Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

The United Nations Organization

Chapter: 5


Very short Answer Type Questions: 

(Mention the dates of the following events): 

(a) Established of the League of Nations,

(b) Atlantic Charter, 

(c) Death of Dag Hammrskjold,

(d) Assassination of Patrice Lumumba,

(e) Independence of Namibia, 

(f) Creation of the state of Israel.

Ans: (a) Establishment of the league of nations : 10 January 1920

(b) Atlantic Charter : 14 August 1941

(c) Death of Dag Hammarskjold : 17 September 1961

(d) Assassination of Patrice Lumumba : January, 1961

(e) Independence of Namibia : 21 March 1990 

(f) Creation of the state of Israel : 14 may 1948

Short Answer Type Questions

(a) Aims and objectives of the UNO.

Ans: The aims and objectives of the UNO are: 

(i) To maintain inter­national peace and security.

(ii) To encourage international cooperation in the spheres of social, economic and cultural developments.

(iii) To develop friendly relations among nations on principles of equal rights and self- determination.

(iv) To recognize the fundamental rights of all people.

(b) Dumbarton Oaks conference.

Ans: The Dumbarton Oaks Conference, or, more formally, the Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization, was an international conference at which proposals for the establishment of a “general international organization”, which was to become the United Nations, were formulated and negotiated. The conference was led by the Four Policemen – the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China. It was held at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C., from August 21, 1944, to October 7, 1944.

The Dumbarton Oaks conference was held in washington in the month of August and October in 1944. It was Organised to take on the decision taken by the super powers of the world such as USA , Soviet Russia, Great Britain, France and China. It was in this conference that the name United Nations Organization’ was proposed.

(c) San Francisco conference.

Ans: The San Francisco conference was held on 26 April 1945,at the theatre hall in san francisco. The head of the conference was the secretary of State of the United States of America, Mr Edward stettinius. Forty-six nations, including the four sponsors, were originally invited to the San Francisco Conference. These were the nations which had declared war on Germany and Japan and had subscribed to the United Nations Declaration. One of these nations – Poland – did not send a representative because the composition of its new government was not announced until too late for the conference. Therefore, a space was left for the signature of Poland, one of the original signatories of the United Nations Declaration. At the time of the conference there was no generally recognized Polish Government, but on 28 June such a government was announced and on 15 October 1945, Poland signed the Charter, thus becoming one of the original 51 Members.

(d) Secretary General of the UNO.

Ans: The secretary-general is appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. As the recommendation must come from the Security Council, any of the five permanent members of the council can veto a nomination. Most secretaries general are compromise candidates from middle powers and have little prior fame.

The length of the term is discretionary, but all secretaries-general since 1971 have been appointed to five-year terms. Every secretary-general since 1961 has been re-selected for a second term, with the exception of Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was vetoed by the United States in the 1996 selection. There is a customary but unofficial[5] term limit of two full terms, established when China, in the 1981 selection, cast a record 16 vetoes against a third term for Kurt Waldheim. No secretary-general since 1981 has attempted to secure a third term.

(e) Fund of UNO.

Ans: The United Nations (UN) is funded through a combination of assessed contributions from member states and voluntary contributions.

The annual expenditure of the UNO is met by the funds procured vy donation and membership fees. The total annual expenditure of the UNO comes nearly to 6 billion US dollars. Out of the total fund of the UNO, one- third comes in terms of compulsory levy from the member states and the rest two- third comes from voluntary donation. The amount each member state contributes is based on a scale of assessments that takes into account their relative wealth and income. The five permanent members of the UN Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have a larger share of the budget compared to other member states.

(f) Crisis in congo.

Ans: The Congo Crisis (French: Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict between 1960 and 1965 in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo).[c] The crisis began almost immediately after the Congo became independent from Belgium and ended, unofficially, with the entire country under the rule of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. Constituting a series of civil wars, the Congo Crisis was also a proxy conflict in the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and the United States supported opposing factions. Around 100,000 people are believed to have been killed during the crisis.

A nationalist movement in the Belgian Congo demanded the end of colonial rule: this led to the country’s independence on 30 June 1960. Minimal preparations had been made and many issues, such as federalism, tribalism, and ethnic nationalism, remained unresolved. In the first week of July, a mutiny broke out in the army and violence erupted between black and white civilians. Belgium sent troops to protect fleeing white citizens. Katanga and South Kasai seceded with Belgian support. Amid continuing unrest and violence, the United Nations deployed peacekeepers, but UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists.

(g) Promised of Namibia.

Ans: Namibian  deputy minister of information Stanley Simataa has promised to propose an access to information bill in July, according to an article in The Namibian.

