Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939 The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939 and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939 Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939

Chapter: 3


Easy Types Questions:

Q 1. Discuss leading to the rise of Farcism in Italy.

Ans: Rise of Fascism in Italy: 

The rise of fascism began during World War I when Mussolini formed a political group supporting the war against Austria-Hungary and Germany. He founded the Italian fascist party in 1919 that won 35 seats in the 1921 elections. The political system and ideology of Benito Mussolini encouraged extreme nationalism and militarism organising Italy along with hierarchical authoritarianism. The purpose was to fundamentally oppose liberalism and democracy in Italy. At the same time, it appeared to be a real danger of a left-wing revolution in an atmosphere of riots, affray and strikes. After World War I, many people desired for national unity and strong leadership in Europe.

Q 2. Give the brief history of Fascism in Italy.

Ans: Italian fascism was based on Italian nationalism, national syndicalism and the zeal to develop Italian territories. The Italian fascists deemed it essential for a nation to bring forward its strength and superiority and thereby escape from succumbing to decay. For a large number of Italians, the fascists brought a loss of human rights and economic hardships to the country. The fascists are involved in political actions taking advantage of strikes to incite violence across the country. However, they began to align themselves with mainstream conservatives expanding the membership exponentially around 1921.

(i) Beginning of the movement: The word ‘Fascism’ originated from the latina word’ Fasces’ which means group’ or’ ‘party’. Taking advantage of the prevailing political unstability during the post First – world war period, Mussolini organised the youths of Italy into’ fasces’ and urged them to work against the member of other political parties.The. First group of Fascists was organised in Milan on 23 March 1919.

(ii) Growth of Fascism: Italian fascism originated from ideological combinations of ultranationalism and Italian nationalism, national syndicalism and revolutionary nationalism, and from the militarism of Italian irredentism to regain “lost overseas territories of Italy” deemed necessary to restore Italian nationalist pride. As there was a great deal of Dissatisfaction with the existing political group in the country, the youth of Italy were attached by the policies and promises of Mussolini. Within a short time, Fascism became a popular party . The first all Italian congress of the Fascists was held in 1919. It had 22 units with a total membership of 17, 000. The membership rose to 30,000 with 118 units , in the second congress held in 1920.

(iii) Capture if power: By the early 1920s, popular support for the fascist movement’s fight against Bolshevism numbered some 250,000 people. In 1921, the fascists metamorphosed into the PNF and achieved political legitimacy when Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1922.[109] Although the Liberal Party retained power, the governing prime ministries proved ephemeral, especially that of the fifth Prime Minister Luigi Facta, whose government proved vacillating.[109]

To depose the weak parliamentary democracy, Deputy Mussolini (with military, business and liberal right-wing support) launched the PNF March on Rome (27–31 October 1922) coup d’état to oust Prime Minister Luigi Facta and assume the government of Italy to restore nationalist pride, restart the economy, increase productivity with labor controls, remove economic business controls and impose law and order.[109] On 28 October, whilst the “March” occurred, King Victor Emmanuel III withdrew his support of Prime Minister Facta and appointed PNF Leader Benito Mussolini as the sixth Prime Minister of Italy.

Q 3. Discuss the foreign policy of Italy under Benito Mussolini.

Ans: Italian Fascism under Benito Mussolini was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories.

The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of World War I, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy. The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the Blackshirts of the National Fascist Party attempted a coup (the “March on Rome”) which failed, but at the last minute, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such as Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain. 

Mussolini, therefore, determined to undo the harm done to Italy by this Treaty wanted more Colonies for supply of essential raw – materials which Italy lacked and also areas for setting the extra population of the country.

As part of his aggressive foreign policy, he wanted to convert the Mediterranean Sea into a lake of Italy and wanted to establish control over the countries that existed in the coast of the Mediterranean.

Q 4. Discuss the causes of the rise and growth of Nazism in Germany.

Ans: Post world war situation in Germany was terrible. There had been several crises in society, politics and economics. Amid such conditions, Hitler rose to power. In 1923 Hitler planned to capture Bavaria and marched to Berlin to capture power. But as he failed he was treason and released later. It was documented that Hitler was determined as a powerful speaker. His words and passion for the nation affect people. He had promised the people to build a strong nation and restore the dignity of the German people by undoing the Versailles Treaty injustice. The mass mobilisation was noted in Germany. 

Following were the main causes of the rise of Nazism in Germany: 

(i) The war and the Peace Settlement left Germany disillusioned and crushed spiritually and materially. 

(ii) The continuing hostile attitude of France, the quarrels over the Ruhr, the Rhineland occupation, the Saar, and the reparation it was made to pay.

