NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Eighteenth Century Political Formation

Chapter: 10

Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)


1. Let’s Recall

Q.1. Match the following:

(i) Subedara revenue farmer
(ii) Faujdara high noble
(iii) Ijaradarprovincial governor 
(iv) MilMaratha peasant warriors
(v) Chautha Mughal military commander 
(vi) Kunbisa bond of Sikh warriors
(vii) Umaratax levied by the Marathas


(i) Subedarprovincial governor
(ii) Faujdara Mugha military commander
(iii) Ijaradara revenue farmer
(iv) Misla band of Sikh warriors
(v) Chauthtax levied by the Marathas
(vi) KunbisMaratha peasant warriors
(vii) Umaraa high noble

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

(a) Aurangzeb fought protracted war in the _______.

Ans: Deccan. 

(b) Umara and Jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal _______.

Ans: Administration. 

(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan Subedari in _______.

Ans: 18th century. 

(d) The founder of the Awadh Nawabi was _______.

Ans: Burhan-ul-Mulk-Sa’adat Khan.

Q.3. State whether true or false.

(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.

Ans: False.

(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.

Ans: False.

(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.

Ans: True. 

(d) Poona became a capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.

Ans: True.

Q.4. What were the offices held by Shaidat Khan?

Ans: Offices held by Shaidat Khan: Subedari, Foujdari, Diwani. 

He was responsible for managing political, financial and military affairs.

2. Let’s Discuss

Q.5. Why do the Nawab of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the Jagirdari system?

Ans: The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the Jagirdari system to reduce the influence of Mughals in their states.

Q.6. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?

Ans: The following steps were taken by the Sikhs in the eighteenth century to organise themselves: 

(a) Sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.

(b) They combined their forces which were known as the grand army (dal Khalsa).

(c) The entire body used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as “resolutions of the Guru (gurunates)”.

(d) Guru Gobind Singh organised the Sikhs with the inspiration that their destiny was to rule. 

(e) The well-knit organization of the Sikhs enabled them to put up a successful resistance to the Mughal governors first and then to Ahmad Shah Abdali who had seized the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals.

Q.7. Why did the Maratha want to expand beyond the Deccan?

Ans: The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to challenge Mughal Empire in the peninsula.

Q.8. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position? 

Ans: In order to strengthen his position Asaf Jah adopted following policies:

(i) He brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in the south.

(ii) He appointed mansabdars and granted Jagir. 

(iii) He worked independently of the Mughal emperor.

Q.9. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?

Ans: (i) Yes, I think that merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century.

(ii) For example, Reliance company has entered into the electricity distribution in Delhi.

It has already installed new electric meters that run much faster than the previous meters.

In this way the common man suffers, as he would have suffered in the 18th century. And the state governor don’t do anything in this matter. 

This proves the merchant/banker connection with  government authorities.

Q.10. Did any of the kingdoms mentioned in this chapter develop in your state. What ways do you think life in the state would have been different in the eighteenth century from what it is in the twenty first century?

Ans: The student should develop their own answer as an illustration in Punjab state, many princely states were acting as a puppet in the hands of the British Today India being a democratic country. It is different from the eighteenth century when we had to follow the directions of a monarch.

3. Let’s Do

Q.11. Find out more about the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any of the following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad.

Ans: Architecture and culture of Awadh:

The magnificent city of the Awadh rulers is a confluence of the richest forms of art, culture and traditions. It is under Awadh rule that art forms like Kathak, Thumri, Khayal, Dadra, Qawali, Ghazals and Shero-Shairi saw their finest hour. Culinary skills too reached heights of excellence. The legacy of the exquisite embroidery continues even today.

The field of architecture saw-re-interpretation of the existing styles and experimentation in the fusion of the accidental and the oriental style of architecture. Tourist attraction include:

(i) Bara Imambara: Built in the year 1784 by the champion of charity Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula the Bara Imambara provided food to the famine stricken subjects of the Nawab. The monument is known for its simplicity of style, sheer proportion and symmetry.

(ii) Clock Tower: The 221 feet beautiful Clock Tower, constructed in 1887 is the tallest clock tower in India and one of the finest examples of British architecture in India.

(iii) Saadat Ali’s Tomb: The twin maqbaras of Saadat Ali Khan and Khurshid Zadi, near Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, are one of the best examples of Awadh architecture. The proportionate domes with elegant kiosks and above all, well-balanced architectural design makes them extremely interesting.

