Class 10 History Elective Chapter 6 Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 6 Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 6 Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 6 Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period

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Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period

Chapter: 6


Very Short Answer Type Questions  

Q 1. Name of the first Asian country to become independent. 

Ans: Philippines was the first Asian country to become independent.

Q 2. Who was the leader of the Indian National Congress?

Ans: Allan Octavian Hume was the founder of the Indian National Congress.

Q 3. Who was Founder of the African National Congress?

Ans: Nelson Mandela was the founder of the African National Congress.

Q 4. Who were the Leader of the Burmese freedom movement? 

Ans: The leader of the Burmese freedom movement were Aung san and U nu.

Q 5. Name Two leader of the freedom movement of liberation Indonesia.

Ans: Hadiningrat and Rader Adjang kartini were the two leaders of the freedom movement of Indonesia.

Q 6. Who organization the Tung – meng- hai in China? 

Ans: Dr sun Yat-Sen organised the ‘Tung- Meng- hai’ in China. 

Q 7. Name a parson responsible for the organisation of kuomintang.

Ans: Sung Chiao – jen was responsible for the organisation of kuomintang.

Q 8. Where did Chiang kai – shek establish the Chinese National government?

Ans: Chiang kai- shek Established the Chinese National government in Canton.

Q 9. What is the present name of Gold coast?

Ans: The present name of Gold coast is Ghana.

Q 10. Which continent is called the Dark ‘Continent’?

Ans: Africa is known as the ‘Dark Continent’.

Q 11. What is the present name of Peking?

Ans: The present name of peaking is Beijing.

Q 12. What is the date of the death of Dr sun Yat – Sen?

Ans: Dr sun Yat-Sen died on 12 March 1925.

Q 13. What is present name of Congo?

Ans: The present name of Congo is Zaire. 

Q 14. Who was the leader of the freedom of the movement of Algeria?

Ans: Mohammad Ahmad Ben Bella was the Leader of the freedom movement of Algeria.

Q 15. Which company did construct the Suez canal?

Ans: The Suez canal company construct the Suez canal.

Q 16. How many years did Nelson congress emerge?

Ans: Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in jail.

Q 17. When did the African National Congress?

Ans: The African National Congress emerged in 1912.

Q 18. SWAPO stands for what?

Ans: SWAPO stands for the south west African people’s Organisation. 

Q 19. Where did Kwame Nkrumah received his collegiate education?

Ans: Kwame Nkrumah received his collegiate education from the Achimota college, the Lincoln University in Pennsylvania (in the USA ) and the London school of Economics (in England)

Q 20.Where did Robert Gabriel Mugabe received his collegiate education?

Ans: Robert Gabriel Mugabe received his collegiate education at the Fort University College in south Africa and later in London.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q 1. Freedom movement of myanmar.

Ans: On 4 January 1948, Myanmar declared independence under the terms of the Burma Independence Act 1947. Myanmar’s post-independence history has continued to be checkered by unrest and conflict. The coup d’état in 1962 resulted in a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.

Burma, also known as Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia bordered by the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Neighboring countries include Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, and Thailand. Burma has a strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes. The government system is a parliamentary republic; the president is both chief of state and the head of government. Burma has a complex economic system combing both traditional and command economic systems. Many citizens engage in subsistence agriculture; however, the central government has a strong influence. Burma is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Q 2. Freedom movement of sir Lanka.

Ans: The Sri Lankan independence movement was a peaceful political movement which was aimed at achieving independence and self-rule for the country of Sri Lanka, then British Ceylon, from the British Empire. The switch of powers was generally known as peaceful transfer of power from the British administration to Ceylon representatives, a phrase that implies considerable continuity with a colonial era that lasted 400 years. It was initiated around the turn of the 20th century and led mostly by the educated middle class. It succeeded when, on 4 February 1948, Ceylon was granted independence as the Dominion of Ceylon. Dominion status within the British Commonwealth was retained for the next 24 years until 22 May 1972 when it became a republic and was renamed the Republic of Sri Lanka.

Q 3. Freedom Movement in Ghana.