(iii) The ceaseless wrangling over security and disarmament, all these fed the indignation and anger of many Germans. 

(iv) The Republic’s acceptance of unfair disabilities, its policy of reconciliation and its inability to assert itself more strongly in international affairs rankled in the hearts of many Germans. 

(v) During the period of temporary economic revival (1924 to 1929) these factors remained in the background. It required a few years of hard times and increasing unemployment to bring them out in full force.

These circumstances were capitalized by the Nazis through propaganda methods, oratory, posters, banners, songs, uniforms, ceremonies, rituals, discipline, historic traditions, theories of racial superiority of Germans, anti-Semitism, enthusiasm, the dynamic personality of Hitler etc. were the major points of attractions for millions of Germans. Germans were strongly convinced that they needed a ‘strong man’ who would restore the peace, prestige and prosperity of Germany. 

The republican Government failed to satisfy the aspirations of the people completely and also failed to bring peace and order in the country. In this background, Adolf Hitler Formed the nationalist Socialists German workers party, i.e. nazi party in April, 1920. Hitler promised to undo the injustice done to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles as well as to bring back the former glory of Germany. The German youth were charmed by his words and within a short time, Nazis became the most important political power in the country.

Q 5. What were the political aims and objectives of Hitler? Discuss.

Ans: The rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany during the the post-First world war period is an important period in the history of the world. Hitler fromed the nazi party in party in April 1920 and within a few years he captured all power and controlled the destiny of Germany for two decades. 

The main political aims and objectives of the Hitler were: 

(i) Racial Ideology: Central to Hitler’s worldview was the belief in the superiority of the “Aryan” race, particularly the Germans, whom he considered the master race. He sought to eliminate what he deemed inferior races, such as Jews, Slavs, Romani people, and others, through methods like forced sterilization, segregation, and ultimately genocide.

(ii) Expansionism: Hitler aimed to expand German territory, known as Lebensraum (living space), particularly in Eastern Europe. He envisioned a vast empire under German control, which would provide resources, land, and space for the supposed superior German population.

(iii) Totalitarianism: Hitler sought absolute control over all aspects of German society. He centralized power in the Nazi Party and his own leadership, suppressing opposition, controlling media, and establishing a vast network of informants and secret police to maintain control.

(iv) Rearmament and Militarization: Hitler’s Germany aggressively rearmament and militarization were key components of his agenda. He aimed to rebuild Germany’s military strength, which had been severely restricted by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This militarization was not only for defense but also to pursue his expansionist goals.

(v) Elimination of Political Opposition: Hitler ruthlessly eliminated political opponents, whether they were Communists, Socialists, or other rivals. He established concentration camps to imprison and eliminate those who opposed or were deemed undesirable by the regime.

(vi) Cult of Personality: Hitler cultivated a cult of personality around himself, presenting himself as the embodiment of the German nation and its destiny. He used propaganda extensively to promote his image and ideas, portraying himself as a strong and charismatic leader.

(vii) Anti-Semitism: Perhaps one of the most infamous aspects of Hitler’s ideology was his virulent anti-Semitism. He blamed Jews for many of Germany’s problems and used them as scapegoats for economic woes, societal unrest, and other issues. This led to the implementation of discriminatory laws against Jews and, ultimately, the Holocaust, in which six million Jews were systematically murdered.

Q 6. Discuss the main features of the foreign policy of Hitler.

Ans: Hitler had three main aims in his foreign policy. 

They are:

(i) Revise the Treaty of Versailles: Revision of the Versailles Treaty was one of the platforms that gave radical right-wing parties in Germany such credibility to mainstream voters in the 1920s and early 1930s. Among these parties was Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party.

(ii) Unite all German-speaking people into one Reich: In order to unite all German-speaking people, Hitler would need to invade neighbouring countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia and Austria. This would clearly cause conflict. Expand Germany’s borders in order to create ‘living space’ for all German people. Due to Versailles, Germany had lost 13% of its land.

(iii) Expand eastwards to achieve Lebensraum: Between 1921 and 1925 Adolf Hitler developed the belief that Germany required Lebensraum (‘living space’) in order to survive. The conviction that this living space could be gained only in the east, and specifically from Russia, formed the core of this idea, and shaped his policy after his take-over of power in Germany in 1933.

The term Lebensraum was coined by the German geographer, Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904). During the last two decades of the 19th century, Ratzel developed a theory according to which the development of all species, including humans, is primarily determined by their adaptation to geographic circumstances.

