**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 3 Proposition **The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters

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**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 3 Proposition****Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 3 ****Proposition**

**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 3**Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given **Assam Board Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 3 Proposition** Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

**Proposition**

**Chapter – 3**

**LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY**

**VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS**

**Answer the following question :**

(i) How many terms are there in a logical proposition?

Ans : There are two terms in a logical proposition.

(ii) Is the copula a term in a logical proposition?

Ans : No, copula is not a term, it is only a sign of relation subject term and predicate term.

(iii) According to quantity propositions are classified as the following?

(a) Affirmative and Negative.

(b) Universal and Particular.

(c) Hypothetical and Disjunctive.

Ans : (b) Universal and Particular.

(iv) Is the subject of logical proposition a term?

Ans : Yes, the subject is a term.

(v) Is the predicate of logical proposition a term?

Ans : Yes, the predicate is a term.

(vi) Is the copula a term or a word?

Ans : The copula is not a term, it is a word.

(vii) What is a universal proposition?

Ans : The universal proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole subject.

(viii) What is the symbolic name of a particular affirmative proposition?

Ans : ‘l’ proposition.

(ix) What is a proposition?

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms.

**2. Find out the correct answer :**

(i) A judgement when expressed in language is called a word/a term/a proposition.

Ans : A proposition.

(ii) A proposition has one/two/three terms.

Ans : Two.

(iii) In a proposition, about which something is stated is, known as subject and predicate.

Ans : Subject.

(iv) Copula is a word/a term/none of these.

Ans : Word.

(v) Copula of a proposition is in the past/present future tense.

Ans : Present.

(vi) A proposition is universal or particular with reference to its quality/quantity.

Ans : Quantity.

(vii) Copula of a proposition is always affirmative/negative/either affirmative or negative.

Ans : Either affirmative or negative.

(viii) In a categorical proposition, the relation between the subject (c) and the predicate is without condition/under condition.

Ans : Without condition.

(ix) According to mixed principle of quantity and quality

propositions are divided into four/five/six forms.

Ans : Four.

(x) I ‘proposition is universal affirmative particular affirmative.

Ans : Particular affirmative.

(xi) The quality of a proposition is determined by the subject predicate/copula.

Ans : Copula.

(xii) In categorical/conditional proposition the relation between the subiect and the predicate is without any condition.

Ans : Categorical.

(xiii) A proposition is categorical or conditional according to quality/relation/modality.

Ans : Relation.

(xiv) A judgement is/is not a mental process.

Ans : is.

(xv) ‘O’ proposition is particular negative/universal.

Ans : Particular negative.

**3. Fill in the blanks :**

(a) The subject of a proposition is a ———–

Ans : Term.

(b) The predicate of a proposition is a ————

Ans : Term.

(c) The sign of relation between the subject and the predicate in a proposition is called ————

Ans : Copula.

(d) Proposition can be divided into universal and particular according to —————

Ans : Quantity.

(e) Proposition can be divided into ——— according to the mixed principles of quality and quantity.

Ans : Four.

(f) ‘A Proposition is universal ———–

Ans : Affirmative.

(g) In a hypothetical proposition there are ——— parts.

Ans : Two.

(h) In a proposition there are ———- terms.

Ans : Two.

(i) Conditional propositions are divided into ———– and ———-

Ans : Hypothetical and Disjunctive.

(j) According to quality, a proposition may be either ———- or ———-

Ans : Affirmative, Negative.

**SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTIONS ANSWERS**

**4. Distinguish between : **

**(a) Sentence and proposition.**

Ans : Every sentence must be composed of words and has a meaning But when we talk about a proposition, we are talking not about the sentence, but about what the sentence means. Every senteno does not state a proposition. Only sentences, that we use to assert something express propositions. Again, it is the proposition tha Ans is true or false, but the sentence that has meaning. So, even sentence is not a proposition, but every proposition is a sentence Again, a proposition has three parts – subject, predicate an copula. But a proposition has two parts subject and predicate.

**(b) Conditional propositional and categorical proposition. **

Ans : A categorical proposition is one in which the relation between the subject and the predicate is without any condition, is which the predicate is either affirmed or denied of the subject unconditionally. For example : All men are mortal, No men are perfect.

A conditional proposition is one in which the affirmation or den of the relation between the subject and the predicate is mo under a certain condition. For example : If he comes then I shall go.

**(c) Hypothetical proposition and Disjunctive Proposition. **

Ans : A hypothetical proposition is a conditional proposition, in which the condition is introduced by the conjunction “Il” or some other word equivalent to it. For example if he comes then I shall go.

A Disjunctive proposition is a conditional proposition which makes an alternative assertion, its two members being disjointed by “Either-or. For example-Either he will come or I shall go.

**(d) Affirmative proposition and Negative Proposition. **

Ans : Affirmative proposition is one, in which the predicate is affirmed of the subject. For example : All men are mortal.