Ans: The National Liberation Movement was a Ghanaian political party formed in 1954. Set up by disaffected Ashanti members of the Convention People’s Party, who were joined by Kofi Abrefa Busia, the NLM opposed the process of centralization whilst supporting a continuing role for traditional leaders. It was led by Baffour Akoto, linguist to the Asantehene.[2] The party gained some support in the Gold Coast legislative election, 1956 and became the third largest party in the Assembly with 12 seats, behind the Convention People’s Party and the Northern People’s Party.

Q 4. Freedom movement in congo.

Ans: The Movement for the Liberation of the Congo is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Formerly a rebel group operating in the Democratic Republic of Congo that fought the government throughout the Second Congo War, it subsequently took part in the transitional government and is one of the main opposition parties. A nationalist movement in the Belgian Congo demanding the end of colonial rule led to the country’s independence on June 30, 1960. Minimal preparations had been made and many issues, such as the questions of federalism and ethnicity, remained unresolved.

Q 5. Freedom movement in Algeria.

Ans: The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence and the Algerian Revolution, was fought from 1954 to 1962. The main combatants were France and the Algerian National Liberation. France had invaded the North African region of Algeria in 1830 and declared it an integral part of France in 1848. Many French citizens moved to Algeria forming a group known as the Pieds-Noirs, and largely lived in conditions superior to those of the majority Muslim native Algerian population. After fighting in the Second World War and witnessing the French defeat in Indochina, the FLN instigated what was at first a peaceful movement for independence. When France rejected the movement’s petition for freedom, the FLN coordinated a series of attacks in 1954 on military and civilian targets, calling for an armed national liberation struggle for Algerian independence. A long conflict consisting of guerilla warfare, attacks on civilians, and terror campaigns marked the Algerian War as a particularly brutal struggle. The FLN also brought the conflict into the cities with the famous Battle of Algiers in 1956–57 that was countered by increasingly aggressive and violent military repression on the part of the French forces and their sympathizers.

Q 6. Emergence of the state of Israel.

Ans: On 14 May 1948, Israel proclaimed its independence. During the first months of 1949, direct negotiations were conducted under UN auspices between Israel and each of the invading countries (except Iraq, which refused to negotiate with Israel), resulting in armistice agreements which reflected the situation at the end of the fighting.

On the political front, most Arab and Muslim states

continue to deny the Jewish State’s right to exist.

Unfortunately, only two of the twenty–two Middle

Eastern states have signed peace agreements with

Israel Egypt and Jordan. The ongoing PalestinianIsraeli conflict is complex, with challenges related to borders, settlements, sovereignty, and other contentious issues. There are those on both sides of the conflict who hope one day to achieve a peaceful coexistence.

Q 7. Palestine Liberation Organisation.

Ans: The Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO, was first founded in 1964 during a summit in Cairo, Egypt. The organization’s initial goals were to unite various Arab groups and create a liberated Palestine in Israel. Over time, the PLO has embraced a broader role, claiming to represent all Palestinians while running the Palestinian National Authority (PA). Although the PLO wasn’t known to be violent during its early years, the organization became associated with controversial tactics, terrorism and extremism. 

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), umbrella political organization claiming to represent the world’s Palestinians—those Arabs, and their descendants, who lived in mandated Palestine before the creation there of the State of Israel in 1948. It was formed in 1964 to centralize the leadership of various Palestinian groups that previously had operated as clandestine resistance movements. It came into prominence only after the Six-Day War of June 1967, however, and engaged in a protracted guerrilla war against Israel during the 1960s, ’70s, and ’80s before entering into peace negotiations with that country in the 1990s.

Q 8. Yasser Arafat.

Ans: Yasser Arafat was a Palestinian political leader and a key figure in the Palestinian national movement for much of the 20th century. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat’s profile grew; in 1967 he joined the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah’s growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein’s Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in the organization becoming a major target of Israeli invasions during the 1978 South Lebanon conflict and 1982 Lebanon War.

From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel’s right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli Palestinian conflict. In 1994, he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories.