Historians have disagreed about Hitler’s aims. A JP Taylor argued that Hitler did not deliberately set. out for a destructive war. Instead, Hitler was an opportunist and made gains in his foreign policy by direct action and audacity. Hugh Trevor-Roper has argued that Hitler had a long term plan – a programme of colonisation of Eastern Europe and a war of conquest in the West. This Stufenplan, step-by-step policy, led to war. Probably the most convincing argument is that Hitler had consistency of aims, but was also an opportunist that was flexible in his strategy.

Q 7. Was the Anglo-French appeasement policy responsible for the rise of Mussolini and Hitler? 

Ans: Appeasement, the policy of making concessions to dictatorial powers in order to avoid conflict, governed Anglo-French foreign policy during the 1930s. Learning from the First World War made Britain and France apprehensive of another global escalation and they wanted to avoid a war-like situation by any means.

Appeasement policy, the policy of appeasing Hitler and Mussolini, operating jointly at that time, during 1937 and 1938 by continuous concessions granted in the hope of reaching a point of saturation when the dictators would be willing to accede to international collaboration. It came to an end when Hitler seized Czechoslovakia on March 15, 1939, in defiance of his promises given at Munich, and Prime Minister Chamberlain, who had championed appeasement before, decided on a policy of resistance to further German aggression.

Instituted in the hope of avoiding war, appeasement was the name given to Britain’s policy in the 1930s of allowing Hitler to expand German territory unchecked. Most closely associated with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, it is now widely discredited as a policy of weakness.

The policy of conciliation with an aggressive power at the expenses of some other power is known as the policy of appeasement. It seems that the British prime Ministers of stanley Baldwin was the first person to initiate this policy of appeasement towards the Fascists in Italy and the Nazis in Germany.

This policy was strongly followed up by the next Prime Minister of England , neville chamberlain who succeeded stanley Baldwin in 1937. Neville chamberlain did not want to and conquests as their legitimate needs. In Other words, chamberlain allowed the legitimate needs. In Other words, chamberlain allowed the expansionist policy of Hitler and Mussolini. Therefore,  both countries did not do anything when Hitler conquered Austria in March , 1938. The British appeasement policy towards Hitler whetted his appetite for more Territories.

Q 8. Present a brief note on the rise and growth of the United States of America during 1919-41.

Ans: The rise of the United States of America after the first world war is an important period in the world history. The first world War was brought to a close due to her support and after the war, she continued to thrive and prosper while the European world took a great deal of time to recover from the after- effects of the First World war. After the war, America became the banker of the world. The war devastated European countries, big and small, had to look to untied states of America for financial support. 

The history of the United States from 1918 through 1945 covers the post-World War I era, the Great Depression, and World War II. After World War I, the U.S. rejected the Treaty of Versailles and did not join the League of Nations. The year 1919 was transformative around the world, including in the United States. On the global stage, troops returned home from World War I; the Treaty of Versailles was signed; and the idea of self-determination, fueled by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s desire for a liberal international order, took hold.

In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol was prohibited by an amendment to the United States Constitution. Possession of liquor, and drinking it, was never illegal. The overall level of ab alcohol consumption did go down, however, state and local governments avoided aggressive enforcement. The federal government was overwhelmed with cases, so that bootlegging and speakeasies flourished in every city, and well-organized criminal gangs exploded in numbers, finances, power, and influence on city politics.

A few local domestic-terrorist attacks from radicals, like the 1920 Wall Street Bombing and the 1919 United States anarchist bombings sparked the first Red Scare. Culture wars between fundamentalist Christians and modernists became more intense, as demonstrated by prohibition, the KKK, and the highly publicized Scopes Trial.

The nation enjoyed a period of sustained prosperity, 1921–1929. Agriculture went through a bubble in soaring land prices that collapsed in 1921, and that sector remained depressed. Coal mining was shrinking as oil became the main energy source. Otherwise most sectors prospered. Construction flourished as office buildings, factories, paved roads, and new housing was evident everywhere. Automobile production soared, suburban housing expanded and the nation’s homes, towns and cities were electrified, along with some farms. Prices were stable, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew steadily until 1929, when the financial speculation bubble burst as Wall Street crashed.

In foreign policy President Wilson helped found the League of Nations but the U.S. never joined it, as the Congress refused to give up its constitutional role in declaring war. The nation instead took the initiative to disarm the world, most notably at the Washington Conference in 1921–22. Washington also stabilized the European economy through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at stabilizing the traditional ethnic balance and strictly limiting the total inflow. The act completely blocked Asian immigrants, providing no means for them to get in.

