiricist philosophers.
Ans : Locke, Berkeley, Hume.
(d) Mind at birth is a clean slate or tabula rasa’ – who said this?
Ans : John Locke said this.
(e) Name the philosopher who made the statement “Esse-es percipi’:
Ans : Berkeley.
SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTIONS
4. Write short notes :
Ans : According to Rationalism, reason is the source of true knowledge. Knowledge is given by the clear vision of the intellect or reason alone. Descartes calls this intuition. It is undoubted, immediate apprehension of a self-evident truth by reason. God imprints certain innate ideas on the mind at the time of birth. They are clear and distinct. Clearness and distinctness of ideas are the test of their truth. The Rationalists maintain that there are certain fundamental principles of reality, which are innate and recognized as true by reason or intuition. All other truths about God, the self and the world are deduced from them.
Ans : Empiricism is a reaction against rationalism. John Locke revolts against Cartesian Rationalism. For Locke, the mind is tabula rasa in the beginning. It is like a clean slate. It has no innate ideas. It receives ideas from experience. Experience is two fold, sensation and reflection. Sensation is external perception. Reflection is internal perception. Sensation is the source of our knowledge of external objection is interval perception.
Sensation is the source of our knowledge of external objects. Reflection is the source of our. Knowledge of the internal states of mind. The child gets his first ideas form sensation, then at the advanced age he reflects upon them. Sensations are the materials on which the mind thinks. All knowledge is derived from experience and so it is inductive in procedure.
(c) Innate Ideas.
Ans : Descartes divided ideas into three kinds-adventitious, factitious and innate ideas. But the adventitious and factitious ideas are not clear and distinct and so they are both doubtful. On the other hand, innate ideas are clear and distinct. They are implanted in the mind by God at the time of birth. They are self evident. The ideas of causality, infinity, eternity, perfect being of god etc. are innate ideas.
5. Explain rationalism as a theory of the origin knowledge.
Ans : According to Rationalism, reason is the source of true knowledge is given by the clear vision of the intellect or reason alone. Descartes calls this intuition. It is undoubted, immediate apprehension of a self-evident truth by reason. God imprints certain innate ideas on the mind at the time of birth. They are clear and distinct. Clearness and distinctness of ideas are the tes of their truth.
Descartes divided ideas into three kinds, adventitious ideas, factitious ideas and innate ideas. The ideas imposed on the mind from without or sensation are adventitious. The ideas are clear and distinct and implanted in the mind by god at the time of birth, They are self evident. Descartes starts with universal doubt. To doubt is to think is to exist. I think therefore I exist.
Descartes deduces the existence of God from the innate idea of God he deduces the existence of the external world from the veracity of God.
|Unit – 1||Logic|
|Unit – 2||Proposition|
|Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition|
|Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition|
|Modern Classification of Proposition|
|Unit – 3||Inference, Categorical Syllogism|
|Unit – 4||Symbolic Logic|
|Unit – 5||Philosophy|
|Unit – 6||Indian Philosophy|
|Unit – 7||Theory of Knowledge|
|Rationalism & Empiricism|
|Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana|
|Unit – 8||Realism and Idealism|
6. Explain empiricism as a theory of the origin of knowledge.
Ans : Empiricism is a reaction against rationalism. John Locke revolts against Cartesian Rationalism and propounds the doctrine of empiricism. He criticizes Descartes doctrine of empiricism. According to Empiricism, the mind is like a clean slate. It receives ideas from experience. Experience is twofold. Sensation and reflection. Sensation is external perception. Reflection is internal perception. Sensation is the source of our knowledge of external objects. Reflection is the source of our knowledge of the internal states of mind. The child gets his first ideas from sensation. Then at an advanced age he reflects upon them. Sensation furnishes him with the materials, then he reflects upon them with one another. It can form complex ideas out of simple ideas. Knowledge starts with particular facts of experience and makes generalisation from them.
But Locke is wrong in holding that the mind is like a clean slate. There may not be innate ideas, but inborn abilities, aptitudes in a new born child. Experience and reason both contribute to the building up of knowledge. So, Lockes empiricism is one sided.
7. State two points of difference between rationalism and empiricism.
Ans : (i) According to Rationalism, reason is the source of knowledge. But according to empiricism, sense experience is the source of knowledge.
(ii) According to Rationalism, mind is active in the formation of knowledge. It actively produces. Knowledge out of its innate ideas with the help of reason. According to Empiricism mind is tabula rasa or clean slate, at the time of birth. There are no innate ideas in the mind.
8. Why, according to rationalists, sense experience is not a reliable source of knowledge?
Ans : According to rationalists, sense experience is not a reliable source of knowledge. Because senses de not reveal the true nature of things, All evidences of sense perception uncertain and doubtful.
For rationalists, all certain knowledges come from self-consciousness. Sense experience is not clear and distinct distincts from person to person. Rationalists condemn and rejer sense experience as Vague and obscure. For them only innate ideas are clear and distinct and reliable source of knowledge,
9. Discuss Locke’s criticism of innate ideas.
Ans : Locke criticises of Innate Ideas. Because for him, first, if there are innate ideas, they must be equally present in all minds. But there are no such ideas which are universally present in the minds, Children Savages, idiots and illiterate persons are quite unconscious of the so-called innate ideas. They are not conscious of the ideas of causality, infinity, eternity, God and the like. If these ideas are innate ideas, then they must be conscious of them.
Secondly, if there are innate ideas in the mind, they must be the same in all mind. But the so-called innate ideas of God, morality and the like differ in different societies, in different countries and in different ages. They differ in different persons even at the same time in the same society. The atheists have no idea of God, there are many people who have no notion of God. Those who have a notion of God widely differ in their notions.
Thirdly, even if there were the same idea in all minds, it would not prove their innateness. All persons have the same idea of fire. But it is not an innate idea, it is derived by all from experience. Universality of an idea does not prove its innateness.
Fourthly, the so-called innate principles are general truths, which are inductions from particular facts of experience. They are not the primary facts of knowledge, but generalisations from particular facts, which are acquired from perception. Perception is experience. The child knows the sweet is sweet because this is a particular fact of his experience.
10. Mention two demerits of empiricism.
Ans : (i) Empiricism is dogmatic and one sided. Because it over emphasises sense experience and neglects the function of reason in knowledge.
(ii) Empiricism fails to differentiate between self knowledge or knowledge of the external world. Locke’s conception of reflection or introspection is inadequate.
11. Mention two demerits of rationalism.
Ans : (i) Rationalism is dogmatic and one sided. The rationalists have over emphasised reason and ignore the part played by sense experience.
(ii) The doctrine of innate idea is also untenable. According to locke, if there are innate ideas they would be equally present in all minds. But there are no such ideas. Children, idiots, uncivilised people are not conscious about so called innate ideas. They would be equally present in all minds. But there are no such ideas. Children, idiots, uncivilised people are not conscious about so called innate ideas.
12. According to rationalism, knowledge is a priori’ – Explain.
Ans : According to the theory of rationalism ‘knowledge is a priori’ on independent of experience. For them senses often deceive us. It differs from person to person and fails to give us universal validity Knowledge demands universal validity or certain conclusion which sense experience fails to give us. Only reason can give us.
universal valid and certain conclusion. Reason can furnish us necessary knowledge. Sense-experience, is misleading, so according to rationalists reason as a source of knowledge is certain and perfect. Therefore, knowledge is apriori and not a posterior.
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