A Negative proposition is one, in which the predicate is denied of the subject. For example – “No men are perfect.”

**(e) Universal and Particular Proposition .**

Ans : A universal proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole subject. For example – All men are mortal. No men are perfect. A Particular proposition is one, in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of a part of the subject. For example-Some men are honest. Some men are not intelligent.

**(f) Verbal and Real Proposition. **

Ans : A Verbal proposition is one in which the predicate merely states connotation or a part of the connotation of the subject. For example : All men are rational.

A Real proposition is one in which the predicate asserts an additional fact which an analysis of the connotation of the subject does not reveal. For example : All men are mortal.

**Define :**

(a) Affirmative Proposition.

Ans : An affirmative proposition is one, in which the predicate affirmed of the subject.

(b) Universal Proposition.

Ans : A Universal proposition is one in which the predicate is affim whole subject.

(c) Subject.

Ans : The subject of a proposition is the term, about which something is stated

(d) Copula.

Ans : The sign of relation between the subject and the predicate is known as the copula. The copula is sign of affirmation or denial

(e) Assertory Proposition.

Ans : When the relation between the subject and the predicate is such that, it is established by experience and true so far as ou experience extends, without implying necessary, the proposition is Assertory

(f) Negative Proposition.

Ans : A Negative proposition is one is which the predicate is denied the subject.

Sl. No. | Contents |

Unit – 1 | Logic |

Unit – 2 | Proposition |

Terms | |

Proposition | |

Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition | |

Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition | |

Modern Classification of Proposition | |

Unit – 3 | Inference, Categorical Syllogism |

Inference | |

Categorical Syllogism | |

Unit – 4 | Symbolic Logic |

Unit – 5 | Philosophy |

Unit – 6 | Indian Philosophy |

Unit – 7 | Theory of Knowledge |

Rationalism & Empiricism | |

Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana | |

Unit – 8 | Realism and Idealism |

Realism | |

Idealism |

**6. Write short notes : **

**(a) Proposition. **

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between terms. In the example- ‘All men are mortal’- the subject term me and the predicate term ‘mortal’ are being related through copula ‘are’, which is the sign of affirmation and denial.

**(b) Fourfold scheme of Proposition.**

Ans : According to quantity, propositions are divided into Universal and Particulars. Both Universal and Particular propositions can be subdivided into Affirmative and Negative, according to their quality. Thus we get four logical propositions.

(i) Universal Affirmative proposition :- Which is represented by the symbol ‘A’. Example- All men are mortal.

(ii) Universal Negative Proposition :- Which is represented by the symbol ‘E’. Example – No men are perfect.

(iii) Particular Affirmative Proposition :- Which is represented by the symbol ‘I’. Example Some men are wise.

(iv) Particular Negative Proposition : Which is represented by the symbol ‘O’. Example – Some men are not wise.

**(c) Conditional Proposition. **

Ans : According to relation, propositions are divided into two kinds-

(i) Categorical and

(ii) Conditional.

A conditional proposition is one in which the affirmation or denial of the relation between the subject and the predicate is made under a certain condition. For example- If he comes than I shall go. Conditional propositions are again sub-divided into – Hypothetical and Disjunctive proposition. In Hypothetical proposition, the condition is introduced by the conjunction “if-then”. In Disjunctive proposition, the condition is not clearly stated but make an alternative assertion. The alternative are disjoined by “either-or”.

**7. Give example :**

(i) Affirmative Proposition.

Ans : Some men are wise.

(ii) Particular Proposition.

Ans : Some men are honest.

(iii) Disjunctive Proposition.

Ans : Either he will come or I shall go.

(iv) Problematic Proposition.

Ans : The boy may be naughty.

(v) Necessary Proposition.

Ans : All angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles.

**8. Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ of it is false : **

(a) Copula is the connecting word between two terms in logical proposition.

Ans : T

(b)According to relation, propositions are divided in Hypothetical proposition and disjunctive proposition.

Ans : T

(c) In categorical proposition, the relation between the subj nr ihe predicate is without any condition.

Ans : F

(d) ‘O’ proposition is particular negative.

Ans : T

(e)’karim i: a good boy’- This is a universal proposition.

Ans : F

(f) The sun rises in the east- this is a particular proposition.

Ans : F

**9. Explain clearly the relation between a judgement and a proposition.**

Ans : Judgement is the process of comparing two concepts with each other and the product of such comparison is called judgement. For example, the two concept or general ideas “Man” and “Mortal” may be compared with each other and the product of such comparison is “Man is mortal”. A judgement when expressed in language, is called a Proposition. So, a judgement is a mental process. But when a judgement is expressed in language, it is a Proposition.

**10. What do you mean by Proposition? Describe the different parts of a proposition.**

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms. In the example-“All men are rational”- The subject term ‘men’ and the predicate term ‘rational’ are being related through the copula ‘are’, which is the sign of affirmation or denial.