By 1939, isolationist sentiment in America had ebbed, and after the stunning fall of France in 1940 to Nazi Germany the United States began rearming itself and sent a large stream of money and military supplies to Britain, China and the Soviet Union. After the sudden Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States entered the war against Imperial Japan, Fascist Italy, and Nazi Germany, known as the “Axis Powers”. Italy surrendered in 1943, and Germany and Japan in 1945, after massive devastation and loss of life, while the US emerged far richer and with few casualties. 

Q 9. Give a brief note on the rise and growth of the Union of Soviet Socialist republic during 1917-41.

Ans: The Soviet Union was born out of the fires of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks, a radical left revolutionary group overthrew Russia’s Tsar Nicholas II, ending centuries of monarchist rule. Taking over the territories of the former Russian Empire, the bolsheviks established a social state.

The Soviet Union’s roots lay in the October Revolution of 1917, which saw the Bolsheviks overthrow the Russian Provisional Government that formed earlier that year following the February Revolution that had dissolved the Russian Empire. The new government, led by Vladimir Lenin, established the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR),[w] the world’s first constitutionally socialist state. The revolution was not accepted by all within the Russian Republic, resulting in the Russian Civil War between the Bolsheviks and the anti-communist Whites. As the war progressed in the Bolsheviks’ favor, the RSFSR began to incorporate land acquired from the war into various puppet states, which were merged into the Soviet Union in December 1922. Following Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to power, inaugurating a period of rapid industrialization and forced collectivization that led to significant economic growth, but also contributed to a famine between 1930 and 1933 that killed millions. The forced labour camp system of the Gulag was also expanded in this period. During the late 1930s, Stalin conducted the Great Purge to remove actual and perceived opponents, resulting in mass death, imprisonment, and deportation. In 1939, the USSR and Nazi Germany signed a nonaggression pact despite their ideological incongruence; nonetheless, in 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the largest land invasion in history, opening the Eastern Front of World War II.

Following World War II, ideological tensions with the United States eventually led to the Cold War. The American-led Western Bloc coalesced into NATO in 1949, prompting the Soviet Union to form its own military alliance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. Neither side ever engaged in direct military confrontation, and instead fought on an ideological basis and through proxy wars. In 1953, following Stalin’s death, the Soviet Union undertook a campaign of de-Stalinization under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev, which saw reversals and rejections of Stalinist policies. This campaign caused tensions with Communist China. During the 1950s, the Soviet Union rapidly expanded its efforts in space exploration and took an early lead in the Space Race with the first artificial satellite, the first human spaceflight, the first space station, and the first probe to land on another planet (Venus). The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was the closest the Cold War came to escalating into full-scale nuclear war.

Q 10. Discuss the main features of the Soviet Foreign policy during 1917-41.

Ans: The overarching aim of Soviet foreign policy from 1917 to 1941 was the survival of the revolution, however the means of achieving this aim took varying forms under the leadership of Lenin and Stalin. Both leaders were forced, at times, to put aside ideological constraints in order to avoid international conflict to ensure the continuing survival of the Soviet Union. This required pragmatism on behalf of both leaders, which can be seen through the shifting policies and foreign commissars between 1917 and 1941. 

The fluctuating effectiveness of foreign policy is accentuated in the world revolution policy, which, although an ultimate failure, highlights the underlying aim of survival. Following the Bolshevik seizure and consolidation, Lenin and Trotsky believed that the continuing survival of the USSR lay in a communist world revolution, and that they would not survive without the support of the rest of the world’s proletariat. This led to the establishment of the Comintern, which had the global aim of destabilising capitalist countries to prepare them for ‘world revolution’. It inspired some small support among workers, particularly in Germany and Austria, yet historian Otto Bauer points out “with strikes alone you can’t compel an imperialist government to sign revolutionary peace proposals”. The failure of this policy was further emphasised with failed the Battle of Warsaw and unsuccessful socialist revolution attempts in Germany. Lenin responded to the failure of world revolution by softening Russia’s international attitude, as he desired to avoid conflict and gain economically, displayed in Lenin’s pragmatic approach to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which removed an external enemy and bought time to combat internal threat of civil war. Ultimately, the Comintern’s failure highlights the nature of Soviet foreign policy, however Lenin’s pragmatic response demonstrates the overarching aim for survival of the Soviet State. 

As the Nazis came to power Under the leadership of Hitler in Germany, the national security and territorial integrity of  Soviet Russia became extremely dangerous. Hitler severally pointed out to soviet Russia as an for future German expansion. Great Britain and France expressed their sympathy to Hitler.In During that time, there was a fear of the Russo-German Non-aggression pact of 1939, this fear slightly reduced.

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