Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 11 Indian Philosophy The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 11 Indian Philosophy and select need one.
Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 11 Indian Philosophy
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Chapter – 11
LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY
VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Answer the following :
(a) Where from the word ‘philosophy has been derived?
Ans : The word “philosophy’ has been derived from two Greek words philos’ and ‘sophia’.
(b) What are the two main divisions of Indian Philosophy?
Ans : The two main divisions of Indian Philosophy are Vedic and NonVedic.
(c) Who is the founder of Nyaya philosophy?
Ans : The great sage Gautama is the founder of Nyaya philosophy.
(d) The four noble truths is included into which philosophy?
Ans : Buddhist Philosophy.
(e) Is Buddhism Vedic or non-Vedic philnasphory?
Ans : Non-Vedic philosophy.
2. Find out the correct answer :
(a) Carvaka is Vedic/Non-Vedic Philosophy.
Ans : Non-Vedic Philosophy.
(b) The founder of Sankhya Philosophy is sage Gautama/Patanjali/Kanada/Kapila.
Ans : Kapila.
(c) According to Nyaya Philosophy, Causes are of three/four/five types.
Ans : Three types.
(d) Sankhya philosophy supports the theory of Asatk ā ryav ā da/Satkāryāda of causality.
Ans : Satkāryāda,
(e) Cārvāka philosophy is materialistic/spiritualist.
Ans : Materialistic.
SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTIONS ANSWERS
3. Mention the common characteristics of Indian Philosophy.
Ans : The philosophy of a country is the cream of its culture and civilisation. It springs from ideas that prevail in its atmosphere Though the different schools of Indian philosophy present a diversity of views yet we can find the unity of moral and spiritual outlook among them.
(i) All the system regards philosophy as a practical necessity.The aim of philosophical wisdom is to enlighten life led with le sight, foresight and insight. Speculative knowledge helps ins realisation of truth, good and beauty in our life. The highest air of Indian philosophy is to make human life, good and beautiful with the help of speculative knowledge.
(ii) Every system of Indian philosophy is moved to speculation by spiritual disquiet at the sight of the evils that cast a gloom over life in this world and it wants to under stand the source of these evils in order to find out some means for completely overcoming life’s miseries. Indian philosophy has often been criticizes a pessimistic. But actually Indian philosophy discovers and strong, asserts that life is a mere spent of blind impulses and unquenchable desires, it inevitably ends in and prolongs misery. But no India system stops with this picture of life as a tragedy. It also discover a message of hope.
(iii) The firm faith in an eternal moral order’ dominates the entire history of Indian philosophy barring the solitary exception of the carvaka materialism. It is the common atmosphere of faith i which both vedic and non-vedic systems move and breathe. Th faith in an order-a law that makes for regularity and righteousness and works in the gods, the heavenly bodies and all creature pervades.
(iv) The law of karma is accepted by the six orthodox schools, as well as the Jainas and the Bandhas. The law of Karma means that all actions, good or bad, produce their proper consequences in the life of the individual who acts, provided they are performed with a desire for the fruits thereof. This law helps us to explain certain differences in individual beings, which can not be explained by the known circumstances of their lives.
It is quite reasonable to maintain that all actions will produce their lives. It is quite reasonable to maintain that all actions will produce their proper effects in this or another life of the individuals who act. But is should be noted that the law of Karma has a limited application to the world of actions done under the influence of the ordinary passions and desire of the worldly life. Disinterested and passionless actions do not produce any bondage. With the attainment of liberation from bondage, the self rises above the law of karma and lives and act in an atmosphere of freedom.
(v) All the Indian philosophical schools. Except carvaka, believe that the universe is the moral stage, where all living beings get the dress and the part that befit them and are to act well to deserve well in future. The body, the senses and the motor organs that an individual gets and the environment in which he finds himself are the endowments of nature or God in accordance with the inviolable law of karma.