The pledge came in a keynote address delivered on his behalf by Frans Nghitila, director of media relations in the information ministry, during the Media Institute of Southern Africa (Misa) Namibia’s World Press Freedom Day held in Windhoek.

“Simataa said under the Harambee Prosperity Plan, government seeks to promote access to public information, address journalists’ concerns about the bureaucratic nature of accessing information from public bodies and advance transparency and accessibility,” summarized the newspaper. “He also said in the spirit of the Harambee plan, his ministry is expediting the deployment of e−governance to cover all ministries and public agencies by 2020.”

Essay Type Questions

Q 1. Give a brief account of the organisational set up of the UNO. 

Ans: The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. The UN Charter establishes the UN’s six principal organs. 

They are:

(i) The General Assembly: The UN General Assembly (UNGA) is the main policy-making organ of the Organization. Comprising all Member States, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter of the United Nations. Each of the 193 Member States of the United Nations has an equal vote. 

(ii) The security Council: The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. Under the Charter of the United Nations, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.

The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.

(iii) The Economic and social council: ECOSOC was established by the UN Charter (1945), which was amended in 1965 and 1974 to increase the number of members from 18 to 54. ECOSOC membership is based on geographic representation: 14 seats are allocated to Africa, 11 to Asia, 6 to eastern Europe, 10 to Latin America and the Caribbean, and 13 to western Europe and other areas. Members are elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) deals with economic, social, cultural and health matters as well as human rights and fundamental freedoms. It also coordinates the work of the UN and the specialized agencies.

(iv) The Trusteeship council: The Trusteeship Council suspended its operations on 1 November 1994, a month after the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.

(v) The International court of justice: The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). This is the principal judicial organ of the UN. Its headquarters is at Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judge elected independently by the security Council and the General Assembly for a nine year term.

(vi) The secretariat: The Secretariat’s personnel in effect constitute an international civil service. Among them are translators, clerks, technicians, administrators, project directors, and negotiators. The secretary-general is elected by the General Assembly, on the recommendation of the Security Council, for a renewable five-year term.

Q 2. Discuss the procedure of the Formation of the security Council. What are the powers of the security Council?

Ans: The Security Council originally consisted of 11 members — five permanent members (the Republic of China [Taiwan], France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and six nonpermanent members elected by the UN General Assembly for two-year terms. An amendment to the UN Charter in 1965 increased council membership to 15, including the original five permanent members and 10 nonpermanent members. Among the permanent members, the People’s Republic of China replaced the Republic of China in 1971, and the Russian Federation succeeded the Soviet Union in 1991. The nonpermanent members are generally chosen to achieve equitable representation among geographic regions, with five members coming from Africa or Asia, one from eastern Europe, two from Latin America, and two from western Europe or other areas. Five of the 10 nonpermanent members are elected each year by the General Assembly for two-year terms, and five retire each year. The presidency is held by each member in rotation for a period of one month.

The main powers and function of the security Council are: 

(i) To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.

(ii) To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.

(iii) To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement.

(iv) To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.

(v) To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken.

(vi) To call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression. 

(vii) To take military action against an aggressor.

(viii) To recommend the admission of new Members.

(ix) To exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”.

(x) To recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

Q 3. What are the different organs the UNO?

Ans: The United Nations (UN) is composed of several principal organs, each with specific responsibilities and functions. 

These organs are outlined in the UN Charter and include:

(i) General Assembly: The General Assembly is the main deliberative and policymaking organ of the UN. It consists of all 193 member states, each of which has one vote. The General Assembly discusses and makes decisions on a wide range of issues, including peace and security, development, human rights, and international law. It also elects non-permanent members of the Security Council, approves the UN budget, and establishes specialized agencies and programs.

(ii) Security Council: The Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, including five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) with veto power and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms. The Security Council has the authority to authorize peacekeeping missions, impose sanctions, and take action to address threats to peace, including the use of force in certain circumstances.

(iii) Secretariat: The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General and is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day work of the UN. It provides administrative, logistical, and substantive support to the other organs of the UN, including organizing meetings, preparing reports, and implementing decisions. The Secretariat is based at UN headquarters in New York City but also has offices and agencies around the world.

(iv) International Court of Justice (ICJ): The ICJ is the principal judicial organ of the UN and is responsible for settling legal disputes between states. It consists of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for nine-year terms. The ICJ hears cases submitted by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies.

(v) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): ECOSOC is responsible for promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It consists of 54 member states elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. ECOSOC coordinates the work of UN specialized agencies, funds, and programs in areas such as economic development, education, health, and human rights. It also conducts reviews and provides policy guidance on global development issues.

