Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

The First World War

Chapter: 2



Q 1. Who were the members of the Alliance? 

Ans: The members of the Triple Alliance were Germany, Australia and Italy. 

Q 2. Who were the members of the Triple Entente? 

Ans: The members of the Triple Entente were England, France and Russia.

Q 3. What was the immediate causes of the First World war?

Ans: The murder of Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria at sarajevo on 28 June 1914.

Q 4. Who assassinated the Austrian prince Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo?

Ans: Gavrilo Princip.

Q 5. What was the percentage of defence expenditure of Germany during the 1870-1914? 

Ans: The percentage of defence expenditure of Germany during 1870-1914 was nearly 335%. 

Q 6. What was the percentage of defence expenditure of England during 1870-1914.

Ans: 180%. 

Q 7. What was the percentage of defence expenditure of Russia during 1870-1914?

Ans: 214%.

Q 9. Who were the members of the central powers? 

Ans: The Allies described the wartime military alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire as the ‘Central Powers’.

Q 10. How many people died, as a result of German attack on Lusitania?

Ans: About 1200 people of the German attack on the British ship named Lusitania.

Q 11. Which countries were defeated at the naval battle of Gallipoli.

Ans: England and France were defeated at the naval battle of Gallipoli.

Q 12. Which country did frist use Tanks in the First World war? 

Ans: England was the first country to use Tanks in the  First World War.

Q 13. How many soldiers died in First World War? 

Ans: About 13 Million soldiers died in First World War. 

Q 14. How many delegates attended the peace Conference at Versailles? 

Ans: 70 delegates attended the peace Conference at Versailles.

Q 15. Who authored the ‘Fourteen points’? 

Ans: The ‘Fourteen Point’ was authored by Woodrow Wilson, the US president.

Q 16. How many provisions did the Treaty of Versailles contain? 

Ans: The Treaty of Versailles contained 440 provisions which were divided into 14 parts.

Q 17. Who represented England in the peace Conference of Versailles? 

Ans: Lloyd George, the prime Ministers of England represented England in the peace Conference of Versailles.

Q 18. Who represented Italy in peace Conference of Versailles? 

Ans: Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy represented in the peace Conference of Versailles.

Q 19. Who represented France in the peace Conference of Versailles? 

Ans: Clemenceau, the prime Ministers of France represented France in the peace Conference of Versailles.

Q 20. Who represented the USA in the peace Conference of Versailles? 

Ans: Woodrow Wilson, the US president represented  the USA in peace Conference of Versailles.

Q 21. What was the amount of reparation imposed on Germany by the Allies?

Ans: The amount of reparation imposed on Germany by the Allies was 6,000 million sterling pounds.

Q 22. What was the gain of Italy in the Treaty of Versailles? 

Ans: The main gain of Italy from the Treaty of Versailles was that she got Tyrol from Austria. 

Q 23. What was the gain of poland in the Treaty of Versailles? 

Ans: The main gain of poland from the Treaty of Versailles was that she got posen and West prussia from Germany and Galicia from Austria.

Short Answer Type Questions  

Q 1. Mention the countries of Balkan peninsula.

Ans: There is no universal agreement on what constitutes the Balkans. However, the following are usually included: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia. Portions of Greece and Turkey are also within the Balkan Peninsula.

Q 2. Mention four terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Ans: The terms of the treaty required that Germany pay financial reparations, disarm, lose territory, and give up all of its overseas colonies. It also called for the creation of the League of Nations, an institution that President Woodrow Wilson strongly supported and had originally outlined in his Fourteen Points address.

Q 3. The War Situation in 1914.

Ans: The year 1914 marked the beginning of World War I, a global conflict that engulfed much of Europe and other regions of the world.

The war began on July 28, 1914, with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, triggering a chain reaction of alliances and declarations of war among European powers.

Europe was divided into two main alliance blocs: the Triple Entente (comprising France, Russia, and the United Kingdom) and the Triple Alliance (comprising Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy). When war broke out, these alliances led to a wider conflict, as each nation was bound to support its allies.

The war also spread to the Balkans and the Middle East. Austria-Hungary and Germany fought against Serbia and Montenegro in the Balkans, while the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. The Ottoman Empire’s entry into the war led to campaigns in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Gallipoli Peninsula.