(iv) Lakshman Tila: It is situated to the north of the Imambara Complex. The Tila contains the famous Alamgiri mosque built by Sultan Ali Governor of the Province of Awadh, during the reign of Aurangzeb. The mosque is known for its outstanding symmetry of form and sobriety of decoration.

(v) Rumi Darwaza: The Rumi Darwaza leads to the outness section of the Bara Imambara and is widely believed to be a facsimile of one of the gates of constantinople. Also known as the Turkish Gateway. it is a brilliant example of Awadh architecture.

(vi) Chattar Manzil: The umbrella palace is an imposing facade with huge underground rooms and a beautiful dome surrounded by a gilt umbrella.

(vii) Jama Masjid: The construction of this mosque was started in 1840 by Mohammad Ali Shah but it was finally completed by his wife Begum Malika Jahan after his death. This splendid mosque built in the typical Mughal style lies to the west of Hussainabad Imambara. It is entirely free from Pseudo Italian art then in vogue in Lucknow.

(viii) Moti Mahal: There are three beautiful buildings on the fringes of the Gomti. The main one is the Moti Mahal or the Pearl Palaces constructed by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan. The too other place indude Mubaraic Manzil and the Shah Manzil. They were mainly constructed for the Nawab and his courtiers to watch animal combats from the balconies of the buildings.

Q.12. Collect popular tales about rulers from any one of the following groups of people: the Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs or Marathas.

Ans: The most outstanding Rajput ruler of the 18th century was Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber (1681-1743). He was a distinguished statesman, law-maker and reformer. But most of all he show as a man of science in an age when Indians were obvious of scientific progress. He founded the city of Jaipur and made it a great seat of science and art. Jaipur was built upon strictly scientific principle and according to a regular plan. Its broad streets are intersected at right angles.

Jai Singh was above everything a great astronomer. He erected observatories with accurate and advanced instruments, some of them of his own invention, at Mathura. His astronomical observations were remarkably accurate. He drew up a set of tables, entitled Zij Mohammad Shahi, to enable people to make astronomical observations. He had Euclid’s “Elements of Geometry” translated into Sanskrit as also several works on trigonometry, and Napier’s work on the construction and use of logarithms.

Jai Singh was also a social reformer. He tried to enforce a law to reduce the lavish expenditure which the Rajput had to incur on their daughter’s weddings.

This had given rise to the evil practice of infanticide. The remarkable prince ruled Jaipur for nearly 44 years from 1699 to 1743.


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. How was Aurangzeb responsible for depleting the military and financial resources of his empire?

Ans: Aurangzeb fought a long war in the Deccan which resulted in the depletion of the military and financial resources of the empire.

Q.2. What were the two major groups or factions in which the empire was further divided into?

Ans: The two major groups or factions were Iranis and Turanis.

Q.3. What were the three states that carved out of the old Mughal provinces in the 18th century?

Ans: Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. 

Q.4. Why did Zamindars of Bengal borrow money from bankers and moneylenders?

Ans: Zamindars of Bengal borrowed money to pay the revenue in cash.

Q.5. Why was ‘Rakhi’ introduced?

Ans: The system of ‘Rakhi’ was introduced to give protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20% of the produce.

Q.6. What was Sardeshmukhi?

Ans: 9-10% of the land revenue paid to the head revenue collector in the Deccan was known as Sardeshmukhi.

Q.7. What was Chauth?

 Ans: 25% of the land revenue claimed by zamindars was known as Chauth. 

Q.8. How did Shivaji make use of peasant pastoralists?

Ans: Peasant pastoralists provided the backbone of the Maratha army. Shivaji used these forces to challenge the Mughals in the peninsula.

Q.9. What title was adopted by Shivaji?

Ans: Chhatrapati Shivaji. 

Q.10. Who ordered execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur and when?

Ans: The execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur was ordered in 1675 A.D. by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Q.11. Who is the present Guru’s of Sikhs?

 Ans: ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ is the present Guru of Sikhs.

Q.12. What do you mean by the term Khalsa?

Ans: Guru Gobind Singh remodelled the Sikh community and organised them as soldiers and termed them as Khalsa or ‘the Pure’.

Q.13. What do you understand by “Astha Pradhan”?

Ans: A council of eight ministers who assist the Maratha King in diplomatic matters is known as Astha Pradhan.

Q.14. What is meant by Guerilla Warfare?

Ans: It is a type of irregular warfare which is fought from behind. 

Q.15. When and between whom was the third Battle of Panipat fought? 

Ans: The third Battle of Panipat was fought between Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Mughals.

Q.16. Who was the founder of Sikhism?

Ans: Guru Nanak Dev.