(vi) Trusteeship Council: The Trusteeship Council was established to oversee the administration of trust territories and ensure their transition to self-government or independence. It originally had five permanent members (China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) but ceased its operations in 1994 after the last trust territory attained independence. It now meets only as needed.

(vii) Specialized Agencies and Programs: The UN has several specialized agencies, funds, and programs that focus on specific areas of international cooperation and development, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Food Programme (WFP). These entities operate independently but work closely with the UN to achieve shared goals and objectives.

These organs form the institutional framework of the United Nations and work together to promote peace, security, development, and human rights around the world.

Q 4. What are the functions of organs of the UNO?

Ans: The functions of organs of the UNO are: 

(i) The General Assembly: 

(a) Deliberative Functions: The General Assembly serves as the main deliberative body of the UN, where all member states have equal representation and can discuss and debate global issues.

(b) Policymaking: It makes recommendations and adopts resolutions on a wide range of topics, including peace and security, development, human rights, and international law.

(c) Oversight: The General Assembly oversees the work of other UN organs and specialized agencies, approves the UN budget, and elects non-permanent members of the Security Council.

(ii) The security Council: 

(a) Maintenance of Peace and Security: The Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It identifies threats to peace, makes decisions on conflict resolution, and authorizes peacekeeping missions, sanctions, and military action if necessary.

(b) Conflict Resolution: The Security Council mediates conflicts, negotiates peace agreements, and facilitates diplomatic efforts to resolve disputes between states.

(c) Enforcement: It has the authority to enforce its decisions, including the imposition of sanctions and the authorization of military force to address threats to peace.

(iii) The Economic and social council: 

(a) Coordination: ECOSOC coordinates the work of UN specialized agencies, funds, and programs in areas such as economic development, social progress, education, health, and human rights.

(b) Policy Guidance: It provides policy guidance and recommendations on global economic and social issues, including sustainable development, poverty eradication, gender equality, and environmental sustainability.

(c) Monitoring: ECOSOC monitors global trends and developments in economic and social fields, conducts reviews of progress towards international development goals, and promotes international cooperation and partnerships to address global challenges.

(iv) The Trusteeship council: 

(a) Trusteeship Administration: The Trusteeship Council was responsible for overseeing the administration of trust territories and ensuring their transition to self-government or independence.

(b) Assistance and Support: It provided assistance and support to trust territories in areas such as education, healthcare, infrastructure development, and governance, with the goal of promoting their social and economic progress.

(v) The International court of justice: 

(a) Adjudication: The ICJ settles legal disputes between states based on international law. It hears cases submitted by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies.

(b) Interpretation: It interprets international treaties, conventions, and agreements and provides authoritative guidance on legal issues affecting international relations.

(vi) The secretariat: 

(a) Administrative Support: The Secretariat provides administrative, logistical, and substantive support to the other UN organs and specialized agencies.

(b) Implementation: It implements decisions and resolutions adopted by the General Assembly, Security Council, and other UN bodies, including organizing meetings, preparing reports, and managing UN operations and programs.

(c) Mediation and Diplomacy: The Secretary-General and Secretariat officials engage in diplomatic efforts and mediation to prevent conflicts, resolve disputes, and promote dialogue and cooperation among member states.

Q 5. Discuss the achievement of the UNO.

Ans: The establishments of the United Nations Organization on 24 October 19545 was the Most lasting and the Most important result of the second world war . Since its formation, it has worked immensely for the maintenance of international peace and security Following are the main achievement of the UNO: 

(i) UNO has rendered a great service in establishing peace and security by solving various problems generally political disputes by security council, legal disputes by international court of justice and others by special agencies.

(ii) The UNO has solved many international disputes and preserves peace in the world through peaceful negotiations.

(iii) It settled disputes between Israel and Palestine, Iran and Iraq and withdrawal of soviet troops from Afghanistan.

(iv) It has signed many Nuclear Test Ban Treaties like NTBT in 1963 and CTBT in 1996

(v) In the UN conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, all countries adopted “Agenda 21”-a blueprint to promote sustainable development or the concept of economic growth while protecting natural resoources.

(vi) The UN Development fund for women(UNIFEM) and the Interntional Research and Training institute for the advancement of women (INSTRAW) have supported programmes and projects to improve the quality of life for women in over 100 countries.

(vii) The UNO played a vital role in the suez canal crisis of 1956

(viii) It made France, British and Israel to withdraw troops from Egypt. The UNO also settled the Korean war and Vietnam war. 

Q 6. Discuss the cause leading to the outbreak of the Korean war.