World War I quickly escalated into a global conflict, with fighting occurring in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. European colonial empires were drawn into the conflict, with battles taking place in colonies and territories around the world.

Q 4. The War Situation in 1918.

Ans: Convinced that Austria-Hungary was readying for war, the Serbian government ordered the Serbian army to mobilize and appealed to Russia for assistance. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers quickly collapsed.

Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.

According to an aggressive military strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan (named for its mastermind, German Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen), Germany began fighting World War I on two fronts, invading France through neutral Belgium in the west and confronting Russia in the east.

On August 4, 1914, German troops crossed the border into Belgium. In the first battle of World War I, the Germans assaulted the heavily fortified city of Liege, using the most powerful weapons in their arsenal—enormous siege cannons—to capture the city by August 15. The Germans left death and destruction in their wake as they advanced through Belgium toward France, shooting civilians and executing a Belgian priest they had accused of inciting civilian resistance.

Q 5. The military provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.

Ans: The military provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28, 1919, imposed significant restrictions on Germany’s military capabilities. These provisions were aimed at reducing Germany’s ability to wage war and preventing it from posing a threat to European security.

Some key military provisions are:

(i) Limitation of Armed Forces: The treaty limited the size of the German Army to 100,000 troops, excluding officers and certain specialized units. The treaty also prohibited the conscription of soldiers, ensuring that Germany could not rapidly expand its military in the future.

(ii) Disarmament: Germany was required to disarm and dismantle much of its military equipment, including artillery, tanks, aircraft, and warships. The treaty imposed strict limits on the number and types of weapons that Germany was allowed to possess.

(iii) Ban on Offensive Weapons: The treaty prohibited Germany from developing or possessing certain offensive weapons, including tanks, poison gas, and heavy artillery. These restrictions aimed to prevent Germany from rearming and launching future aggressive military campaigns.

(iv) Military Control Commission: The Allies established a Military Control Commission to oversee Germany’s compliance with the military provisions of the treaty. This commission had the authority to enforce disarmament measures and ensure that Germany adhered to its obligations.

Easy Types Questions 

Q 1. Discuss four major cause of the First World War.

Ans: The four major causes of the First World War are: 

(i) Militarism: The most significant cause of the war was militarism. Militarism was a concept that glorified war and the military and was widely spread through Europe during the 19th century. It pushed nations to be ready for war and led to an arms race. This caused tension between countries and rivalry, as they struggled to outdo each other as the most powerful.

(ii) Imperialism: Imperialism was a motive of making countries stronger and more powerful, which led to tension between countries. Germany and Britain used imperialism to build their empires, which led to tension between them. Many European countries practiced imperialism to build their empires and expand their possessions. This caused tension between the European countries and rivalry, as they struggled to outdo each other as the most powerful nation in Europe.

(iii) Nationalism: Nationalism was also a major cause of World War I. It made people decide their loyalty based on ethnic or cultural background, instead of shared interests or ideals.

(iv) Secret Diplomacy: It was also called “Secret Sympathies” because countries would secretly negotiate their alliances and tactics to gain an advantage over each other.

Q 2. Discuss the major military pacts and Alliance contracted by the European powers before the outbreak of the First World war.

Ans: The outbreak of the First World war in 1914 is one of the major events of world history after which the world has never remained the same. One of the most important factors was the formation of alliances and pacts by the different countries of Europe. It Bismarck who initiated the system of pacts and Alliances  in Europe. 

Here’s a brief overview of the major military pacts and alliances contracted by the European powers: 

Triple Entente:

(i) United Kingdom: The United Kingdom formed the core of the Triple Entente. British policymakers sought to maintain a balance of power in Europe and prevent any single nation from dominating the continent.

(ii) France: France had a long-standing rivalry with Germany, particularly over territorial disputes in Alsace-Lorraine. France formed a close alliance with Russia to counter the perceived threat from Germany.

(iii) Russia: Russia sought to expand its influence in the Balkans and Eastern Europe. In 1894, Russia formed a military alliance with France, known as the Franco-Russian Alliance, which committed both countries to mutual defense in the event of an attack by Germany or Austria-Hungary.

Triple Alliance:

(i) Germany: Germany sought to consolidate its position as the dominant power in Europe. In 1882, Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy, committing the three nations to mutual defense in the event of an attack by France or Russia.

