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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 5 Rulers And Buildings
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Rulers And Buildings
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
1. Let’s Recall
Q.1. How is the ‘Trabeate’ principle of architecture, different from arcuate?
Ans: The Trabeate principle of architecture style is different from arcuate in following way:
In Trabeate principle a horizontal beem is place across two vertical columns and roofs, doors and windows were made while in ‘acruate’ style of architecture, the weight of the superstructure above the door and window was carried by an arch.
Q.2. What is Shikhara?
Ans: A spire like structure over the central shrine of a temple is called a Shikhara.
Shikhara is a pyramid structure on the central shrine of the temple.
The pointed high super structure built on the top of Garbhagriha is calledShikhara.
Q.3. What is Pietra Dura?
Ans: The inlays that depict the legendary Greek God Orpheus playing a lute is called Pietra dura.
Q.4. What was the element of a Mughal Char Bhag Garden?
Ans: Char Bhag gardens were placed within rectangular walled enclosure. They were divided into four quarters by artificial channels. They are divided four equal quarters.
2. Let’s Understand
Q.5. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Ans: In medieval periods temples were meant to demonstrate power, wealth, and devotion and patron by the ruler. The temples show the power and prestige of the king who build them. The names of rulers and the god were similar; For example Rajarajeshwara temple was built by king Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god Rajarajeshvaram. The temples were also the miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.
Q.6. An inscription in Shahjahan’s diwan- i-khas in Delhi stated: “If there is paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here”. How was this image created?
Ans: Diwan-i-Khas, or the Hall for Private Audience inside the Red Fort was a remarkable building. It was here that famous Peacock Throne was placed. The figure of a peacock set with precious stones, topped the canopy of the throne. Behind the imperial throne there was pietra-dura which means pictorial mosaic work using semi-precious stones. The picture was that of the Greek God playing lute. This god could charm wild beasts with beauty of his singing. The idea was that king’s justice could bring peace and harmony in the country. An inscription on the wall of Diwan-i-khas said, “If there is Heaven on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.” This made one to believe that peace and prosperity prevailed throughout the empire.
Q.7. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone-the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak received justice equally from the emperor?
Ans: Mughal emperors were known for their administrative skill. The connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasised by Shahjahan in his court. The construction of Shahjahan’s audience hall aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals creating a world where all could live together in harmony. Shahjahan also hanged a golden chain in front of his Taj Mahal. Anybody at any time who needs justice can strike that bell. All rich and poor could strike the bell and get justice.
Except this, people could get justice at lower level. If they were not satisfied with the decisions of the lower court, they could appear before the emperor’s court where they could get justice.
Q.8. What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
Ans: The river Yamuna played a crucial role in the layout of the Mughal city at Shahjahanabad in the following ways:
(i) The imperial place commanded the river front. Only specially favoured nobles were given access to the river.
(ii) Ordinary people had to construct their home in the city away from the river.
(iii) Taj Mahal was constructed on the left bank of river Yamuna. It is a white marble mausoleum describe a ‘A dream in marble’.
3. Let’s Discuss
Q.9. The rich and the powerful construct large houses today. In what ways were constructions of kings and their countries different in the past?
Ans: The constructions of the kings and their courtiers in the past were different from the construction of large houses by the rich and the powerful.
The constructions of the kings and their courtiers had the safety and security as their major consideration. The houses of the kings and their courtiers had big courtyards, thick walls and huge walls. These constructions were generally surrounded by water bodies.
Today, the constructions of the rich and the powerful are quite different. They have less open areas and meet mainly individual requirements.
Q.10. Look at picture. How could that building be constructed faster today?
Ans: Today with the help of available latest technology, this building could constructed much faster.
4. Let’s Do
Q.11. Find out whether there is statue of or a memorial to a great person in your village or town. Why was it placed there? What purpose does it serve?
Ans: Try to find out any memorial or statue in your locality and find out?
Hint: (i) Who constructed it?
(ii) Why it was constructed?
(ii) What is its importance?
(iv) What does it reminds us/you?
