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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 2 New Kings And Kingdoms
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New Kings And Kingdoms
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
1. Lets Recall
Q.1. Match the following:
|1. Gujara Pratihara||Western Deccan|
|2. Rashtrakutas||Gujarat and Rajasthan|
|4. Cholas||Tamil Nadu|
|1. Gujara Pratihara||Gujarat and Rajasthan.|
|2. Rashtrakutas||Western Deccan.|
|4. Cholas||Tamil Nadu.|
Q.2. Who were the parties involved in the tri-partite struggle?
Ans: The parties involved were-Palas, Rashtrakutas and Pratiharas.
Q.3. What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee or Sabha in Chola’s empire?
Ans: (i) Prominent landlord Brahmanas.
(ii) Those whose name have been selected when a young boy picks up the ticket of the eligible members from each committee.
Q.4. What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?
Ans: (i) Delhi.
2. Let’s Understand
Q.5. How did the Rashtrakutas became powerful?
Ans: Rashtrakutas became powerful in the following manner:
(a) Rashtrakutas were initially the subordinates to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
(b) In the mid-eighth century, Danti Durg, a
Rashtrakuta chief, performed a ritual hiranya-garbha and overthrew the Chalukya overload.
(c) After the ritual was over, he was reborn as Kshatriya, even if he was not by birth.
(d) The Rashtrakutas fought against the Chalukyas and the Pallavas in the South.
(e) The Rashtrautas maintained trade relations with foreign countries.
(f) Regarding the religions, they patronised Saivism and Vaishnavism and also encouraged Jainism, Buddhism and Islam. They allowed the Muslims merchants settle in their kingdoms.
Q.6. What did the new dynasty do to gain independence?
Ans: To gain independence,
(i) They try to control over other areas.
(ii) Rashtrakutas performed a ritual called Hiranya-garbha with the help of Brahmanas so that they became Kshatriya which was the necessary condition to become a ruler (king).
(iii) Kadamira Mayursharman and Gujara-Pratihara gave up their traditional profession of Brahmins and took up arms so that their kingdoms could be given acceptance in the society.
(iv) They attacked the temples as these were the measure houses of that period.
Q.7. What kind of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil Nadu?
Ans: (i) Tank irrigation facilities were developed. Huge tanks were constructed to store rain water which was used during dry season.
(ii) To regulate the supply of water from tanks channels, sluicegates were built.
(iii) Wells were also dug out at some places to provide irrigation facilities.
Q.8. What activities were associated with Chola Temples?
Ans: (i) Temples were nuclei of the Chola settlements. All settlements grew and developed along temples.
(ii) Temples were the centre of craft production.
(iii) Temples were endowed with land of the rulers as well as by others. The produce of land went to maintain all the specialists who worked at the temple.
(iv) Temples were not only the place of worship, but were also the hub of social, cultural and economic life.
3. Let’s Discuss
Q.9. Look at map once more and find out whether there were any kingdoms in the state in which you live.
Ans: I am living in Delhi and it was ruled by Chauhan dynasty between 11th and 12th century. Their most famous ruler was Prithviraj Chauhan.
Q.10. Contrast the election in Uttaramerur with the present day Panchayat election.
Ans: Election in Uttaramerur at that time: The names of eligible members of the sabha were written of palm leaf and kept in an earthen pot from which a young boy was asked to pick the tickets one by one to elect each member of the committee.
Present-day Panchayat election: Find out the election procedure followed to elect the members of the Panchayat with the help of the Internet or any other relevant source.
Following hints are written to help the student:
Nomination forms are filled by the member who wants to contest elections. On fixed day, elections are held. The names of the total members are printed with a symbol allotted to them on a paper called ballot paper. The voters put a stamp over their choice and drops it in a ballot box. Votes are counted and the candidate with maximum votes declared the winner.
4. Let’s Do
Q.11. Compare the temple shown in this chapter with any present-day temple in your neighbourhood, highlighting any similarities and differences that you notice.
