Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism

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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 1 Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism

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Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism

Chapter: 1



(I) Mention the dates of the following events: 

(a) War of American Independence. 

Ans: 177 – 1783.

(b) Fall of Constantinople.

Ans: 1453.

(c) Portuguese conquest of Ceuta.

Ans: 21 August 1415.

(d) Occupation of the Philippines by spain.

Ans: 1571-1898.

(e) Occupation of Peru by Pizarro.

Ans: 1530.

(f) Defeat of the Spanish Armada. 

Ans: 1558.

(g) Formation of the Dutch East India company.

Ans: Formation of Dutch EAST India company – 1602.

(h) Formation of the French East India  company.

Ans: 1664.

(i) Formation of the English East India company.

Ans: 31st December 1600.

(j) Occupation of Masulipatnam by the English East India company.

Ans: 1611.

(k) Occupations of Virginia by the  English East India company.

Ans: 1607.

(l) Occupations of Canada by English East India company.

Ans: 1763.

(m) Opening of the suez canal.

Ans: 1869.

(n) Opening of the Panama canal.

Ans: Opening of the Panama canal – 1914.

(o) Occupation of Korea by japan. 

Ans: 1894 – 95.

(p) Battle of plassey.

Ans: Battle of Plassey – 1757.

(q) Battle of Wandiwash.

Ans: 22 January 1760.

Short Answer Type Questions: 

Q 1. What is Colonialism?

Ans: Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose their religion, language, economics, and other cultural practices.

Q 2. What is imperialism?

Ans: The expansion of a country’s dominance over other countries through land conquest or the imposition of political and economic dominance is known as imperialism. The imperialist nation solidifies its grip on a dominated nation’s economy, extending its political hegemony. For the benefit of their industrialists, the imperialist power exploits the people, the resources, and the trade of the nation that it has subjugated. They spread their language, religion, and culture in the occupied lands.

Q 3. What is capitalism?

Ans: Capitalism refers to an economic system where private businesses can have ownership of capital goods. As per capitalism meaning, individuals can privately own means of production. In capitalism, the production of products is according to the situation in the market. There is no centralized planning in capitalism by governments. Nevertheless, in modern times, governments do exercise some level of control.

Q 4. What was the immediate result of the fall of Constantinople?

Ans: The immediate result of the fall of Constantinople in 1453 was the end of the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Ottoman Empire as a dominant power in the region. Constantinople, which had been the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over a thousand years, fell to the Ottoman Turks led by Sultan Mehmed II after a lengthy siege. This event marked the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance, as it spurred a wave of intellectual and artistic activity in Europe as scholars and artists fled westward. Additionally, the fall of Constantinople had significant implications for trade routes to Asia, leading to efforts by European powers to find alternative routes, eventually leading to the Age of Exploration.

Q 5. What is Cape of Good Hope? What was its earlier name?

Ans: The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa.

The Cape was originally named the Cape of Storms in the 1480s by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias.

Q 6. What do you understand by the expression ‘New world’? 

Ans: The term “New World” typically refers to the continents of North and South America, as well as nearby islands, particularly those in the Caribbean. The term was coined by Europeans during the Age of Exploration to distinguish these lands from the “Old World” of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Christopher Columbus is often credited with “discovering” the New World in 1492 when he landed in the Bahamas, although these lands were already inhabited by Indigenous peoples for thousands of years. 

Q 7. Which country was called the ‘Workshop of the world’ and why?

Ans: Britain was known as the “workshop of the world” during the 19th Century CE.

Several factors contributed to Britain earning this title:

(i) Industrial Revolution: Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, a period of rapid technological advancement and industrialization that transformed society and the economy.

(ii) Coal and Iron: Britain had abundant reserves of coal and iron ore, essential resources for powering factories and producing goods. The availability of these raw materials provided a competitive advantage for British industry.

(iii) Infrastructure: Britain developed an extensive network of canals, railways, and roads, facilitating the transportation of raw materials and finished products across the country and to overseas markets.

(iv) Colonial Empire: Britain’s colonial empire provided access to raw materials from around the world and served as lucrative markets for British manufactured goods. The exploitation of colonies contributed to Britain’s economic prosperity and industrial dominance.