Q.12. Visit and describe any park or garden in your neighbourhood. In what ways is it similar to or different from the gardens of the Mughals?
Ans: Hint: Try it yourself.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who constructed Qutub Minar and when?
Ans: Qutubuddin Aibak constructed Minar around 1199.
Q.2. Define the concepts Trabeate and Arcuate.
Ans: Trabeate is a style of architecture in which roofs, doors and windows are made by keeping a horizontal beam across two vertical columns while arcuate is an architectural form in which the weight of the superstructure is carried by the arches.
Q.3. What is Superstructure?
Ans: A Superstructure is the part of a building above the ground floor.
Q.4. Write any three distinctive features of Mughal architecture.
Ans: Distinctive features of Mughal architecture are as follows:
(i) The features of dome and arch were prominent.
(ii) Material used was very costly.
(iii) A double dome structure also came into exist.
Q.5. Which temple has the tallest shikhara amongst temples of its time?
Ans: The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara amongst temples of its time.
Q.6. To whom was the Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated? When was it constructed?
Ans: The Kandariya Mahadeva temple was dedicated to Shiva was constructed in 999 by King Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty.
Q.7. What do you know about trabeate or corbelled style of architecture?
Ans: Roofs, doors and windows were still made (till 17-18 centuries) by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.
Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large stepped-wells (baolis).
Q.8. What is remarkable about the architectural achievements of Akbar?
Ans: Akbar’s architects turned to the tombs of his Central Asian ancestor, Timur. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (Pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture.
Q.9. Why were baolis constructed between 18th and 19th centuries?
Ans: Baolis were built between 18th and 19th centuries for harvesting the rain water.
Q.10. Name the court which described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.
Ans: Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.
Q.11. Name two most famous temple in South India?
Ans: Two most famous temples of Southern India are the Brihadeshwara Temple at Thanjavur, and the Shore Temple of Mamallapuram.
Q.12. What was qibla?
Ans: The pedestal on which Shahjahan’s throne was placed describe as qibla.
Q.13. What was special about the city of Agra?
Ans: Agra was city of beautiful monuments in the medieval period. This was the homes of Mughal nobility.
Q.14. Where is Alai Darwaza? Who constructed it?
Ans: Alai Darwaza, is in Qutub complex. It was built by Ala-ud-din Khilji. It contains arches and domes.
Q.15. Name the ruler who built a large reservoir called Hauz-i-Sultani.
Q.16. Which places had tanks and reservoirs as their part?
Ans: Temple mosques and gurudwaras had tanks and reservoirs.
Q.17. Inscriptions on the walls of Qutub Minar are in which language.
Q.18. In what styles were Vrindavan temples constructed?
Ans: In Vrindavan, temples were constructed in architectural styles that were very much similar to the Mughal palaces in Fatehpur sikri.
Q.19. Name the Mughal ruler who wanted to show a connection between royal justice and the imperial court at Red fort, Delhi.
Ans: Shah Jahan.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What is pietra dura? In which monuments do you find it?
Ans: Pietra Dura was an inlay work in monuments built by Shah Jahan, wherein semi-precious stones like Lapis Lazuli, Topaz, etc., were embedded in the marble to decorate the walls. Taj Mahal and Sheesh Mahal are two of the many monuments wherein Pietra Dura can be found.
Q.2. Describe the features of the temples of central India.
Ans: The temples of central India have a distinctive characteristic of double Amaloka varying in sizes and are placed one over the other. The ‘Kalasa’ is placed above the smaller one. One such example is the temples at Khajuraho, built by the Chandellas of Bundelkhand between the 10th and the 12th centuries CE.
Q.3. What were the different kinds of structures built by the kings and their officers in the eighth and the eighteenth centuries?
Ans: Two kinds of structures were built between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries:
(a) The first were forts, palaces, gardens, residences and tombs.
(b) The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravan serials and bazaars.
Q.4. Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century. Write about them in brief.
Ans: 1. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. This architectural form was called “arcuate”.
2. Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction. This was very high quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier and faster.
Q.5. Write any three features of the temples of North India.