Ans: (Try in the classroom with the help of your teacher).
Hint: Write the salient features of the temples discussed in this chapter and compare with the temple of your locality.
Q.12. Find out more about taxes that are collected at present. Are these in cash, kind, or labour services?
Ans: Land tax, property tax, water tax, on electricity, tax on buying and selling are the examples of the taxes collected at present. They are paid in cash.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What did Samantas declare themselves when they gain power and wealth?
Ans: They declared themself to be Maha-Samantas, Maha-mandaleshwara when gained power and wealth.
Q.2. What was the produce of the land near the Chola temple used for?
Ans: It was maintained for all specialists who
worked at the temple and very often lived near it.
Q.3. What were nadu and nagarams?
Ans: Groups of villages formed larger units were called nadu while associations of traders called nagarams.
Q.4. Who was best known Chahamana ruler?
Ans: Prithviraja III.
Q.5. What was Sabha?
Ans: Sabha was the assembly of prominent Brahmans that looked after Brahmadeya.
Q.6. Who was Kalhana?
Ans: Kalhana was a great Sanskrit poet who wrote Rajtarangini.
Q.7. What did Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni did with the wealth which he took away from India?
Ans: Much of the wealth Mahmud carried away was used to create a splendid capital city at Ghazni.
Q.8. Who built the town of Thanjavur?
Q.9. Who is considered the most powerful Chola ruler?
Ans: Rajaraja I is considered the most powerful Chola ruler.
Q.10. Who built the big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram?
Ans: These temples were built by Rajaraja I and Rajendra I.
Q.11. How did the kings obtained resources?
Ans: The kings obtained resources from producers. Producers surrendered a part of what they produced.
Q.12. What are vetti and kadamai?
Ans: These terms are taxes during Chola period. Vetti was the most common tax which means forced labour. Kadamai refers to land revenue.
Q.13. What were the methods used for irrigation?
Ans: Wells were dug, huge tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.
Q.14. Who were the parties involved in the ‘tripartite struggle”?
Ans: The Gujara-Pratiharas, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties were involved in the ‘tripartite struggle’.
Q.15. What was Tripartite Struggle?
Ans: For centuries rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over kanauj. Because there were three “parties” in this long drawn conflict, historians often describe it as the ‘tripartite struggle’.
Q.16. Why the rulers wanted to control Kanauj and the Ganga Valley?
Ans: Kanauj (near modern Kanpur) was rich fertile plain between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. Kanauj was already established business hub. It had been capital city and a political center. These were the reasons rulers wanted to control Kanauj and the Ganga valley.
Q.17. Who opposed the expansion of Chahamanas toward west and east?
Ans: Chalukyas of Gujarat and Gahavalas of Western-Uttar Pradesh.
Q.18. What was Kitab-al-Hind?
Ans: Kitab-al-Hind was an historical account written by Al-Biruni who came to India with Mahmud Ghazni.
Q.19. Which was the most important kingdom of Indian peninsula?
Ans: The most important kingdom of Indian peninsula was Rashtrakutas.
Q.20. By whom were Prashastis composed?
Ans: Prashastis were composed by very well learned persons, especially by the court poet of the kings or the ruler.
Q.21. What type of Chola art is world famous?
Ans: Chola Bronze images are considered amongst the finest in the world.
Q.22. What were the two major cities under the control of Chahamanas?
Ans: Delhi and Ajmer.
Q.23. Name the ruler who destroyed the temple of Somnath.
Ans: Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What was the role of samantas?
Ans: They were expected to bring gifts for their kings or overlords, be present at their courts and provide them with military support.
Q.2. How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?
Ans: The Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. Gradually they gained power and wealth. Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha. When this ritual was performed with the help of Brahmanas, it was thought to lead to the rebirth of the sacrificer as a Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth.
Q.3. Where were the resources obtained by the king used?