(v) Skilled Workforce: Britain had a skilled workforce, including engineers, mechanics, and craftsmen, who played a crucial role in driving innovation and maintaining the country’s industrial leadership.

Q 8. By what name the six colonies of Britain in Australia were known? 

Ans: Australia became a nation on 1 January 1901 when 6 British colonies— New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania— united to form the Commonwealth of Australia. This process is known as Federation.

(II) Name the persons involved in the following events:

(a) Discovery of sea route from Europe to India.

Ans: Vasco da Gama.

(b) Discovery of sea route to the west Indies.

Ans: Christopher Columbus.

(c) Invention of motion pictures.

Ans: Thomas Edison and his British assistant William Dickson.

(d) Invention of telephone.

Ans: Alexander Graham Bell.

(e) Founder of the Standard oil company.

Ans: John D. Rockefeller.

(f) Leader of the Cuban Revolution.

Ans: Fidel Castro.

(g) Discovery of Australia.

Ans: James Cook.

(h) Navigator of the Globe.

Ans: Ferdinand Magellan.

(i) Discovery of Tasmania.

Ans: Abel Tasman.

Essay type Questions:

Q 1. Mention the factors responsible for the growth of colonialism.

Ans: The growth of colonialism was influenced by a complex interplay of economic, political, social, and technological factors. 

Some key factors responsible for the growth of colonialism are:

(i) Economic Motives: European nations sought to exploit the vast natural resources of other regions for profit. These resources included minerals, agricultural products, and lucrative trade routes. Additionally, colonialism provided new markets for manufactured goods produced in Europe.

(ii) Quest for Wealth and Power: Colonies were seen as sources of wealth and power, both in terms of raw materials and as strategic bases for military expansion. Control over colonies was often viewed as essential for maintaining dominance in global trade and geopolitics.

(iii) Technological Advancements: Technological innovations such as improved navigation techniques, faster ships, and better weapons made it easier for European powers to explore, conquer, and control distant lands.

(iv) Competition Among European Powers: Rivalry between European nations fueled a race for colonial territories. The desire to outpace competitors in acquiring colonies and expanding influence led to aggressive colonization efforts.

(v) Religious and Cultural Factors: Missionary zeal and a desire to spread Christianity were significant motivations for colonization, particularly in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

(vi) Search for New Markets and Trade Routes: European nations sought to bypass traditional trade routes controlled by Middle Eastern and Asian powers, leading to the exploration and colonization of new territories in search of alternative trade routes to Asia.

(vii) Nationalism and Prestige: Colonial expansion was often driven by nationalist sentiments and a desire for prestige and glory. Establishing colonies was seen as a reflection of a nation’s power and greatness.

(viii) Advancements in Transportation and Communication: Developments such as the steam engine, telegraph, and railroad facilitated the movement of people, goods, and information, making it easier for colonial powers to govern distant territories and extract resources.

Q 2. Mention the factors responsible for the growth of imperialism.

Ans: Imperialism, the policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political dominance over other nations, was driven by various factors.

Some key factors responsible for the growth of imperialism are:

(i) Economic Interests: Imperialist powers sought to secure access to valuable natural resources such as minerals, agricultural products, and raw materials in order to fuel their industrial economies. Colonies and territories were seen as sources of cheap labor and as lucrative markets for manufactured goods.

(ii) Strategic and Military Considerations: Control over strategic locations, such as naval bases and trade routes, was crucial for maintaining military dominance and projecting power globally. Imperialist powers sought to expand their territorial control to strengthen their military position and enhance their geopolitical influence.

(iii) Nationalism and Prestige: Imperialism was often driven by nationalist sentiments and a desire for prestige and glory. Acquiring colonies and asserting dominance over other nations was viewed as a demonstration of a nation’s power, greatness, and superiority.

(iv) Missionary Zeal and Cultural Superiority: Religious and cultural motivations played a role in imperialism, as imperialist powers sought to spread Christianity, Western values, and civilization to other parts of the world. This often involved imposing European languages, customs, and institutions on indigenous populations.

(v) Technological Advancements: Technological innovations such as steamships, railroads, telegraphs, and machine guns facilitated the exploration, conquest, and administration of distant territories. These advancements made it easier for imperialist powers to exert control over vast expanses of land and to communicate and transport resources more efficiently.