Ans: (i) The temples of North India were built in Nagara style.
(ii) The temple structure had a Shikhara which was covered with Amaloka and then at the top was the Kalasa.
(iii) The Lingaraj Temple and the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple are the best examples of the Nagara style of temples.
Q.6. Why were temples destroyed?
Ans: Kings and rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. It is not surprising that when they were attacked one another’s kingdoms, they often targeted these buildings to show their supremacy over another kingdom.
Q.7. What were the special features of Humayun’s tomb?
Ans: The special features of Humayun’s tomb were:
(a) The central towering dome and the tall gateway known as pishtaq became important aspects of Mughal architecture. This tomb structure was first visible in Humayun’s tomb.
(b) The tomb was placed in the centre of a huge Chahar Bagh and built in the tradition known as ‘eight paradises’-a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.
(c) The building was constructed with red sandstone, edge with white marble.
Q.8. Name the main buildings constructed during Jahangir’s tenure.
Ans: The main buildings constructed during Jahangir’s tenure were-
(i) Tomb of Akbar at Sikandrabad.
(ii) Shalimar Bagh.
(iii) Nishat Bagh.
Q.9. Describe the contribution of regional kingdoms in Medieval Period architecture.
Ans: The contribution of regional kingdoms in Medieval Period architecture:
(i) Regional kingdoms of Rajput and Southern India which rose to power between the period of Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Period got influenced by the Indo-Islamic style of architecture.
(ii) The Rajputs built many forts and palaces. The key features of the Rajput forts was the fanciful use of colour work in the decoration of their fortress and palaces.
(iii) The famous among them are Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur, Victory Tower at Chittor, etc.
(iv) In the south, the Vijayanagar rulers constructed many temples. The most famous examples are the Virupaksha Temple and the Vithalswami Temple at Hampi.
(v) In the Deccan, the architectural forms show a definite Persian style.
Q.10. What do know about Dravidian style of temple architecture?
Ans: The distinctive features of Dravidian style of the temples in South India were the Shikhara of a pyramidal shape tower with several stories in descending order. This Shikhara was usually built over the Garbhagriha on a square base. The other special features of this style were the construction of Gopurams. The Gopurams were huge and ornamented. with figures of Gods and scenes from mythology. A Kalasa was placed on top of these Gopurams.
Q.11. Why did kings of the medieval period constructed tanks and reservoirs?
Ans: King of the medieval period constructed
tanks and reservoirs because of the following reasons:
(a) Making precious water available by constructing tanks was highly praised.
(b) Rulers often constructed tanks and reservoirs, for use by ordinary people.
Q.12. Why did kings of the medieval period constructed temples and mosques?
Ans: Kings of the medieval period constructed temples and mosques because of the following reasons:
(a) Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship.
(b) They were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron.
(c) Constructing temples and mosques provided rulers with the chance to proclaim their close relationship with God.
(d) It brought fame to their rule and their realm.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What were the distinctive features of Rajarajeshwara Temple?
Ans: (i) Rajarajeshwara Temple at Thanjavur has the tallest Shikhara amongst the contemporary temples.
(ii) Some special techniques applied in its construction. This was needed to lift a stone of 90 tones to techniques were the top of the Shikhara.
To overcome this hurdle, the architects built an inclined path to the top of the temple, placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all the way to the top. The path started more than 4 km away in order to ensure a gentle incline. This ramp was dismantled after the temple was constructed. Even today, a village near the temple is called Chakkupallam-the ‘Village of the Incline’.
Q.2. Why were architectural structures constructed in Medieval period? Explain.
Ans: Architectural structures were constructed in Medieval period because:
1. They were used as a symbol of power.
2. The constructions of more magnificent structure reflects more power.
3. Kings undertook construction activities like making of roads, sarais or rest houses, taverns, reservoirs and wells for welfare and fame.
4. The places of worship were also built to show the devotion of a ruler to God.
5. The buildings were thought to be an enduring mark of the king’s rule.
Q.3. ‘The temple of Central India were different from Nagara style’. Explain.