Ans: The resources obtained by the king were
used in the following manner:
These resources were used to finance the king’s establishment, as well as for the construction of temples and forts. They were also used to fight wars, which were in turn expected to lead to the acquisition of wealth in the form of plunder and access to land as well as trade routes.
Q.4. How did the Chola Temples became nuclei of settlements?
What were the activities associated with Chola Temples?
Ans: Chola temples became nuclei of settlements in the following manner:
(a) Chola temples were centres of craft production. Amongst the craft associated with temples, the making of bronze images was the most distinctive.
(b) Temples were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others. The produce of this land went into maintaining all the specialists who worked at the temple and very often lived near it-priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers etc.
(c) Temple were not only places of worship, but they were also the hub of economic, social and cultural life as well.
Q.5. What was the strategic importance of Kanauj?
Ans: Dynasties tried to control other areas also. One particularly prized area was the city of Kanauj in the Ganga valley. Kanauj was the centre of all political developments in North India during the long reign of King Harshavardhans. The reason behind this was its location near the Ganga. This was a point of advantage as far as trade, resources and agriculture were concerned.
Q.6. Write a note on Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.
Ans: Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was the ruler of Ghazni. He ruled from 957 to 1030 CE. He was a very ambitious ruler and extended his empire over parts of Central Asia, Iran and the north-western part of the sub-continent. He invaded India 17 times and plundered the wealth from Indian temples. His most important invasion on India was the invasion on Somnath Temple in Gujarat.
Q.7. What term was used for land grants given to Brahmanas during the Chola period? How were these land grants recorded?
Ans: The term used for land grants given to Brahmanas was Brahmadeya. These records were kept on copper plates and were written in Sanskrit and partly in Tamil. The ring holding the plate together was secured with the royal seals, to indicate that this was an authentic document.
Q.8. Who was Al-Biruni? Mention any one of his famous works.
Ans: He was the most entrusted scholar of Sultan Mahmud. He wrote Kitab Al- Hind.
Q.9. Who was Danti durga?
Ans: Dantidurga was a Rashtrakuta chief who turned to be a Kshatriya after performing a ritual known as hiranya-garbha.
Q.10. Trace out the emergence of the new class of rulers.
Ans: During the seventh century, a new class of rulers emerged. They were the subordinates or samantas under the influence of big landlords or warriors. Later they themselves gained power and wealth and declared themsleves to be Maha-samantas, Maha-Mandaleshvera (the great lord of a circle or region).
Q.11. Who was Prithviraj III? Who defeated him?
Ans: Prithviraja III was a Chahamana ruler. He ruled over the regions around Delhi and Ajmer. He defeated Sultan Muhammad Ghori, an Afghan conqueror in 1191. But only one year after it, in 1192 Prithviraja III was defeated by Ghori. It was the end of his rule and life both.
Q.12. Who were Rashtrakutas?
Ans: They were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. Later they became independent and started their own dynasty.
Q.13. Name the territories annexed by the Chola kings to expand their kingdom.
Ans: In order to expand their kingdom, the Chola kings annexed the following territories:
(a) The Pandayan and the Pallava territories in South India.
(b) Ganga valley,
(c) Sri lanka, Lakshadweep, countries South-East Asia (e.g. Sumatra)
Q.14. Who was Rajendra I? What were achievements?
Ans: Rajendra I was Rajaraja’s son. continued his policies and even raided the Ganga valley, Srilanka and countries of South-East Asia; developing a nevy for these expeditions.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How were temples important for Chola rulers?
Ans: Temples were very important for Chola rulers as:
(i) They become the nuclei centre of the Chola settlement.
(ii) They were the centres of craft production.
(iii) They were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others.
(iv) The produce of the land attached to the temple went into maintaining all specialists who worked at temples.
(v) Temples were not only the places of worship, they were also the hub of economic, social, cultural life as well.
Q.2. How was Sabha organised? Explained.
