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Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 10 Philosophy
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Chapter – 10
LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY
VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What is philosophy? Explain the relation between philosophy and science.
Ans : Philosophy is a comprehensive study of the universe as a whole. It enquires into the nature of the universe in which we live, the nature of the human soul, and its destiny and the nature of God or the Absolute and their relation to one another. Its method islogical and rational, Philosophy Is the criticism of life. It is the interpretation of life, its value and meaning.
Relation between philosophy and science science in organised common experience, whereas philosophy in organised scientific knowledge. Both science and philosophy deal with the world of our experience and are based on the facts of our common experience. Science deal with sections of the world, while philosophy deals with the whole world. Science organises the particular truths of our common experience, while philosophy organises the general truths of science. The sciences supply the data to philosophy, which harmonizes and organises them Philosophy is an interpretation of sciences. Sciences give particular view of the universe.
Though philosophy is opposed to science in some respects, they are interdependent on each other in certain other respects Sciences supply the data of philosophy. Sciences are isolated from one another, unless they are co-ordinated and unified by philosophy.
2. What is science? Find out the points of difference between philosophy and science.
Ans : A science is a systematic body of knowledge dealing with a particular department of nature.
Though there are certain points of similarity between philosophy and science, still there are certain points of difference.
(a) Philosophy deals with the whole universe, whereas science deals with a particular department of the world. So, the scope of philosophy is much wider than science.
(b) Science gives us knowledge of the phenomenal world, but philosophy gives us knowledge of the phenomena (or appearances) and reality (beyond appearances),
(c) Science uses empirical and inductive method but philosophy uses empirical, speculative, deductive and inductive methods.
(d) Scientific knowledge is based on observation and experiment as science confines its investigation within empirical word. Philosophical knowledge is also based on observation and experiment only in those cases where it enquires about the phenomenal world and where philosophy enquires about the nature of reality (nature of soul, God or absolute) it makes use of intellect and intuition.
(e) Science accepts some principles as self evident such as space, time, uniformity of nature, law of causation etc.without any prior criticism. But philosophy accepts nothing as self evident without proper investigation.
(f) Science is concerned with facts and is not concerned with values. But philosophy explains the world of facts and also find out the value of it.
(g) Scientific conclusion is objective and is thus verifiable and universally acceptable. On the other hand philosophical conclusion is subjective and derived from reason, emotion and intuitive experiences. So these conclusions are not universally acceptable.
3. What is epistemology?
Ans : Epistemology enquires into the nature, origin, validity and en of knowledge. It has a dominant place in contemporary philosophy
It is a preliminary to metaphysical speculation. It is a criticism of the organ of knowledge
4. What is Metaphysics?
Ans : Metaphysics enquires into the nature of the reality. It investiga the nature of the world including matter and life, of the souls of God or the Absolute. It discusses the theories of monkey dualism and pluralism
5. What is axiology?
Ans : Axiology is the study of values or ideals. Values are the supres norms of life. Axiology enquires into the nature of intellect mortal, aesthetic and religious values. It investigates the relai of values to reality. It enquires into their subjectivity or objectiu It is a very important branch of contemporary philosophy.
6. Define :
Ans : A science is a systematic body of knowledge dealing wit particular department of nature.
Ans : Epistemology enquires into the nature, origin validity and en of knowledge. It has a dominant place in contemporary philosophy
Ans : Metaphysics enquires into the nature of the reality. It investig the nature of the world including matter and life, of the soul of God or the Absolute.
Ans : Axiology is the theory of values or ideas. It investigates the nature of intellectual, moral, aesthetic and religious values.
7. Write short notes :
Ans : Science deals with particular department of the world and seeks to harmonize the facts of our common experience. Science organizes the particular truths of our common experience. Science observes and experiments upon facts and define and describe them, analyse and classify them and explain them by ascertaining their causes and laws of their operation.
They collect facts by observation and experiment, determine the conditions under which they occur, and formulate their modes of behaviour. They do not seek any ultimate explanation of the whole universe.
|Unit – 1||Logic|
|Unit – 2||Proposition|
|Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition|
|Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition|
|Modern Classification of Proposition|
|Unit – 3||Inference, Categorical Syllogism|
|Unit – 4||Symbolic Logic|
|Unit – 5||Philosophy|
|Unit – 6||Indian Philosophy|
|Unit – 7||Theory of Knowledge|
|Rationalism & Empiricism|
|Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana|
|Unit – 8||Realism and Idealism|
Ans : Modern philosophy is not dogmatic. It does not plunge into metaphysical investigation of the nature of reality without a prior criticism of the organ of the knowledge. It is based on epistemology. Epistemology enquires into the nature, origin, validity and extent of knowledge. Epistemology has a dominant place in contemporary philosophy. It is a preliminary to metaphysical speculation. It is a prior criticism of the organ of knowledge.
Ans : Metaphysics is the theory of reality. In investigates the nature of the world including matter and life, of the soul and of God or the Absolute. Ontology of Nature, Ontology of the Soul or Mind, and ontology of the Absolute are the three essential parts of metaphysics.
Metaphysics or ontology investigates the nature of reality, le discusses the theories of monism, dualism and pluralism. Monism recognizes one type of reality.
If assumes the forms of materialism or idealism. Materialism regards matters as the ultimate reality Idealism regards mind or spirit as the fundamental reality and reduces matter to mind. Dualism recognizes matter and mind both as irreducible realities. Pluralism recognizes many reálities independent of one another. They are either material or spiritual Ontology of cosmos is called Cosmology.
Ans : Axiology is the theory of values or ideals. Values are the supreme norms of life. Axiology enquires into the nature of intellectual normal, aesthetic, and religious values. It investigates the relation of values of reality. It enquires into their subjectivity or objectivity. It is very important branch of contemporary philosophy. The problem of values is in the forefront of recent philosophy
Ans : The relation of invariable concomitance between the middle term (hetu) and the major term (sadhya) of inference is technically called Vyapti. Vyapti is regarded as the logical ground of inference, It guarantees the truth of the conclusion. For example : “there is fire in the hill” is the conclusion which we can justify only if we know that there is an invariable concomitance between the hill, smoke and fire.
8. Answer the following question :
(a) What is the meaning of the word “philosophy’?
Ans : The meaning of the word “philosophy’ is ‘love of wisdom’.
(b) The word ‘philosophy’ comes from two words, what are those?
Ans : The word ‘philosophy’ comes from two Greek words-philo? and ‘sophia’.
(c) What is the meaning of the word ‘Epistemology’?
Ans : The meaning of the word ‘Epistemology’ is “The science of knowledge”.
(d) The word “Epistemology’ comes from two words, what are those?
Ans : The word “Epistemology’ comes from two words “Episteme” and “logos”.
(e) Who is the author of the book “Critique of Pure Reason”?
Ans : Immanual Kant is the author of the book “Critique of Pure Reason”.
(f) Who is the author of the book “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”?
Ans : John Locke is the author of the book “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”.
(g) Why Hume is called a sceptic philosopher ?
Ans : Hume rejects all metaphysical entities. He rejects universal and necessary truths. He admits only particular and contingent truths, which are given by experience. We can never step beyond sensations to reality outside them. So, Hume is landed in sensationalism and scepticism. There is no absolute certainty in knowledge.
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