Q.17. Name the Afghan ruler who invaded North India five times during the later Mughals period.

Ans: Ahmad Shah Abdali between 1748 and 1761. 

Q.18. The later Mughal emperors were puppets in the hands of which two powerful groups?

Ans: The Iranians and the Turanis (nobles of Turkish descent).

Q.19. Who was the founder of Hyderabad state during later Mughals? 

Ans: Asaf Jah or Chin Quilich Khan who gave himself the title as Nizam-ul-Mulk.

Q.20. Who founded the state of Bengal after breaking away from the Mughal control?

Ans: Murshad Quli Khan. 

Q.21. Who founded the state of Awadh after breaking up with later Mughals?

Ans: Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan. 

Q.22. Under whose reignth, banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous.

Ans: Alivardi Khan. 

Q.23. Who founded the Khalsa Panth?

Ans: Guru Gobind Singh.

Q.24. Who were Deshmukhs?

Ans: Powerful Maratha warrior families were called Deshmukhs.

Q.25. Name the Jat king under whose leadership the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state. 

Ans: Suraj Mal.

Q.26. Name the Maratha chiefs who, with the revival of trade got enough resources to raise armies. 

Ans: Maratha chiefs who with the revival of trade got enough resources to raise armies were:

(a) Sindhia of Gwalior.

(b) Gaekwad of Baroda.

(c) Bhonsle of Nagpur.

Q.27. Who after the death of Guru Gobind Singh, led the revolt against the Mughal empire?

Ans: Banda Bahadur.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Who were the Later Mughals? Write the name of any four later Mughal emperors with their exact time period. 

Ans: Later Mughals: The successors of the Aurangzeb were known as Later Mughals.

Four Later Mughal Emperors: The names of four later Mughals with their exact time period are given below:

(i) Bahadur Shah I (1707-12).

(ii) Jahandar Shah (1712-13).

(iii) Farrukh Siyar (1712-19). 

(iv) Muhammad Shah (1720-48).

Q.2. Describe the administration of Nizam- ul-Mulk Asaf Jah.


How did Asaf Jah consolidate his power?

Ans: The main points of the administration of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah were as follows:

(i) Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from Northern India who welcomed new opportunities in the south.

(ii) He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs.

(iii) He ruled quite independently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing any interference.

Q.3. How did the new social groups come into being?

Ans: The state depended on local bankers and mahajans for loans.

It sold the right to collect tax to the highest bidders. These revenue farmers (Jaradars) agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money. Local bankers guaranted the payment of this contracted amount to the state.

These developments allowed new social groups like moneylenders and bankers to influence the management of the state’s revenue system. 

Q.4. How did Murshid Quli Khan become powerful in Bengal? 

Ans: (a) Under Murshid Quli Khan Bengal gradually broke away from Mughal control.

(b) Although never a formal subedar Murshid Quli Khan very quickly seized all the power that went with that office.

(c) Soon, he began to command the revenue administration of the state. 

(d) He transferred all Mughal Jagirdars to Orissa and a major re-assessment of the revenues in Bengal. 

Q.5. Who were the Jats? How did they consolidate their power during the late 17th and 18th centuries? 

Ans: The Jats were prosperous agriculturists. Like other states they also consolidated their power during the late 17th and 18th centuries. Under the leadership of Churaman, they acquired control over territories situated to the west of the city of Delhi. By the 1680’s they had begun dominating the region between the two imperial cities of Delhi and Agra. 

Towns like Panipat and Ballabgarh became major trading centres in the areas dominated by them. Under Suraj Mal, the Kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.

Q.6. What were Watan Jagirs? 

Ans: Watan Jagirs were assigned to local zamindars or rajas and were hereditary and non transferable in nature. Many rajput princes were also the recipients of such jagirs from the Mughals.

Q.7. The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against which kingdoms?

Ans: The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against the Marathas to the west and with independent Telugu warrior chiefs (nayakas) of the plateau. 

Q.8.Write a short note of Sawai Raja Jai Singh.

Ans: He founded the new capital at Jaipur. He was also given the subadari of Agra in 1722. He was also interested in astronomy and built many observatories.

Q.9. Discuss the role of Shivaji in establishing and strengthening the Maratha empire. 

Ans: Role of Shivaji in establishing and strengthening the Maratha empire can be depicted as follows: 

(a) He carved out a stable kingdom with the support of powerful warrior families (deshmukhs). 

(b) Groups of highly mobile, peasant pastoralists (Kunbis) provided the backbone of the Maratha army. Shivaji used these forces to challenge the Mughals in the peninsula.