Ans: The temples of Central India were different from Nagara style as the temples of Nagara style had some special features. The Shikhara was always covered with an Amaloka and at the top a Kalasa was placed. The temples of Central India had a distinct feature of double Amaloka varying in sizes and were placed over one another. The Kalasa was placed above the smaller Amaloka.
Q.4. Rajarajeshwara temple was very difficult to construct. Comment.
Ans: Built in the 11th century, Rajarajeshwara temple was not easy to construct. The following points support the statement:
(i) It had the tallest Shikhara amongst temples of its time.
(ii) There were no cranes in those days. The 90 tonne stone for the top of Shikhara was too heavy to lift manually.
(iii) The architects built an inclined path to the top of the temple, placed the boulders on rollers and rolled it all the way to the top.
(iv) The path started more than 4 km away so that it would not be too steep.
Q.5. In what ways do you think the policies of Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni were a product of their times? How were the actions of the two rulers different?
Ans: Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was a contemporary of Rajendra I. During his campaigns in the subcontinent he also attacked the temples of defeated kings and looted their wealth and idols. Sultan Mahmud was not a very important ruler at that time. But by destroying temples- especially the one at Somnath-he tried to win credit as a great hero of Islam. In the political culture of the Middle Ages most rulers displayed their political might and military success by attacking and looting the places of worship of defeated rulers.
Q.6. Describe the attacks on temples by rulers during the medieval period.
Ans: The following rulers attacked temples during the medieval period:
(a) Shrimara Shrivallabha: When this Pandyan king invaded Sri Lanka in the early 9th century, he seized valuable items like the statue of Buddha made of gold.
(b) Sena II: To avenge the above attack, the next Sinhalese ruler, Sena II attacked Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas. He tried to restore the above seized Buddha statue.
(c) Rajendra I: In the 11th century, when he built a shiva temple, he filled it with prized statue seized from defeated rulers.
(d) Sultan Mahumad of Ghazni: He was a contemporary of Rajendra I. During his campaigns in the sub continent, he also attached the temples of defeated kings and indulged in looting of their wealth and idols.
Q.7. With reference Babur and Humayun describe the Mughal forts and gardens.
(a) In his autobiography, he described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.
(b) These gardens were called chahar bagh or four gardens because of the symmetry in their division into quarters.
(a) Important aspects of Mughal architecture like the central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) were first visible during his reign.
(b) Red sandstone edge with white marble was used in the construction of the building.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. Under the Mughals, architecture became more complex. Justify by giving examples.
Ans: Mughal emperor Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan personally took interested in architec-ture. In his autobiography, Babur described his intended in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called chahar bagh. Some of the most beautiful chahar bags were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi. There were several important architectural innovations during Akbar’s reign. For inspiration, Akbar’s architects turned to the tombs of his Central Asian ancestor, Timur. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb. It was placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht-a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.
The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble. It was during Shahjahan’s reign that the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together in a grand harmonious synthesis. His reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activity especially in Agra and Delhi. The ceremonial halls of public and private audience (diwan- i-khas or am) were carefully planned. These courts were also described as Chihil Sutun or forty-pillared halls, placed within a large courtyard.
Q.2. Describe the features of architectural work between 7th and 13th centuries.
Ans: Between 7th and 13th centuries architects started to add more rooms, doors and windows to the buildings. All of these were made by keeping a horizontal beam across two vertical columns which is known as a style of trabeate or corbelled. This style was used in constructions of temples, mosques, tombs etc. Between 10th and 13th centuries large stepped wells were also made in these buildings.
Q.3. The reason behind the architectural construction during the Medieval Period was to symbolize power’. Justify.
Ans: The reason behind the architectural construction during the Medieval period was to symbolize power. This can be explained as follows:
(i) According to the kings, the more. magnificent the building is, the more power of the king would be reflected.
(ii) The buildings were considered to be an enduring mark of the king’s rule for the future generations.
(iii) Places of worship were also constructed to show the devotion of the rulers to their God.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. During Shahjahan’s reign, Mughal architecture reached it peak’. Justify the statement.