(vi) Competition Among European Powers: Rivalry and competition between European nations fueled a scramble for colonies and territories. The desire to outpace rivals in acquiring resources, territory, and influence led to aggressive expansionist policies and the carving up of Africa, Asia, and other regions through treaties and agreements.

(vii) Social Darwinism and Racism: Ideas of Social Darwinism, which applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human societies, and notions of racial superiority were used to justify imperialism. Imperialist powers often viewed themselves as racially and culturally superior to the peoples they colonized, leading to policies of exploitation, oppression, and discrimination.

(viii) Search for New Markets and Trade Routes: Imperialist powers sought to bypass traditional trade routes controlled by other nations and establish new markets and trade networks in order to expand their commercial interests and increase their wealth and influence.

Q 3. Given a brief history of the geographical discoveries made by portugal.

Ans: The first great wave of expeditions was launched by Portugal. Its ruler was Henry (1394-1460) generally known as ‘the Navigator’. As a result of his efforts, the Madeira and Azores Islands were discovered. The main project of Henry the Navigator was the exploration of the West Coast of Africa. His sailors discovered the Cape Verde Islands. Although Henry died in 1460, his zeal provided stimulus to the Portuguese for further explorations. In 1487 Bartholomew Diaz reached the southern tip of Africa and called it ‘the Cape of Storms’ due to a terrible storm he experienced there. Later it was renamed as ‘the Cape of Good Hope’ because it provided hope that access to the Indian Ocean was possible. Vasco da Gama  successfully used this route and reached India in 1498. Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a new sea-route to India was a most significant event in the history of Europe and Asia.

One of Portugal’s most significant achievements was the discovery of a sea route to India. In 1498, the explorer Vasco da Gama successfully reached the port of Calicut on the southwestern coast of India, opening a lucrative trade route between Europe and Asia. This voyage established Portugal as a major player in global trade and secured its dominance in the Indian Ocean trade network.

Portuguese explorers also ventured into the East Indies, including present-day Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. They established trading posts and colonies in the region, competing with other European powers for control of the lucrative spice trade.

Q 4. Give a brief history of Spanish colonial empire in Latin America.

Ans: Spanish Colonization of the Americas began with Christopher Columbus’ first voyage in 1492, during which he landed on the island of Hispaniola. This island is controlled by Haiti and the Dominican Republic in the 21st century, but at the time, tribes such as the Arawak people inhabited the island. After Columbus’s initial voyage, Spanish explorers and conquistadors began exploring and colonizing the Caribbean islands. They encountered and subdued indigenous peoples, established settlements, and exploited the region’s resources, particularly gold.

In 1519, Hernán Cortés led an expedition to Mexico, where he encountered the powerful Aztec Empire. With the help of indigenous allies who were hostile to Aztec rule, Cortés conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1521, leading to the fall of the Aztec Empire. Mexico became the center of Spanish colonial administration in the Americas. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro led an expedition to the Inca Empire in present-day Peru. Pizarro captured the Inca emperor Atahualpa and plundered the empire’s wealth, leading to the collapse of Inca civilization.

Spain extracted vast amounts of wealth from its American colonies, including gold, silver, and other valuable resources. This wealth fueled Spain’s economy and financed its global ambitions but also led to the exploitation and oppression of indigenous peoples. 

The Spanish colonial empire in Latin America lasted for over three centuries until the early 19th century, when many Latin American countries gained independence through wars of liberation. Despite its eventual decline, the legacy of Spanish colonization continues to influence the culture, language, and society of Latin America to this day.

Q 5. Give a brief history of the rise and growth of the British colonial Empire in India.

Ans: The British colonisation of India was one of the most significant events in Indian history. It marked the beginning of a long and complicated period of transformation for the subcontinent. This blog post will provide a comprehensive overview of the British colonisation of India, from its early stages to its eventual conclusion. 

The East India Company slowly began to build its power in India. In 1756, they defeated the French at the Battle of Plassey, which gave them control of Bengal. The British colonisation of India began in 1757 when the East India Company was permitted by the Mughal Emperor to establish a trading post in Calcutta. The East India Company then took control of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and slowly began to expand its influence over the rest of India.