(ii) Austria-Hungary: Austria-Hungary, a multi-ethnic empire, was concerned about the rise of nationalism and separatist movements within its borders. The alliance with Germany provided Austria-Hungary with a powerful ally in the event of conflict with Russia or France.

(iii) Italy: Italy initially joined the Triple Alliance in 1882, primarily as a counterbalance to French and British influence in the Mediterranean. However, Italy’s relations with Austria-Hungary soured over territorial disputes, and Italy remained neutral at the outbreak of World War I.

These military pacts and alliances created a complex web of diplomatic relationships and commitments among European powers. They were intended to deter aggression and maintain peace, but ultimately contributed to the escalation of tensions and the outbreak of World War I. When conflict erupted in 1914, the alliances led to a rapid mobilization of military forces and the widening of the war into a global conflict.

Q 3. Narrate briefly the circumstances leading to the division of Europe into two opposing armed camps before the outbreak of the First World War.

Ans: The division of Europe into two opposing armed camps before the outbreak of World War I was primarily driven by a combination of political, military, and diplomatic factors. 

Here’s a brief overview of the circumstances leading to this division:

European nations had a long history of rivalries and conflicts, fueled by competition for power, territory, and resources. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these rivalries intensified as nations sought to expand their influence and assert their dominance on the continent.

European powers were engaged in a scramble for overseas colonies and territories, particularly in Africa and Asia. This competition for colonial possessions exacerbated tensions between nations and fueled rivalries over trade routes, resources, and strategic interests. Nationalism was a powerful force in Europe during this period, fueling aspirations for independence and self-determination among various ethnic groups and nationalities. The rise of nationalism contributed to ethnic tensions and separatist movements within multinational empires such as Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, further destabilizing the region and creating opportunities for conflict.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a significant increase in military spending and the development of new technologies and weapons systems. European powers engaged in an arms race, seeking to outpace their rivals in military capabilities and strength. This militarization of European powers heightened tensions and raised the stakes of potential conflicts.

The Balkans emerged as a volatile region in Europe, characterized by ethnic tensions, nationalist aspirations, and territorial disputes. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo in 1914 triggered a diplomatic crisis that rapidly escalated into a wider conflict. Austria-Hungary’s subsequent ultimatum to Serbia, backed by Germany, and Russia’s mobilization in support of Serbia set off a chain reaction of declarations of war among European powers, leading to the outbreak of World War I.

These circumstances created a climate of mistrust, suspicion, and rivalry among European powers, leading to the division of the continent into two opposing armed camps and ultimately culminating in the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Q 4. Give a brief Review history of the armed conflict in Europe and Africa during 1902-14. 

Ans: The period between 1902 and 1914 was marked by several armed conflicts in Europe and Africa, as well as tensions and rivalries among European powers that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. 

(i) Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over territorial disputes in Manchuria and Korea. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, which resulted in Japan’s victory and established Japan as a major regional power.

(ii) Balkan Wars (1912-1913): The Balkan Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Balkan states and the Ottoman Empire, resulting in significant territorial changes in the Balkan Peninsula. The First Balkan War (1912) saw the Balkan League (comprising Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro) defeat the Ottoman Empire and gain control of much of its European territories. However, disputes over territorial gains led to the Second Balkan War (1913), in which Bulgaria fought against its former allies. The Treaty of Bucharest in 1913 redrew the borders of the Balkan states but failed to resolve underlying tensions in the region.

(iii) Moroccan Crises: The Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911 were diplomatic confrontations between France, Germany, and Britain over competing interests in Morocco. Germany sought to challenge French dominance in North Africa and assert its influence in the region. The crises resulted in international tensions and nearly led to armed conflict between European powers.

(iv) Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912): The Italo-Turkish War was fought between Italy and the Ottoman Empire over control of territories in North Africa, particularly Libya. Italy sought to establish a colonial empire in North Africa, leading to military interventions in Libya. The war ended with the Treaty of Ouchy, in which the Ottoman Empire ceded control of Libya to Italy.

(v) Agadir Crisis (1911): The Agadir Crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Germany, France, and the United Kingdom over control of Morocco. Germany sent a gunboat to the Moroccan port of Agadir in response to French attempts to establish control in the region. The crisis was resolved through diplomatic negotiations, with France maintaining its influence in Morocco.