Ans: Sabha was organised in the following way:
The Sabha had separate committees look after irrigation works, garden temples etc. Names of those eligible to be members of these committees were written on small tickets of palm leaf, these tickets were put into an earth water pot, from which a young boy was asked to take out the tickets, one by one for each committee.
Q.3. Write some administration. features of Chc administration.
Ans: Features of Chola Administration:
(i) King was the head of the adminis tration.
(ii) Council of Ministers assisted the king to rule the administration.
(iii) Ur was the settlement of the peasants.
(iv) Group of villages were called nadu.
(v) Rich peasants of Vellala caste exercised considerable control over the affairs of the nadu under the supervision of central Chola administration.
(vi) To run the administration entire kingdom was divided into provinces (mondalams).
(vii) Mondalams were further divided into Valanadus which were further divided into grammas.
Q.4. Describe the achievements of Chola ruler Rajaraja-I.
Ans: Rajaraja-I was the greatest Chola ruler. He ruled from 985 to 1016 CE.
(i) He attacked the kingdom of Pandyas, the Cheras and the part of Mysore.
(ii) He campaigned northwards in the Deccan and region of Vengi.
(iii) He realised the importance of controlling the sea and began to assert his position in coastal region. He took noval expedition and attacked Ceylon and Maldive Islands.
(iv) He established trade link with western Asian countries.
Q.5. How were Kaveri River channel important for Chola?
Ans: It was very important for Chola rulers because many of the achievements of Chola rulers were possible through new development in agriculture.
The Kaveri river channels overflow frequently depositing fertile soil on their banks. Water from these channels provide the necessary moisture for agriculture particularly the cultivation of rice.
Q.6. How did the Cholas rose to power?
Ans: The rise of the Cholas can be explained as follows:
(a) A minor chiefly family known as the Muttaraiyar held power in the Kaveri delta. They were subordinate to the Pallava kings of Kanchipuram.
(b) Vijayalaya who belonged to the ancient chiefly family of the Cholas from Uraiyur captured the delta from the Mutharaiyar in the middle of the 9th century.
(c) The successors of Vijayalaya conquered neighbouring regions and the kingdom grew in size and power.
(d) Rajaraja I and Rajendra I were the most powerful Chola leaders.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. What are Prashastis? How were they written? How Prashasti written by Kalhna is different from written by other Brahmins?
Ans: Prashasti is a Sanskrit word, which means in praise of. These were written in praise of king or ruler and were composed by Brahmanas.
Mostly the Prashastis did not provide us accurate information about the king/ ruler. It usually had boastful praise about kings, describing him as a great warrior and valiant. Kalhana composed a long Sanskrit poem containing the history of kings who ruled over Kashmir. Unlike the writers of Prashastis, he was often critical about ruler and their policies.
Q.2. Who could become the member of a village assembly under Chola Kingdom?
Ans: 1. All those who wish to become members of the Sabha should be owners of land from which land revenue is collected.
2. They should have their own homes.
3. They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.
4. They should have knowledge of the Vedas. They should be well-versed in administrative matters and honest.
5. If anyone has been a member of any committee in the last three years, he cannot become a member of another committee.
6. Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.
Q.3. Was Caste System prevalent in Chola empire? Give details.
Ans: Following instances indicate that caste system was prevalent in the Chola empire:
(a) Rich peasants of the Vellala caste had considerable control under Chola government.
(b) Brahmanas often received land grants on brahmadeya. As a result, a large number of Brahamana settlements emerged in the Kaveri Valley.
(c) People of Pulayas (Considered outcaste by Brahamanas and vellala caste) used to live on the outskirts of village in small hamlet. They were not allowed to participate in village administrative activities.
Q.4. Why were temples often raided when kingdom were attacked?
Ans: The rulers tried to demonstrate their power and resources by building large temples. Temples had become rich and had been a hub of social, cultural and economic activities. Therefore, when kingdoms were attacked, temples were often raided to plunder money and rich valuables.
Q.5. Why the Chahamans may have wanted to expand their territories? Who was the famous Chauhan ruler who defeated Sultan Ghori?