Essay Type Questions

Q 1. Mention the factors responsible for the rise and growth of liberation movements in the colonies of Asia? 

Ans: The liberation movement in the colonies of colonies of Asia started in the beginning of the 20th century. Several developments and factors were responsible for the emergence of national upsurge in these colonies.

Following are the main factors responsible for the rise and growth of liberation movement in n the colonies of Asia:

(i) Colonial exploitation: The first decades of the sixteenth century saw the emergence of colonial powers. European powers, such as the British, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Portuguese, were the main colonizers in Southeast Asia from the 16th century to the 20th century.

(ii) Nationalism: Nationalism is a complex phenomenon and it may have different bases and expressions in different situations. As a political tool it may incorporate diffèrent symbols and values and may contain positive as well as negative connotations. Nationalism has been a strong force of political expressions in the western countries that differs from the nationalism in developing countries in many ways. In South Asia nationalism took roots during the struggle against the colonial rulers. The question of nationality and nationalism has been tedious in South Asia due to the complex nature of society, politico-economic discriminations and divergence, etc.

(iii) Impact of World Wars: One of the inevitable results of the second World war was that most of the imperial powers such as England, Germany, Italy, Holland, France, portugal, etc. Lost their former economic power as a result of the heavy destruction caused by the war. They became economically week and military subdued. In the seven decades since the end of World War II, Asia has slowly become more prosperous. The region’s economies are connected like never before. Yet there are still deep divisions between neighbors. Memories of colonialism and imperialism continue to breed distrust.

(iv) Leadership: The Asian economy continues to grow rapidly. As such, it is imperative that Asian organizations build leadership depth if they are to capture and sustain this growth. Asian leadership styles typically hinge on the core cultural values prevalent in the region. These styles often involve a hierarchical structure, deference to authority, and a strong focus on harmony and cooperation within the group.

(v) Communication and education: Improved communication networks and increased access to education allowed for the dissemination of nationalist ideas and facilitated coordination among activists, leading to the organization of mass movements.

(vi) Global anti-colonial sentiment: The wave of decolonization in the aftermath of World War II, coupled with the support of international organizations like the United Nations, provided moral and diplomatic backing to liberation movements in Asia. South Asian anticolonial movements are generally considered to have taken place from the 1920s to 1947, the year in which India and Pakistan gained independence, although much anticolonial writing during this period references earlier moments, such as the 1857 Indian Mutiny.

(vii) Social inequalities: Discrimination and inequality based on race, class, and ethnicity under colonial rule intensified grievances and contributed to the unity of diverse groups in their struggle for liberation.

Q 2. Give a brief review of the history of liberation movement in the Asian countries.

Ans: The fall the Fascists and japan in 1945 quickened the freedom movement in the Asian countries like India, pakistan, Burma, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, sri Lanka, etc. The war of liberation from the colonial and imperial powers started soon after the frist world war in many of the colonies of Asia and reached a high pitch after the second World war. 

The liberation movements in some of the Asian countries are:

(i) India: In India there were mass movements against the British all over the country, under the leadership of the Congress. There were also independent movements of workers and peasants led by the Communists, and also organizations of youth, students, writ- ers, women, lower castes. The Indian independence movement, led by figures like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, utilized nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience tactics to challenge British colonial rule. India gained independence in 1947, albeit partitioned into India and Pakistan, marking the end of British rule on the Indian subcontinent. By 1919, the liberation movements came under mahatma gandhi, Who Organised three mass movement for the liberation of the country. 

These were:

(a) The Non-cooperation movement of 1920.

(b) The civil Disobedience movement of 1930.

(c) The Quit India movement of 1942.

(ii) Burma: The British attempt to conquer Burma led to the first Anglo Burmese war of 1824. This was Second World by two more wars in later years. During the second World war, Burma was conquered by japan.

Burma was a province of British India until 1937 and then a self-governing colony until it gained independence from Britain in 1948. In 1962, General NE WIN seized power and ruled Burma until 1988 when a new military regime took control. In 1990, the military regime permitted an election but then rejected the results after the main opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) and its leader AUNG SAN SUU KYI (ASSK) won in a landslide.