Ans: The causes leading to the outbreak of the Korea war were: 

(i) Division of Korea: After World War II, Korea, which had been under Japanese colonial rule, was divided along the 38th parallel into two separate zones of occupation, with the Soviet Union occupying the north and the United States occupying the south. The division was intended to be temporary, but efforts to reunify the country under a single government failed, leading to the establishment of separate regimes in the north (communist) and south (anti-communist).

(ii) Ideological Differences: The division of Korea reflected broader ideological tensions between communism and capitalism during the Cold War. The Soviet Union supported the establishment of a communist regime in North Korea, while the United States backed the anti-communist government in South Korea. The ideological rivalry between the two Koreas fueled tensions and hostility between the two sides.

(iii) Border Clashes and Provocations: In the years leading up to the Korean War, there were numerous border clashes and provocations between North and South Korea. Both sides engaged in skirmishes along the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and engaged in propaganda warfare, contributing to a hostile and volatile atmosphere.

(iv) Desire for Reunification: Both North and South Korea aspired to reunify the peninsula under their respective governments. Kim Il-sung, the leader of North Korea, sought to reunify Korea under communist rule through force if necessary, viewing the division of the country as illegitimate. Meanwhile, Syngman Rhee, the president of South Korea, also advocated for reunification but under the banner of anti-communism.

(v) International Proxy Conflict: The Korean War became a proxy conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, who supported their respective allies in North and South Korea. The broader context of the Cold War, with its geopolitical competition and ideological struggle, contributed to the escalation of tensions in Korea and the involvement of external powers.

(vi) Outbreak of War: The Korean War erupted on June 25, 1950, when North Korean forces invaded South Korea by crossing the 38th parallel. The invasion caught the South Korean and international community by surprise and led to a rapid escalation of hostilities. The United Nations Security Council condemned the invasion and authorized military intervention to repel the North Korean aggression, marking the beginning of the Korean War.

Q 7. Give a brief review of the Vietnamese struggle for liberation.

Ans: In 1943 a Vietnamese nationalist group known as the Viet Minh began fighting the Japanese for Vietnam’s freedom. The group was led by the communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh—a man who was to play a major role in Vietnamese history. Ho’s Viet Minh liberated much of northern Vietnam from Japanese control.

The Vietnamese struggle for independence was one of the Most heroic struggle for freedom ever fought in the world. Vietnam became a mere pawn on the chessboard for the two superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Russia to play their diplomatic game. Eventually, the people of Vietnam rose up in arms and fought for their freedom.

“The United States regards as vital to its national interest and to world peace the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.” 

The Communists of North Viet-Nam and China are eager to take over this fertile area, not by the type of open aggression used in Korea but by attack from within, by covert aggression through guerilla warfare, and by infiltrating trained men and arms across national frontiers. Communist success in Laos and South Viet-Nam would gravely threaten the freedom and independence of the rest of Southeast Asia. It would undermine the neutrality of Cambodia, would make Thailand’s position practically untenable, would increase the already great pressure on Burma, would place India in jeopardy of being outflanked, would enlarge Communist influence and pressures on Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, and would impair the free-world defense position in all of Asia.

Q 8. How did UNO resolve the crisis in the middle East? 

Ans: The United Nations (UN) has been involved in various efforts to resolve crises in the Middle East over the years, particularly regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and other regional conflicts. While the UN has not always been successful in fully resolving these complex issues, it has played a significant role in diplomatic initiatives, peacekeeping operations, humanitarian aid, and promoting dialogue and negotiations. Here are some ways in which the UN has been involved in resolving the crisis in the Middle East.

The UN has facilitated diplomatic negotiations and mediation efforts aimed at resolving the Israeli Palestinian conflict and other regional disputes. For example, the UN has sponsored peace talks, summits, and conferences bringing together Israeli and Palestinian leaders and other stakeholders to negotiate peace agreements and find mutually acceptable solutions to the conflict.

The UN Security Council has adopted numerous resolutions addressing various aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including issues such as settlements, borders, Jerusalem, refugees, and security. These resolutions often call for a two-state solution, the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of Israeli forces from occupied territories, and respect for international law and human rights.

The UN and its agencies, such as the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), provide humanitarian aid and assistance to vulnerable populations affected by conflict and displacement in the Middle East, including Palestinians, Syrians, Iraqis, and Yemenis.

The UN encourages dialogue, negotiations, and confidence-building measures between conflicting parties in the Middle East to address underlying grievances, build trust, and promote peaceful coexistence. The UN Secretary-General and special envoys play important roles in facilitating these efforts.

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