Ans: Chahamanas or Chauhan dynasty ruled over the region around Delhi and Ajmer in 12th century. Being centrally located, they attempted to expand their control to the west and the east, where they were opposed by the Chalukayas of Gujarat and the Gahadavalas of western Uttar Pradesh. The best known Chahamana ruler was Prithvi raja III who defeated an Afghan ruler named Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. What are the basic essential values for irrigation work?
Ans: Basic essential values for irrigation work are:
(ii) Organising labour and resource.
(iii) Maintaining these work.
(iv) Deciding on how water to be share.
Q.2. How can you claim that chola rulers were great builders of temples?
Ans: Chola rulers were great builders as:
(i) They were religious persons and took keen interest in building temples.
(ii) They donated land and money to construct temples.
(iii) They patronised architecture and constructed many temples. Some of the main temples constructed by them were:
Temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikonda-cholapuram.
Q.3. In what ways was the early medieval form of administration different from the present day system?
Ans: During that period, kings and their subordinates (Samantas) collected various types of taxes and revenue from peasants, cattle-keepers, artisans. Sometimes they were forced to do labour work at the kings premises. Even part of their produce was collected as revenue. The revenue collected was used by the king and his subordinates for their personal use like-construction of temples and forts and to fight wars. In the present day system, it is the democratic government which does administration. We have a revenue collection system according to our constitution. Revenue collected is spent on public welfare.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple Choice Questions:
Tick (✔) the correct option:
1. The literal meaning of hiranya-garbha is-
(iii) Golden Duck.
(iv) Golden womb.
Ans: (iv) Golden womb.
2. What is Vetti?
(ii) House tax.
(iv) Land revenue.
Ans: (iii) Tax.
3. Who composed Prashastis?
(ii) Learned scholars.
Ans: (ii) Learned scholars.
4. Land grant received by Brahmanas was called-
(iv) Golden duck.
Ans: (i) Brahmadeya.
5. Where did Gujara-Pratihara ruled?
(i) Tamil Nadu.
(ii) Western Deccan.
(iii) Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Ans: (iii) Gujarat and Rajasthan.
6. What was Maha-Mandaleshvara?
(i) Minister of the king.
(ii) Great lord of a circle.
(iii) King of the region.
(iv) Military leaders.
Ans: (ii) Great lord of a circle.
7. Who were Maha-Samantas?
(i) Samantas who became more powerful.
(ii) Samantas who gained wealth.
(iii) Samantas who wrote good text.
(iv) Both (i) and (ii).
Ans: (iv) Both (i) and (ii).
8. Who was the first Turkish invader to invade India from the north western side?
(i) Prithviraj III.
(ii) Muhammad Ghori.
(iii) Mahmud Ghazni.
(iv) Girja Chauhan.
Ans: (iii) Mahmud Ghazi.
9. What temple did Mahmud of Ghazni attack in 1025 CE?
(i) Somnath Temple at Kathiawar.
(ii) Somnath Temple at Khajuraho.
(iii) Thanjavur Temple.
(iv) Kailashnath Temple.
Ans: (i) Somnath Temple at Kathiawar.
II. Tick (✓) the correct and cross (x) the wrong statements.
1. Ashoka was a Chola ruler.
2. Mahmud of Ghazni invaded 17 times on India.
3. Rajaraja was the most powerful Chola ruler.
4. Gauri defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the battle of Panipat.
5. Kanauj was considered as an important centre from many points.
III. Solve the given following puzzle with the help of clues.
Down 1. a velan or peasant serving three kings.
3. settlements or peasants who became prosperous with the spread of irrigation in agriculture.
4. associations of traders.
Across 2. tax taken by Chols in the form of
5. It literally means the ‘golden womb’.
6. big landlords or warrior chiefs whom kings acknowledged as their subordinates.
7. an Arab term meaning ruler.
8. a ruler dynasty.