(iii) Indonesia: The Indonesian independence movement, led by figures like Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, successfully challenged Dutch colonial rule after World War II. Indonesia declared independence in 1945, leading to a bitter struggle against Dutch efforts to regain control, culminating in the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty in 1949.

The people of Indonesia Organised a liberation movement against Dutch imperialism under the leadership of Hadiningrat and Raden Adjang kartini. Several political organization came up in the 20th century which fought for the freedom of the country.

(iv) Sri Lanka: After a 26 year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end. Up to 70,000 had been killed by 2007. Immediately following the end of war, on 20 May 2009, the UN estimated a total of 80,000 100,000 deaths. The liberation movement in Sri Lanka was led by a political party named the ‘Ceylon National Congress’. This party was able to Organise the masses against the British and and as a result the British introduced some reforms such as Constitutional democracy, dominion status, etc. But, the people were not happy with these superficial changes and demanded total freedom. Finally, the British granted independence to Sri Lanka on 4 February 1948.

Q 3. Narrate briefly the course of the Indian freedom movement.

Ans: The Indian freedom movement’s course is discussed as follows:

(i) The Indian freedom movement began with the first war of independence in May 1857. Over the next century, British control extended across India, leading to economic exploitation, political unity, Western education spread, and improved transport. This fostered national awakening by the early 20th century, prompting Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British official, to establish the Indian National Congress in 1885. Until 1905, the party organized educated people to demand better governance through prayer, petition, and protests. However, British attempts to divide nationalists, particularly in Bengal, caused political turmoil. Lord Curzon’s partition of Bengal led to the Swadeshi and Anti-partition movements, drawing many Indians into the freedom movement.

(ii) Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival in India in 1919 transformed the freedom struggle. He introduced non-violence, or satyagraha, as the chief method of resistance. 

Gandhi led the movement through three key stages:

(a) The Non-cooperation movement: Launched in 1920 to expel the British, urging people to boycott British services, educational institutions, law courts, legislature, pay taxes, wear foreign clothes, abandon British titles, spin and weave cloth by hand, and resign from government services. Although successful, Gandhi ended the movement in 1922 due to violence.

(b) The Civil Disobedience movement: Organized in 1930, starting with Gandhi’s march to Dandi to break British salt laws. It became a nationwide movement, greatly boosting national spirit.

(c) The Quit India movement: Launched in Mumbai in August 1942, demanding the British leave India. It was highly successful, signaling the impending end of British rule.

(iii) The British, realizing Congress’s power, adopted a “divide and rule” policy, supporting the Muslim League to counter Congress. This led to communal representation and ultimately, the division of India and Pakistan. India gained independence on August 15, 1947, while Pakistan became independent on August 14, 1947.

Q 4. Discuss the history of independence movement of Indonesia.

Ans: On 17 August 1945 the Indonesian nationalist forces unilaterally declared Indonesian independence after almost 350 years of Dutch rule. Five years of revolution and military hostilities with the Dutch occupation followed. As a result of the intervention of the British and the United Nations Security Council, agreement between the Dutch and Indonesians was reached on 2 November 1949. The Republic of the United States of Indonesia was granted complete and unconditional sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

The Indonesian independence movement officially began in May 1908, commemorated as the ‘Day of National Awakening’. The country announced its independence on August 17, 1945, at the tail end of the Japanese occupation and then fought for four years against the Dutch before their independence was recognized by their former colonial lord.

Q 5. Give a brief review of the political situation in china following the first world war.

Ans: During the first world war, China joined the Allies with the hope that she would get freedom from the Japanese Domination. However, when the war ended in 1919, the Allied Powers gave recognition to japanese right and rights and privileges in china. This led to the starting of the resistance Movement against the Japanese in china as well as. Against the other foreign powers occupying China. But, the government tried to suppress this mass upsurge. They arrested nearly 1150 students. But, the movement carried on a strong spirit all over the country. This movement came to be known as the ‘New culture Movement.’