Overall, the armed conflicts in Europe and Africa during 1902-1914 reflected the rivalries and tensions among the major powers, as well as the scramble for colonial possessions and territories. These conflicts contributed to the destabilization of the international order and set the stage for the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Q 5. Narrate briefly the war situation during 1917-18.

Ans. In 1917, two events changed the course of the war: the United States joined the Allies and Russia, after the Russian revolution, abandoned the conflict and signed a separate peace. Finally after the German offensive in the spring of 1918, the Allied counterattack managed to force a decisive retreat of the German army.

The war situation during this period:

(i) Russian Revolution and Withdrawal: In March 1917, the Russian Revolution resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the establishment of a provisional government. The new government faced internal turmoil and popular unrest, leading to Russia’s withdrawal from the war following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 ended hostilities between Russia and the Central Powers, freeing up German and Austrian forces to redeploy to the Western Front.

(ii) German Spring Offensive: In the spring of 1918, Germany launched a series of offensives on the Western Front, collectively known as the Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser’s Battle). The German objective was to achieve a decisive breakthrough before American troops could arrive in large numbers. The offensive initially made significant gains, pushing Allied forces back and threatening to break through their lines. However, the German advance eventually stalled due to logistical difficulties, exhaustion, and stiff Allied resistance.

(iii) Allied Counteroffensives: Following the failure of the German Spring Offensive, the Allies launched a series of counteroffensives that turned the tide of the war. The Battle of Amiens in August 1918, often considered the beginning of the Hundred Days Offensive, saw a successful Allied advance that inflicted heavy losses on German forces and pushed them back. Subsequent battles, including the Second Battle of the Marne and the Battle of the Argonne Forest, further weakened German defenses and forced them into retreat.

(iv) Collapse of the Central Powers: By late 1918, the Central Powers were facing increasing military, economic, and political challenges. Bulgaria surrendered in September 1918, followed by the Ottoman Empire in October. Austria-Hungary also sought an armistice in November, signaling the collapse of the Central Powers’ war effort.

(v) Armistice and End of the War: On November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies, effectively ending hostilities on the Western Front. The armistice led to the cessation of fighting and marked the end of World War I. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in June 1919, formally ended the war and imposed harsh penalties on Germany and its allies.

Overall, the war situation during 1917-1918 saw significant shifts in momentum, with the Allies ultimately gaining the upper hand and achieving victory over the Central Powers. This period marked the end of four years of devastating conflict and laid the groundwork for the post-war settlement that would shape the 20th century.

Q 6. Discuss the results of the first world war.

Ans: World War I was one of the great watersheds of 20th-century geopolitical history. It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties (in Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey), resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

As many as 8.5 million soldiers and some 13 million civilians died during World War I. Four imperial dynasties collapsed as a result of the war: the Habsburgs of Austria-Hungary, the Hohenzollerns of Germany, the sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanovs of Russia.

World War I brought about significant social changes, particularly in terms of gender roles and attitudes toward authority. Women took on new roles in the workforce and in society, contributing to the war effort and demanding greater rights and equality. The experiences of soldiers on the front lines also led to disillusionment with traditional values and authority.

The aftermath of World War I saw political instability and upheaval in many countries, as governments struggled to address economic challenges, social unrest, and nationalist movements. The rise of authoritarian regimes, such as fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany, and the spread of communism in Russia and Eastern Europe were among the consequences of the war.

Q 7. ‘The defeat of the central powers in the first world war lead to the emergence of several new ñations states in Europe’ Discuss.

Ans: The Central Powers had finally been defeated by the Allied forces as a result of several factors, including the initial failure of the Schlieffen Plan and the subsequent entrenched war of attrition, the American intervention, the weakness of Germany s allies, the effectiveness of the British.

The central powers consisted of Germany, Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria, etc. While the Allies comprised England, France, Russia, America, China, ect. The war came to a close with The signing of armistice by Germany with the Allies on 11 November 1918. Soon, an international peace Conference was held at Versailles in Paris to frame the peace treaties. The peace Conference lasted over a year and concluded with the signing of five separate treaties with the defeated central powers in 1919 and 1920. The main peace treaty signed between Germany and the Allies came to be known as the Treaty of Versailles. This Treaty had 440 provisions divided into 14 parts.

The end of the war led to the dissolution of the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation by the Allies of Czechoslovakia and the union of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia as new states.

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