The British East India Company first arrived in India in the early 1600s. At this time, the Mughal Empire was ruling much of India. The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty that had conquered most of India in the 1500s. They were tolerant of other religions and allowed Hindus and Christians to practise their faiths. However, the Mughal Empire was in decline by the early 1600s, and the British saw this as an opportunity to gain a foothold in India. This was a major turning point in the British colonisation of India. The East India Company then began to expand its control over other parts of India. By 1857, the company had control over most of the subcontinent.

Q 6. Give a brief history of the rise and growth of the British colonial empire in America.

Ans: British colonization of America began in the early 17th century with the establishment of permanent settlements. The first successful English colony was Jamestown, founded in present-day Virginia in 1607. Other early colonies included Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts, settled by the Pilgrims in 1620, and Massachusetts Bay Colony, established by Puritans in 1630.

The British colonies in America were periodically involved in conflicts with neighboring European powers and indigenous peoples. The most significant of these conflicts were the French and Indian War (1754-1763), which resulted in Britain gaining control of Canada and vast territories in North America east of the Mississippi River, and King Philip’s War (1675-1676), a conflict between Native American tribes and New England colonists.

In North America, the British extended their territory to Virginia, Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Haven, Connecticut, Rhode Island, eyc. from New England  and established their control and hegemony.

The British gradually occupied maryland, Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Georgia, New York and New Jersey. They also extended their colonial possession in Georgia for better political rights and privileges. The American Revolution resulted in the establishment of the United States of America as an independent nation in 1783. Britain recognized American independence through the Treaty of Paris. However, Britain retained control of Canada and other territories in North America.

Q 7. Why did French fail to establish an empire in India? Give reason for your answer.

Ans: The European powers had come to India mainly for trading purpose. But, soon they began to dream of political domination of India to boost their trade and commerce. This resulted in an acute power struggle for political supremacy and territorial expansion between the two dominant power of that time, the English and the French.

French failed to establish an empire in India due to the following reasons:

(i) Military Weakness: The French East India Company lacked the military strength and resources to compete effectively with the British East India Company and the powerful Mughal Empire. Despite occasional military victories, the French were unable to sustain long-term control over strategic territories in India.

(ii) Strategic Disadvantages: The French faced strategic disadvantages in India, including a lack of geographic contiguity and access to maritime routes. Unlike the British, who controlled key port cities and had a strong naval presence, the French struggled to secure their supply lines and defend their territories from British encroachment.

(iii) Political Instability: The French presence in India was characterized by political instability and internal conflicts. French governors and officials often pursued their own agendas and competed with each other for power, leading to factionalism and disunity within the French colonial administration.

(iv) Limited Support: The French colonial enterprise in India received limited support from the French government and monarchy compared to the British, who had strong backing from the British Crown and Parliament. This lack of support hindered French efforts to expand and consolidate their territorial holdings in India.

(v) Economic Challenges: The French East India Company faced economic challenges, including financial difficulties and competition with the British for control of lucrative trade routes and markets. The French struggled to establish profitable trading posts and colonies in India, which limited their ability to finance military campaigns and infrastructure development.

(vi) British Expansion: The British East India Company emerged as the dominant colonial power in India due to its superior military, economic, and political resources. British expansionist policies and military campaigns gradually marginalized French influence in India, leading to the loss of key territories such as Bengal and Pondicherry.

(vii) Treaty of Paris (1763): The Treaty of Paris in 1763, which ended the Seven Years’ War, resulted in France ceding many of its Indian territories to Britain, including Chandernagore, Pondicherry, and Mahé. This treaty further weakened the French position in India and solidified British control over the region.

Q 8. How did the United States of America emerge as a colonial power in Central and Latin American?

Ans: The United States emerged as a colonial power in Central and Latin America primarily through a combination of economic interests, geopolitical ambitions, and interventionist policies. In 1823, President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine, which asserted that the Western Hemisphere was off-limits to further European colonization and interference. While initially a defensive measure to protect Latin American countries from European influence, the Monroe Doctrine also provided a rationale for U.S. intervention in the region.