(vi ) Faith in an eternal soul is an important common characteristics Indian philosophy. The soul is the ultimate eternal. consciousness and unchanging existence of the Jivas. changing world has no eternal reality. Only the soul is eternal reality. Except Carvaka and Buddha, other schools of Indian Philosophy believe in the reality of the soul.
(vii) Rebirth is the outcome of the theory of Karma. To exhaust fruits of actions, the souls have to be reborn. All actions will produce their proper effects in this or another life of the individuals who act. So, to get the fruits of the present actions, givers have to be reborn in future. Except carvaka all the schools of Indian philosophy have faith in rebirth.
(viii) Self-control means the control of lower self, the blind, animal tendencies. Cessation from bad activities was coupled with performance of good ones. So, self-control was not a very negative practice, it was not simply checking the indriyas, but checking their bad tendencies in order to employ them for a better purpose.
|Unit – 1||Logic|
|Unit – 2||Proposition|
|Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition|
|Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition|
|Modern Classification of Proposition|
|Unit – 3||Inference, Categorical Syllogism|
|Unit – 4||Symbolic Logic|
|Unit – 5||Philosophy|
|Unit – 6||Indian Philosophy|
|Unit – 7||Theory of Knowledge|
|Rationalism & Empiricism|
|Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana|
|Unit – 8||Realism and Idealism|
4. Write about the nature of Indian philosophy.
Ans : Indian philosophy denotes the philosophical speculations of all Indian thinkers. It is spiritual in nature. The aim of Indian philosophy is to apply its in practical life.
Philosophy and religion are intimately connected with each others. Philosophy aims at the realisation of truth in real life, whereas religion consists in the real experience of truth. So, philosophy and religion in India are concerned with one ideal-realisation of truth and its application is real life. Self realisation leads to liberation which is the highest end of life. The practical impact of philosophy to the way of life, makes life spiritual.
As the different branches of philosophy like metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic etc. are thoroughly discussed by Indian thinkers and thus arrives at a synthetic conclusion. The scope of Indian philosophy is wider as it includes realism, idealism, pluralism, mysticism etc. So, Indian philosophy as synthetic vision which has made philosophy comprehend several branches of study of modern times.
Indian philosophy is broad-minded as it embraces different views of various schools. In Indian philosophy various opinions coexist independently. After criticizing others views, every school establishes their own views. That is why Indian philosophical systems are free from dogmatism. In the conclusion we can say that Indian philosophy is unity in diversity.
5. Give the classification of Indian philosophy.
Ans : According to traditional principle of classification, the schools of Indian philosophy are divided into two broad classes-orthodox and heterodox. The orthodox system has six chief philosophical system viz, Nyāya, Vaišesika, Sankhya, yoga, Vedānta and Mimāṁsā. They are known as orthodox or astika not because they believe in god but because they accept the authority of the Vedas. The Mimāṁsā and Sankhya do not believe in God yet they are called orthodox or āstika, because they believe in the authoritativeness of the vedas. Heterodox systems have three main schools viz the cārvāka, the Buddha, and the Jainas. They are known as heterodox because they do not believe in the authority of the vedas.
Sānkhya, yoga, Nyāya, Vaišesika accept the evidence of the vedas, but have independent basis are regarded as veda independent philosophy.
On the other hand, non-vedic philosophy is also classified into two types :
(i) extreme and
(ii) Soil wirvāka philosophy extremely opposes vedas. Hence carvaka is the extreme nastika school. But Buddha and Jaina philosophy are not extremely opposite to the vedas. As they do not accept the testimony of the Vedas, so these schools are regarded as soft nastika schools.
6. Write two points of distinction between mediate and immediate inference.
Ans : Two points of distinction between mediate and immediate inference are :
(i) The conclusion of immediate inference follows from only one premise. On the other hand, in Mediate inference, the conclusion follows from more than one premise.
(ii) In Immediate inference, the conclusion gives no new information. It only explicitly states, whatever is there in the premises implicitly. On the other hand, the conclusion of Mediate inference is always a new knowledge.
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