# Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 7 Inference

Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 7 Inference Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 7 Inference and select need one.

## Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 7 Inference

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 7 Inference Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

### Inference

Chapter – 7

LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY

VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What is conversion? Explain the rules of conversion.

Ans : Conversion is a kind of Immediate Inference, in which there is a legitimate transposition of the subject and the predicate of a proposition.

For example : Convertend-All men are mortal (A).

Converse-Some mortal beings are men (1)

The rules of conversion are as follows :

(i) The subject of the coinvertend becomes the predicate of the converse.

(ii) The predicate of the covertend becomes the subject of the converse.

(iii) The quality of the converse is the same as that of the convertend i.e. to say, if the covertend be affirmative, the converse is affirmative, and if the convertend to Negative, the converse is negative.

(iv) No term can be distributed in the converse, unless it is distributed in the convertend.

When we apply the rules in four kinds of proposition, the converse of a proposition is an I proposition.

For example : All men are mortal (A)

∴     Some mortals are men (1)

The converse of E proposition is-

No men are perfect (E)

∴       No perfect beings are men (E)

The Converse of I proposition is-

Some men are wise (1)

∴        Some wise beings are men (T)

The converse of O proposition is-

Some men are not intelligent (O)

∴        Some intelligent persons are not men.

2. What is the difference between simple conversion and conversion by limitation.

Ans : A simple conversion is that is which the quantity of the conclusion is the some as the quantity of the premise. Thus, if the converten be universal is also particular. Thus E proposition and proposition are converted simply.

Conversion per accidens is that is which the quantity of the conclusion is different from the quantity of the premise. This form of conversion is also known as conversion by limitation, Thus, in conversion by limitation, if the convertend is universal , which yields I proposition as conclusion is a case of conversion by limitation.

3. What is immediate inference?

Ans : Immediate Inference is a kind of deductive inference, in which the conclusion follows from only one premise.

4. What is obversion? Explain the rules of obversion.

Ans : Obversion is a kind of Immediate Inference, in which there is a a change in the quality of the given proposition, while its meaning remains unchanged.

The rules of obversion are as following :

(a) The subject of the obverse is the same as the subject of the obverted,

(b) The predicate of the obverse is the contradictory of the predicate of obverted.

(c) The quality of the obverse is the opposite of the quality of the obvertend, i.e. to say, if the obvertend be affirmative the obverse is negative and if the obvertend be negative, the obverse is affirmative.

(d) The quantity of the obverse is the same as the quantity of the obvertend, i.e., if the obvertend be universal, the obverse is also universal, and if the obverted be particular, the obverse is also particular.

5. Can a proposition be converted simply?

Ans : In simple conversion, the quantity of the converse is the same as the quantity of the converted. So, an a proposition can be said to be converted simple. If we can draw as 4 proposition from an A proposition by Conversion. In ordinary cases, this is not possible, because, if the converse be an A proposition, it subject will be distributed, though that term, which is the predicate of the converted, is not distributed therein. Hence, in ordinary cases, A proposition can not be converted simply.

But in certain exceptional cases of A propositions which the subject and the predicate have the same denotation, where the simple conversion of A proposition is possible. Thus, A proposition can be converted simply when the subject and the predicate are both definite singular terms or when the propositions are definitions or tautologus preposition. For example

All men are rational. (A)

∴    Converse- All rational animals are men (A)

6. Explain with example the distinction between immediate and mediate inference.

Ans : Deduction Inference have been divided into Immediate and Mediate. Immediate Inference is a kind of deductive inference, in which the conclusion follows from only one premise. Here, the meaning of a single proposition is unfolded. Again, the conclusion can not be more general than the premise. For example

All men are mortal. (A)

∴   Some mortal beings are men. (j)

In Mediate Inference, the conclusion follows from more than one proposition. There are two premises and the conclusion follows from them jointly. The mediate inference is also known as ‘syllogism’. For exampleAll

All Men are mortal.(A)

All kings are men.(A)

∴    All kings are mortal.(A)

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