The political situation in china are as follows:

Disillusionment with the West: Disillusionment in political leadership is rife in the western world, while approval ratings for politicians in emerging economies remain high, a global survey of attitudes to leaders has revealed. Following World War I, China experienced a deep sense of disillusionment with Western powers. This stemmed from a clash of expectations and the harsh realities of the postwar settlement. 

Warlordism: Warlordism was a period from 1916 to 1926 that saw the rise of militarised politics by region, beginning after Yuan Shikai’s death in June 1916. Multiple warlords governed China’s provinces with no centralised power in the country. Warlords originated from military background and leadership, many trained in military academies founded in the Qing dynasty. Warlordism followed the Republic of China founded in 1912, led by President Yuan Shikai who rose to prominence through his military leadership in the Qing dynasty. Yuan was handed provisional presidency by Sun Yixian after the successful 1911 Revolution and is referred to as the first warlord in China.

Rise of Nationalism: Chinese nationalism as it emerged in the early 20th century was based on the experience of Japanese nationalism, especially as viewed and interpreted by Sun Yat-sen. In 1894, Sun founded the Revive China Society, which was the first Chinese nationalist revolutionary society. In 1945, the leaders of the Nationalist and Communist parties, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, met for a series of talks on the formation of a post-war government. Both agreed on the importance of democracy, a unified military, and equality for all Chinese political parties.

Q 6. Give a brief review of the Revolution culmination in the Establishment of the people’s Republic of china in October 1949.

Ans: Dr sun Yat-Sen was able to establish a Nationalist government at canton on 1 July 1925. Soon thereafter, There started a civil war between the Nationalist forces and the Communist forces led by Mao- Tse- Tung. In june 1928, the Nationalist under Chiang kai- shek captured peaking and established their control over the central government. The United States of America gave recognition to this government and soon Many other countries followed suit. Japan attacked Manchuria in 1931and established a puppet government over there.

In a series of speeches in 1949, Chairman Mao stated that his aim was to create a socialist society and, eventually, world communism. These objectives, he said, required transforming consumer cities into producer cities to set the basis on which “the people’s political power could be consolidated.” He advocated forming a four-class coalition of elements of the urban middle class the petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie with workers and farmers, under the leadership of the CCP. The people’s state would exercise a dictatorship “for the oppression of antagonistic classes” made up of opponents of the regime. The communist victory in 1949 brought to power a peasant party that had learned its techniques in the countryside but had adopted Marxist ideology and believed in class struggle and rapid industrial development.

Q 7. Briefly the background of the history of liberation movement in Africa.

Ans: Liberation movements in Africa in the part 70 years began to campaign for the liberation of African countries. As a result of the resistance to colonialism, from the late 1950s onwards, African countries started achieving independence: five in the 1950s, 32 in the 1960s and nine in the 1970s. With liberation from European colonialism being achieved African countries had to start the process of decolonisation. 

The liberation movements in Africa is discussed below: 

(i) Ghana: Ghana is a small country of Africa situated on the shore of the Guinea sea in south Atlantic Ocean. The National Liberation Movement was a Ghanaian political party formed in 1954. Set up by disaffected Ashanti members of the Convention People’s Party, who were joined by Kofi Abrefa Busia, the NLM opposed the process of centralization whilst supporting a continuing role for traditional leaders.

(ii) Congo: The first such confrontation occurred in the former Belgian Congo, which gained its independence on June 30, 1960. In the months leading up to independence, the Congolese elected a president, Joseph Kasavubu, prime minister, Patrice Lumumba, a senate and assembly, and similar bodies in the Congo’s numerous provinces. In 1876 a vast zone in central Africa was ‘allocated’ to the ‘International African Association’. With this act, the kingdom of the Kongo and other central African territory effectively became the private estate of the Belgian King, Leopold II. So began the oppressive colonial history of corruption, bribery and theft on a scale unprecedented in Africa. Reports by missionaries there on Belgian rubber planters’ treatment of labourers were initially not believed. The Belgian Foreign Office eventually sent Roger Casement to investigate the situation. 

