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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939
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The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939
Chapter : 3
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q 1. Discuss leading to the rise of Farcism in Italy.
Ans : The post- First World War period was marked by two major political development in the world. One was rise of Fascism in Italy and the other the rise of Nazism in Germany. Both these development had far-reaching consequences and prepared the ground for the second World War. The main cause for the rise of Fascism in Italy were :
( i) Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles : The Treaty of Versailles which concluded the First World war did not fulfill the political and territorial aspiration of Italy. The gains of Italy from this Treaty were totally insignificant when compared with that of England of France. Italy had joined with the Allies in the hope of getting territories such as Trentino , the Brenner pass,Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia, etc. Which had a high percentage of Italian population. But these Territories were not handed over to Italy by this Treaty. Therefore , Italy felt cheated by the Treaty of Versailles and was determined to undo the injustice done to them.
(ii) Deteriorating economic condition : The First World War greatly affected the economy of Italy . As a direct consequences of the war , Italian economy began to decline. Many of the Industrial units were shut down. The prices rose very high. There was extreme scarcity of foodsuff in the country. Trader and commerce were badly affected. Indebtedness , pauperization , inflation , unemployment and lack of social security marked Italy during this period. This created a great deal of disorder and chaos in the country , enabling the Fascists to come up within a short time .
(iii) political disorder: The government during this period was inefficient and weak . It failed to baring order in the country. During this period ( from 23 june 1919 to 31 October 1922 ) , over six Minister came to power one after another . But , none of them could do anything to improve the condition of the country , Thus , the political instability crippled with economic hardship forced the people to opt for patties that promised better deal . It helped the rise of Fascism Under Benito Mussolini.
(iv) Fear of Communist : Between the period 1919 and 1922, the communist movement in Italy began to spread rapidly. The Increasing influence of the communist in the country frightened the wealthy section of the Italian population- the capitalists, the Industrialists, big landowners, etc. The prevailing communist phobia led people to join hands with the fascist group of Mussolini who promised to bring an efficient government and Social security in the country.
Q 2. Give the brife history of Fascism in Italy.
Ans : The rise and development of Fascism in an Italy is an important Milestone in the history of Europe during the post – First World War period . The war had caused immense economic hardship for the people of Italy leading to widespread disconnect in the country . The existing Italian government was weak , inefficient and lacked popular support. These conditions helped the rise of fascists who promised better condition in Italy.
(i) Beginning of the movement : The word ‘ Fascism ‘ originated from the latina word’ Fasces’ which means’group’ or’ ‘party’. Taking advantage of the prevailing political unstability during the post First – world war period, Mussolini organized the youths of Italy into’ fasces’ and urged them to work against the member of other political parties.The. First group of Fascists was organized in Milan on 23 March 1919 .
There was great anti- Russian and anti- communist propaganda in Europe, soon after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Italy was also affected by this propaganda. The vast majority of the people of Italy particularly the wealthy section flocked to the Fascist group as they promised freedom from communism. Fascism was welcomed as a panacea against the so – called communist evil.
(ii) Growth of Fascism : As there was a great deal of Dissatisfaction with the existing political group in the country, the youth of Italy were attached by the policies and promises of Mussolini. Within a short time, Fascism became a popular party . The first all Italian congress of the Fascists was held in 1919. It had 22 units with a total membership of 17, 000. The membership rose to 30,000 with 118 units , in the second congress held in 1920.
The third congress was held in 1921 with a total mambership of 3,00,000 and had 2,200 units in different parts of the country. A volunteer force was organised from the trusted members and thet were given the task of fighting against the community who had become quite strong in Italy by that time . This created a civil war like situation in Italy in 1921. There was no rule of law. The government machinery was ineffective to deal with the situation .
In an atmosphere of political uncertainty and chaos , the country witnessed general election in may, 1921. A total of 36 candidates, including Mussolini of the Fascists returned to the Parliament. The Fascists used their presence in the Parliament to Increase their infulance in the country . They began to attack the communist and socialist openly. The meetings held by other political parties and Leader were attacked and dispersed by the Fascist.