Q.10. Who were Misls? 

Ans: Sikhs organized themselves into smaller groups. These groups were called Jathas or Mists.

Q.11. What was the impact of Nadir Shah’s invasion on Delhi?

Ans: Nadir Shah’s invasion had a deep impact on Delhi. Some of these were:

(a) Nadir Shah took away immense amount of wealth as a result of which the city of Delhi was ruined. 

(b) Those who had been the masters were now in terrible condition.

(c) The invasion had demonstrated how weak the Mughal government was.

(d) This invasion was followed by a series of plundering raids by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali.

Q.12. Who ruled the Maratha Kingdom after the death of Shivaji?

Ans: After Shivaji’s death, the Maratha kingdom was ruled by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas. They served Shivaji’s successors as Peshwa or principle minister and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of Central India from 1749 to 1818. During their reign, the Maratha empire reached it zenith ruling most of the Indian subcontinent.

Q.13. What were Jathas?

Ans: It means a group of volunteers coming forth to carry out a specific task, be it an armed combat or a peaceful agitation. After the capture and execution of Banda Bahadur, the sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands called jathas, to fight against the oppressors. These jathas were finally reorganised on the Baisakhi of 1743 into 11 Misls. The entire fighting force of the sikhs was named Dal Khalsa. 

Q.14. Why did the peasants and zamindars revolted in many parts of Northern and Western India?

Ans: Peasants and Zamindars revolted in many parts of Northern and Western India because of the following reasons:

(a) Pressure of mounting taxes.

(b) Attempts by powerful chieftains to consolidate their own positions.

Q.15. Who consolidated their authority in different parts of the Indian sub-continent when the Mughal empire declined?

Ans: The governors of large Provinces, Subedars and the great Zamindars consolidated their authority in different parts of the Indian sub-continent when the Mughal empire declined.

Q.16. What were the drawback of the Maratha expansion?

Ans: Maratha expansion made other rulers hostile towards the Marathas. Consequently they were not inclined to support the Marathas during the third battle of Panipat in 1761.

Q.17. What were the offices held by Saadat Khan of Awadh?

Ans: He held the combined offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari. In other words, he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. How were the states of eighteenth century divided?

Ans: The states of the eighteenth century were divided into three overlapping groups: 

(a) States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. The rulers of these states did not break their formalities with the Mughal Emperor.

(b) States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities.

(c) The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and other like the Jats. These were of differing sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughal after a long-drawn armed struggle.

Q.2. What were the main features of the three states-Hyderabad, Bengal and Awadh?

Ans: There were three common features among these states. First many larger states were established by erstwhile Mughal nobles. Jagirdari system was chief among them.

Second their method of tax collection differed. All the three regimes, however contracted with revenue farmers for the collection of revenue. 

Third-Rich bankers and merchants lent money to revenue farmers, received land as security and collected taxes from these lands through their own agents.

Q.3. Describe the rule of the Jats during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Ans: The jats consolidated their power during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries:

(a) The Jats were prosperous agriculturists and towns like Panipat and Ballabgarh became important trading centres in the areas dominated by them.

(b) Under Suraj Mal, the Kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.

(c) When Nadir Shah sacked Delhi in 1739, many of the city’s notables took refuge there. 

(d) His son Jawar Shah had 30,000 troops of his own and hired another 20,000 Maratha and 15,000 Sikh troops to fight the Mughals. 

(e) The Bharatpur fort was built in a fairly traditional style.

(f) The Jats built an elaborate garden at Dig combining styles seen at Amber and Agra. 

(g) Its buildings were associated with royalty under Shah Jahan.

Q.4. Give an account of the administrative policies of Burhan-ul-Mulk. 

Ans: Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan was the Subadar of Awadh. He took the following administrative policies in Awadh:

(a) He tried to decrease the Mughal influence in Awadh region by reducing the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals.

(b) He also reduced the size of jagirs and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions.

(c) The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating and the revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Nawab’s court.

(d) He seized a number of Rajput Zamindars and the agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.

Higher Order Thinking Skill

Q.1. With whom was the state of Hyderabad constantly engaged in a struggle?

Ans: The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against the Marathas to the west and with independent Telugu warrior chiefs of the plateau.

Q.2. Give two reasons why Awadh was a prosperous region. 

Ans: Awadh was a prosperous region because:

(a) it controlled rich alluvial Ganga plain.

(b) It was a main trade route between North India and Bengal.

Q.3. Differentiate between Faujdari and Jaradari. 