(iii) Algeria: The Algerian War was a major armed conflict between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France. During the second World war General Charles de Gaulle organised a resistance movement against the Fascists in Algeria on condition that after the war got over Algeria would become free from France. But , after the vend of the war, the government of France under general de Gaulle refused to grant freedom. This forced the people of Algeria to begin a war of liberation against the French. The Algerian freedom movement was organised by Mohammad Ahmad Ben Bella. He managed to escape to Cairo in 1952 And Algeria in 1954.

(iv) Namibia: Namibia’s liberation movement was a prolonged struggle against South African apartheid rule. It began in the early 20th century when Namibia, then known as South West Africa, was colonized by Germany. After World War II, the Namibians Organised the’ South Western African people’s Organisation’ (SWAPO) for Namibia to fight for the freedom of their country from south africa. The struggle continued for many years. The Namibians were support to their cause. Finally , south granted independence to Namibia on 21 March 1990.

(v) Nigeria: Nigeria is situated on the coastline of Guinea sea in the south Atlantic Ocean. It became a British colony in 1899. Soon the people under the leadership of certain western educated person started a war of liberation from Britain. The main lender of this movement was Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe . As a result of the nation movement for freedom, Nigeria got independence on 1 October 1960 from the British imperialism.

Q 8. Discuss the course of the anti Apartheid movement in south Africa with its results.

Ans: The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa was started for the right to equality and to eliminate discrimination among the population. A civil rights advocate, Nelson Mandela, played a very important role in fighting the battle to end apartheid policy. He devoted his whole life to struggling for the rights of non-whites. Firstly, he used non-violent tactics and resorted to armed resistance to fulfil the demands.

South Africa was British colony. It comprises of four separate colonies.soon after the freedom of movement of the Union of south africa comprising the four white colonies in 1910, the government initiated a discriminatory policy know as the policy of apartheid in south Africa. The blacks who constituted the majority of the population could not enjoy the political rights and other rights like the minority white people men, the  British and the Dutch. On 31 may 1910, General Louis Both became the prime minister of south africa. The genesis of the policy of apartheid was marked in Rights he Botha’s administration. The policy by which the south African black people suffered political, economic, social, educational and cultural deprivation and negation of basic human rights and privileges came to be known as the ‘policy of Apartheid.’

The African National Congress fought against Apartheid in South Africa:

(i) Black people were facing discrimination, poverty, and suffering.

(ii) Black people were facing deprivation, which meant they did not have rightful benefits.

(iii) Black people lived in most inhumane, and harshest society as they faced racial discrimination due to a system put in place by white-skinned people.

(iv) The prominent South African people who fought against Apartheid were Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo, Bram Fischer, Robert Subukwe and indeed the great Nelson Mandela.

(v) Many countries broke off the diplomatic relations with South Africa due to policy of Apartheid.

(v) Nelson Mandela and African National Congress spent their lifetime fighting against Apartheid.

Q 9. Discuss the history of the emergence of the Arab nationalism Under Nasser of Egypt.

Ans: Arab nationalism is a political ideology asserting that Arabs constitute a single nation, or people group. As a traditional nationalist ideology, it promotes Arab culture and civilization, celebrates Arab history, the Arabic language and Arabic literature. It often also calls for unification of Arab society. It bases itself on the premise that the people of the Arab world from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea constitute one nation bound together by a common identity: ethnicity, language, culture, history, geography, and politics.

Soon after becoming the president, he tried to Organized the Arab nations against Israel Which had been curved out of Palestine on 14 may 1948. The new state of Israel was a threat to their existence and so the Arab nations under the leadership of Nasser started to Organized themselves into a strong Regional group to fight against America – backed Israel. In July 1956, Abdle Nasser nationalised the Suez canal With a view to get some revenue. 

The fundamental tenet of Arab nationalism is that all Arabs, from the Atlantic to the Indian Oceans, are members of a single country united by a shared ethnicity, language, culture, history, identity, geography, and politics. The rise of Egyptian nationalism under Gamal Abdel Nasser, following the Nakba, the Palestine War, Lavon Affair and the Suez War, placed heavy discontent towards the Mutamassirun, particularly the British, French, and Jews, as a colonial class.

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