A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms. It consists of three parts, two terms and copula. Of these two terms one is called the subject term and the other is called predicate term. Copula is the sign of relation between the subject term and the predicate term. The subject term is that about which something is stated. The predicate term is that which is stated about the subject. The copula is the sign of affirmation or denial. In the example, “Man is mortal”, ‘Man’ is the subject term, ‘mortal is the predicate term, ‘is’ is the copula.

**11. What is a proposition? What are its different parts? Discuss the nature of copula. **

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms.

A proposition consists of three parts, two terms and copula. One of these terms one is called the subject term and the other is called the predicate term. Copula is the sign of relation between the subject term and predicate term.

Copula establishes a relation between the subject and the predicate. Copula is a word or sign or relation between the two terms. The role of copula in a proposition is very important. It is not a term. The copula should be always in the verb “to be” form and always be in the present tense. Again, the copula can only justify a proposition whether it is affirmative or negative. It should be always clear and distinct.

**12. Classify propositions according to quality and quantity.Explain and illustrate each of them.**

Ans : According to quality, propositions are divided into Affirmative and Negative.

An Affirmative proposition is one, in which the predicate is affirmed of the subject. For example – All men are mortal.

A Negative proposition, is one in which the predicate is denied of the subject. For example – No men are perfect.

In Affirmative proposition, the copula is affirmative, i.e. it has no negative sign. But in Negative proposition the copula is negative, i.e. it has a negative sign attached to it.

*According to quantity, propositions are divided into Universal and Particular.*

A Universal proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole subject. For example – All men are mortal No men are perfect.

A Particular proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of a part of the subiect. For example – Some men honest. Some men are not intelligent.

The quantity of categorical proposition is determined by the quantity of the subject.

**13. Classify propositions according to relation. Explain and illustrate the various types of conditional propositions. **

Ans : According to relation propositions are divided into categorical and Conditional

A categorical proposition is one in which the relation between the subject and the predicate is without any condition, in which the predicate is either affirmed or denied of the subject unconditionally. For example : All men are mortal. No men are perfect. In these cases, the relation between the subject and the predicate is not subject to any condition.

A conditional proposition is one is which the affirmation or denial of the relation between the subject and the predicate is made under a certain condition. For example : If he comes then I shall go.

Conditional propositions are of two kinds, viz, Hypothetical and Disjunctive.

A Hypothetical Proposition is a conditional proposition, in which the condition is introduced by the conjunction “IP or some other word equivalent to it. For example – If it rains, then the ground will wet.

A Hypothetical proposition consists of two parts, the antecedent and the consequent. The antecedent of a hypothetical proposition is that part of it which contains the condition and the consequent is that part which contains the statement,

A Disjunctive proposition is a conditional proposition, whis makes an alternative assertion, its two members being disjointe by ‘Either-or’. For example – Either he will come or I shall

**14. What is Proposition? Explain the fourfold classification, propositions. **

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms; In the example – ‘All men are mortal- the subject term “men’ and the predicate term ‘mortal’ are being related through which is the sign of affirmation or denial.

the copula ‘are’, Every sentence must be composed of words and has a meaning. But when we talk about a proposition, we are talking not about the sentence, but about what the sentence means. Every sentence does not state a proposition. Only sentences, that we use to assert something express propositions. Again, it is the proposition that is true or false, but the sentence that has meaning. So, every sentence is not a proposition, but every proposition is a sentence. Again, a proposition has three parts – subject, predicate and copula. But a proposition has two parts subject and predicate.

**15. Classify propositions according to modality. Define any one of them with suitable illustration.**

Ans : According to Modality, propositions have been divided into three classes. viz., Necessary, Assertory and Problematic.A proposition is necessary when the relation between the subject and the predicate is found on their very nature i.e., one which is universally and necessarily true. For example- “Three angles of a triangle must be equal to two right angles” is a necessary proposition.

**16. Explain with illustration the various parts of a logical proposition.**

Ans : A proposition is the statement of a certain relation between two terms. It consists of three parts, two terms and copula. Of these two terms one is called the subject term and the other is called predicate term. Copula is the sign of relation between the subject term and the predicate term. The subject term is that about which something is stated. The predicate term is that which is stated about the subject. The copula is the sign of affirmation or denial. In the example, “Man is mortal”, “Man’ is the subject term, “mortal’ is the predicate term, ‘is’ is the copula.

**17. Prove that in the Third Figure the minor premise must be affirmative.**

Ans : If the minor premise be not affirmative, it must be negative and then the major premise must be affirmative. So, the conclusion must be negation. Now, in the third figure the major term is the predicate in the major premise. The major premise being affirmative, the major term is undistributed in the premise, but the major term is distributed in the conclusion, because the conclusion is negative. Thus, if we suppose the minor premise to be negative we commit the fallacy of Illicit Major. So, the minor premise must be affirmative .

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