Ans: Faujdari was related to military administration and Jaradari means the system in which revenue farmers paid fixed taxes to the state after collecting taxes from other farmers.

Q.4. Who was Maharaja Ranjit Singh? 

Ans: He was the first Maharaja of the sikh empire and was also known as Sher-e-Punjab. In the late 18th century, the sikh territories were extended from the Indus to the Yamuna but they were divided under different rulers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh reunited all groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.

Q.5. Who were Peshwas? How did they strengthen the Maratha empire?

Ans: Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha empire. Peshwas strengthened the Maratha empire in the following ways:

(a) Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organisation. 

(b) Their success lay in bypassing the fortified areas of the Mughal, by raiding cities and by engaging the Mughal armies in areas where their supply lines and reinforcements could be easily disturbed.

(c) Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha empire expanded. Malwa of Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by the 1720s.

(d) By the 1730s, the Maratha King was recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula.

(e) He possessed the right to levy chauth and Sardeshmukhi in the entire region.

Value Based Questions

Q.1. Explain the factors responsible for the decline of Mughal empire in the seventeenth century.

Ans: The following factors were responsible for decline of Mughal Empire in the seventeenth century.

(a) Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan. 

(b) The efficiency of the imperial administration broke down under the successors of emperor Aurangzeb. It became difficult for the later Mughal emperors to keep a check on their powerful Mansabdars.

(c) In many parts of northern and western India, peasant and Zamindar rebellions worsened the situation.


1. Multiple Choice Questions:

Choose the correct option: 

1. Which city did Nadir Shah plunder in 1739?

(a) Delhi.

(b) Mumbai.

(c) Kolkata.

(d) Kerala.

Ans: (a) Delhi. 

2. How many times did Ahmad Shah Abdali invade North India?

(a) 3 times. 

(b) 5 times.

(c) 4 times.

(d) 2 times.

Ans: (b) 5 times.

3. Who were the Mughal emperors that were assassinated?

(a) Farrukh Siyar and Alamgir II.

(b) Ahmad Shah and Shah Alam II.

(c) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’. 

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Farrukh Siyar and Alamgir II.

4. What were the governors of large provinces called?

(a) Subedars.

(b) Viceroys.

(c) Governor General. 

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Subedars.

5. Who founded Awadh?

(a) Murshid Quli Khan.

(b) Asaf Jah.

(c) Farrukh Siyar.

(d) Sa’adat Khan.

Ans: (d) Sa’adat Khan.

6. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

(a) Both Asaf Jah and Murshid Quli Khan held a Zat rank of 7,000 each.

(b) Sa’adat Khan didn’t occupy any mansabdari position.

(c) Ahmad Shah and Shah Alam were blinded by their nobles.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (b) None of these.

7. Who was the founder of Hyderabad state?

(a) Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah.

(b) Sa’adat Khan.

(c) Alamghir II.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah. 

8. Who was Shivaji?

(a) Founder of Sikh Community.

(b) Founder of the Maratha Kingdom.

(c) Founder of the Mughal Kingdom.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (b) None of these.

11. Name the following:

(A) Successors of Auranzeb.

Ans: (i) Bahadur Shah I (1707 to 1712). 

(ii) Jahandar Shah (1712 to 1719 A.D.).

(iii) Farrukh Siyar (1713 to 1719 A.D.).

(B) Founder of Sikhism.

Ans: Guru Nanak Dev.

(C) Founder of Maratha empire.

Ans: Shivaji.

(D) Capital of Awadh rulers.

Ans: Lucknow.

(E) Capital of Bengal in the 18th century. 

Ans: Murshidabad.

F. Three independent rulers of Bengal in the 18th century.

Ans: (i) Murshid Quli Khan (1717-27). 

(ii) Shujauddin Khan (1727-39). 

(iii) Ali Vardi Khan (1739-56).

G. Three Peshwas

Ans: (i) Balaji Vishwanath (1713-20).

(ii) Baji Rao I (1720-40).

(iii) Balaji Baji Rao (1740-61).

III. Fill in the blanks: 

(A) Shivaji adopted the title of _______ in 1762.

Ans: Chhatrapati. 

(B) Nadir Shah was the ruler of ______.

Ans: Iran 

(C) Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded north India five times between _______ and ______.

Ans: 1748, 1761.

(D) It became difficult for the successors of Aurangzeb to keep a check on their powerful _______.

Ans: Mansabdars. 

(E) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the governor of _______.

Ans: Amber.

(F) Murshid Quli Khan took the control of Bengal and transformed all Mughal Jagirdars to _______.

Ans: Orissa.

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