The United States had significant economic interests in Central and Latin America, particularly in terms of trade and investment. American businesses sought access to the region’s natural resources, such as minerals, agricultural products, and oil, as well as opportunities for investment and market expansion.

The United States intervened militarily in Central and Latin America to protect its economic interests, maintain political stability, and suppress perceived threats to its security. Examples of U.S. military interventions include the Spanish-American War (1898), which resulted in the acquisition of Puerto Rico and Guam, and various interventions in countries such as Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic during the early 20th century. In the early 20th century, the United States implemented a policy known as “dollar diplomacy,” which sought to use economic leverage and investment to advance American interests in Central and Latin America. This policy aimed to promote stability and economic development while also expanding U.S. influence in the region.

Overall, a combination of economic, geopolitical, ideological, and strategic factors enabled the United States to emerge as a colonial power in Central and Latin America, exerting significant influence over the region’s politics, economy, and society.

Q 9. Discuss briefly the history of the rise of USA as a big colonial power in the Far East?

Ans: The colonial history of the United States covers the period of European colonization of North America from the early 16th century until the incorporation of the Thirteen Colonies into the United States after the Revolutionary War. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic launched major colonization expeditions in North America. The death rate was very high nong earty immigrants, and some early attempts disappeared altogether, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established within several decades. 

In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States Navy led a fleet of warships to Japan and negotiated the Treaty of Kanagawa, which opened Japanese ports to American trade. This event marked the beginning of increased American involvement in East Asia and paved the way for the modernization of Japan. In 1898, the United States annexed the Kingdom of Hawaii, which had been a significant center of American economic and political influence in the Pacific. The annexation was driven by American business interests, particularly in sugar and pineapple plantations, and strategic considerations related to naval bases.

The Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in the United States gaining control of several territories in the Far East, including the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. The war was driven by American expansionist ambitions and a desire to assert control over Spanish colonies in the region.

The United States, along with other Western powers, advocated for the Open Door Policy in China, which aimed to ensure equal access to Chinese markets and prevent the colonization of China by any single power. The United States played a significant role in the negotiation and enforcement of this policy, which shaped its influence in East Asia.

Q 10. Narrate briefly the effects of imperialism in the World.

Ans: Imperialism has had far-reaching effects leading to cultural suppression, political domination, and the exploitation of resources and workers.

Some of the major effects of imperialism were: 

(i) Political Effects: Imperialism led to the colonization of vast territories by European powers, resulting in the establishment of colonial administrations in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Oceania. It reshaped the political boundaries of many regions, often leading to artificial borders that did not correspond to the ethnic, cultural, or historical realities of the local populations.

Imperial powers imposed their own political systems on colonized territories, often leading to the suppression of indigenous political structures and the imposition of colonial rule.

(ii) Economic Effects: Imperialism facilitated the exploitation of natural resources in colonized territories for the benefit of the imperial powers. This often led to the extraction of valuable minerals, agricultural products, and other resources.

The establishment of colonial markets allowed imperial powers to sell their manufactured goods to captive markets, leading to economic dependence and underdevelopment in many colonies.

Imperialism contributed to the development of global trade networks and the integration of economies on a global scale, but the benefits of this integration were often unevenly distributed.

(iii) Social Effects: Imperialism had profound social effects on colonized societies, including the disruption of traditional social structures and the imposition of new social hierarchies.

The spread of European cultural norms and values often led to the erosion of indigenous cultures and languages in many colonized territories.

Imperialism also had demographic consequences, including population displacement, migration, and the spread of diseases to which local populations had little immunity.

(iv) Cultural Effects: Imperialism led to the dissemination of Western cultural practices, languages, and values around the world, often at the expense of indigenous cultures.

The imposition of European educational systems and the spread of Christianity had a lasting impact on the cultural and intellectual life of many colonized societies.

Imperialism also gave rise to movements of cultural resistance and cultural revitalization among colonized peoples, as they sought to preserve their own cultural heritage in the face of foreign domination.

(v) Political Awakening: Imperialism also sowed the seeds of political awakening and nationalist movements in many colonized territories, as indigenous populations sought to assert their own identity and independence.

The struggle against imperialism gave rise to anti-colonial movements and independence struggles in many parts of the world, leading to the eventual decolonization of large swaths of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East in the 20th century.

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