Ans: Shahjahan is known as the Engineer king because of the following:
(a) Most his works were in marble. Some of his masterpieces are-the city of Shahjahanabad, Red fort, Moti masjid in Agra fort, the Jama Masjid in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra.
(b) He built a new capital for himself called Shahjahanabad. The city contained residences, mosques and, market places including the famous Chandni Chowk. It was a walled city with fourteen gates. The Red fort was a part of the city.
(c) The Taj Mahal in Agra is the grandest and the most famous monument by Shahjahan. The structure represents the grand fusion of Central Asian and Indian Architecture.
(d) The decorative work of the building consists of calligraphy and pietra-dura.
Q.2. Why is the Mughal period known as ‘golden age’ of architecture?
Ans: The Mughal period is known as golden age, because they were great builders, the period of Mughal saw architecture skill at its peak. They built many mosques, palaces, forts and gates. The architectural style was a combination of Hindus and Muslims and gave rise to a new form of Indo-Islamic style of architecture. They also laid down number of gardens with running water. Due to architectural skill at climax, this period is known as “golden age.”
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
Choose the correct option:
1. The Sun Temple at Konark is in
(c) Madhya Pradesh.
(d) Andhra Pradesh.
Ans: (b) Madhya Pradesh.
2. The Sun Temple is fashioned like-
(a) A house.
(b) A Ratha.
(c) A Bulldozer.
(d) A bullock cart.
Ans: (b) A bullocks cart.
3. The main hall of the Kandariya Mahadeva temple called-
Ans: (c) Mahamandapa.
4. Where was image of the chief deity placed?
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) None of those.
Ans: (b) Garbhagriha.
5. The Lingaraga temple at Bhubaneswar was built by Ruler of-
(a) The Chola Dynasty.
(b) The Chalukya Dynasty.
(c) The Ganga Dynasty.
(d) The Paramar Dynasty.
Ans: (c) The Ganga Dynasty.
II. Match the following:
|(i) Gol Gumbaz||(a) Qutub-ud-din Aibak|
|(ii) Jama Masjid in Delhi||(b) Bahamani Sultan Adil Shah II|
|(iii) Badshahnama||(c) Akbar|
|(iv) Fatehpur Sikri||(d) Shahjahan|
|(v) Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque||(e) Abdul Hamid Lahori|
|(i) Gol Gumbaz||(b) Bahamani Sultan Adil Shah II|
|(ii) Jama Masjid in Delhi||(d) Shahjahan|
|(iii) Badshahnama||(e) Abdul Hamid Lahori|
|(iv) Fatehpur Sikri||(c) Akbar|
|(v) Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque||(a) Qutub-ud-din Aibak|
III. Fill in the blanks:
(i) South Indian temples were built in _______ style.
Ans: Dravidian architectural.
(ii) The greatest law giver and architect was _______ himself.
(iii) _______ is largest mosque in India.
Ans: Jama Masjid in Delhi.
(iv) _______ is known as ‘golden age’ of Muslim architecture.
Ans: Mughal Period.
(v) Mughal Emperor _______ was an extraordinary builder.
(vi) _______ built the great fortress of Tughlaqabad.
Ans: Ghiasuddin Tughlaq.
(vii) The best known architectural style of temple of Central India are the temples at ________.
IV. Read the following extract on what Shahjahan says about the Taj Mahal:
Should guilty seek asylum here, Like one pardoned, he becomes free from sin.
Should a sinner make his way to this mansion,
All his past sins are to be washed away.
The sight of this mansion reates sorrowing sighs;
And the sun and the moon shed tears from their eyes.
In this world this edifice has been made;
To display thereby the creator’s glory.
Now, answer the following questions:
(i) What happens when the guilty and sinners come to the Taj?
Ans: (i) When guilty comes here he seek asylum as he became from all sin and where sinner comes to the Taj. He make his way to mansion that all his pass sins are washed away.
(ii) What do the sun and the moon do?
Ans: (ii) According to Shah Jahan what he said about the sun and moon, they shed tears from their eyes. In this world this edifice has been made.