(iii) Capture if power : Mussolini organised the greatest mobilization of the Fascists towards the end of October , 1922 for the capture of Rome. Being threatened by the Mussolini, Facta, the prime Ministers of Italy , advise King, Victor Emanuel III , to impose martial law in the country , but the king refugsed. Therefore , Facta resigned on 27 October, 1922 and on 28 October 1922, Mussolini stared his famous March Rome. On reaching Rome he was my made the prime Ministers of the country by the King on 30 october 1922. The Parliament gave Mussolini absolute power to bring law and order in the country.
Within a short period, Benito Mussolini captured all power and became an absolute ruler. He organised the Fascists into a political organisation and gave them certain fundamental principales. The Parliament of Italy gave absolute and autocratic power to Mussolini for one year so that he can restore law and order in the country.
Q 3. Discuss the foreign policy of Italy under Benito Mussolini .
Ans : The rise of Fascism in Italy had serious consequences in the history of Europe during the pos- world war period. It ushered new concepts and trends in the world politics. Fascism rose up manily as a result of the economic and political instability that exists in Italy during the post – World War period . Fascism was started by Benito Mussolini in Italy in March , 1919 and they 1922. Within a few years, Fascists led by Mussolini captured all state power and turned Italy into an automatic state.
Benito mussolini followed an aggressive foreign policy. The Treaty of Versailles that concluded the First World War had prevented Italy’s territorial aspirations. Italy had joined the Allied Powers during the war with the hope of getting territories like Trentino, the Brenner pass, Trieste, Istria Dalmatia, etc. Which had a high percentage of Italian population. But, her hopes were dashed to the ground by the Treaty of Versailles. Were dashed to the ground by the Treaty of Versailles.
Mussolini, therefore, determined to undo the harm done to Italy by this Treaty wanted more Colonies for supply of essential raw – materials which Italy lacked and also areas for setting the extra population of the country.
As part of his aggressive foreign policy, he wanted to convert the Mediterranean Sea into a lake of Italy and wanted to establish control over the countries that existed in the coast of the Mediterranean.
Therefore, he occupied island of corfu from Greece and later handed it over to her in lieu of a huge amount of money. In 1935, he attached Abyssinia ( Ethiopia) and in may , 1936 annexed it to Italy. In 2936 , Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian somaliland were United with Italian East Africa and made part of the greater Italian empire by a government proclamation.
In 1939 , Italy attacked Albania forcing the king of Albania to flee. Later , Albania was annexed to the Italian empire . These events brought Italy and Germany on a common platform as both countries wanted more Colonies and desired for the nullification of the Treaty of Versailles. This resulted in the formation of Rome – Berlin Axis in October, 1936. In November communist pact. Italy too joined this pact making it ‘ Rome -Berlin – Tokyo Axis.’ These developments had great impact on the political atmosphere of Europe . It created a sense of fear and suspicion among the other major European countries.
Nevertheless , England and France greatly ravaged by the after – effects of the first world war followed a policy of appeasement. They preference not to provoke and precipitate the existing tension in the international area.Thus, the policy of appeasement allowed Italy and Germany to get away with their annexations. and conquests.
Q 4. Discuss the causes of the rise and growth of Nazism in Germany.
Ans : The rise abd growth of nazaim in Germany had far- reaching repercussions in the history of the world during the pos- First World war period. Nazaim was one of the factors that prepared the ground for the outbreak of the second world war. The main causes for the rise of nazaim in Germany were :
(i) Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles : The Treaty of Versailles was a dictated treaty. It was a humiliating treaty for Germany. Her Territories were forcibly taken away. She was deprived of all her foreign Colonies. She was hemmed from all sides. Her military strength was completely reduced and made powerless. She had to pay a huge war indemnity. The result of f these harsh terms was that it brought untold misery to the People of Germany. The Germans on the whole wanted to get rid of this humiliating treaty. This national feeling helped the Nazis to come up within a short time.
(ii) Economic hardship: During the first world war two decades following the first world war, the Economic condition of Germany was in a miserable state. Out of the 70 million people of the country, about 5 million were unemployed. Trade and commerce had come to a standstill. The prices of foodstuffs began to skyrocket agricultural fields were destroy. As a result, the Germany currency, the mark, sank in value.
The financial burden imposed by the Allies on germany was too high to be paid and its payment caused immense hardship for the people. This gave the Nazis an opportunity to come up and satisfy people’s aspirations and goals.
(iii) Anti-commusim : The anti- commusim ideals class, the Industrialists and the wealthy classes of Germany. In February, 1933 van der lubbe , a Dutchman set fire to the German to parliament. The cause or the aim behind the incident was not known. But, Hitler utilized it against the Communists and spread the rumour that it was caused by the communists. Begin frightened of the communists, the people in general flocked to the Nazis.
(iv) Able leadership : Another important factor that helped the rise of Nazism in Germany during the post- first world War period was the able leadership proved by Adolf Hitler. He knew the art of getting people to believe his words. He aroused the German passion and spoke of the superiority of the German blood. He was able to get people’s support since he spoke of their well- begin.
(v) Incompetent government : Soon after king , william II,
fled from Germany to Holland in November 1918, Fredrick herr Ebert of the social Demoratic party was appointed the Chancellor of Germany. The new parliament form after the general election in January 1919, framed a new constiuction established a republican Government and Chancellor frederich herr Ebert were made the president of the German republic.
The republican Government failed to satisfy the aspirations of the people completely and also failed to bring peace and order in the country. In this background, Adolf Hitler Formed the nationalist Socialists German workers party, i.e. nazi party in April, 1920. Hitler promised to undo the injustice done to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles as well as to bring back the former glory of Germany. The German youth were charmed by his words and within a short time, Nazis became the most important political power in the country.
Q5. What were the political aims and objectives of Hitler? Discuss.
Ans : The rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany during the the post-First world war period is an important period in the history of the world. Hitler fromed the nazi party in party in April 1920 and within a few years he captured all power and controlled the destiny of Germany for two decades. The main political aims and objectives of the Hitler were:
(i) Hitler wanted to nullify the Treaty of Versailles Which was a humiliating treaty for the Germans. Germany was hemmed from all sides. All her colonies were taken away. Hitler wanted sufficient colonies for the expansion and growth of Germany. He looked towards the north- Eastern Europe and to soviet Russia for German expansion.
(ii) Hitler believed in the purity of Germans blood and German race. He argued that the Germans belonged to the Aryan blood and were Far superior to other races if the world. He aroused german passion and raised self- image.
(iii) The notion that the German races was superior to all other races of the world, especially the Jews was propagated.
(iv) Hitler tried to reconstruct the economy and the German society by introducing a programme named the 25-point Economic programme. The 25-point Economic programme included:
( a) Acceptance and application of the principle of national self- determination to the people of German Origin and allowing them to become citizens of one single German state.
(b) nullification of the Treaty of Versailles st germain.
(c) Establishemeant of Colonies for the excess population of Germany.
(d) organisation of National Armed froces in place of professional military force.
(v) Nazi party spent considerable amount of money and time for party propaganda. It devoted much of its energy organizing the carders against other patties and against the Allied Powers. The youth of Germany were promised employment, self- respect and better livelihood.
(vi) Like Fascism, Nazaim, opposed democracy and the practices of decomcary. Hitler never believe in democracy and even the opinion of this party were not tolerated he believed in the principle of one state, one party and one leader.
(vii) Nazi party in order to strengthen the position of Hitler organized unconditional parliamentary forces. This force was used to terrorize the men of the opposition groups and to get rid of opponents of Hitler. These illegal Armed Germany. Apart from this, there was another group which Hitler. It was called the’ shutzstaffel’ or S.S. These two groups let loose a reign of terror and killed hundreds of Germans in 30 June 1934.
(viii) The Nazi party also started a hate campaign against the Communists. During the post- First World War period, the Communists had made many inroads in Germany . The Nazi party reminded the Germans About the denger of Communism and what happened in Russia. Therefore, Many of the Industrialists and capitalists of Germany flocked to the Nazi party and contributed much fund for the party.
(ix) The worldwide Economic depression following The first world war , created a sense of panic among the capitalists and the Industrialists of Germany leading to fruition and uncertainty among the general public and many of for German population.
The political ambition of the war veterans and ex- military men was another important cause which led to the rise and growth of nazaim in Germany. The nazi party was joined by many ex-military men , ex- Generals and other High official, in order to accomplish their political ambition in life.
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