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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 1 Human Resources
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 1 Human Resources and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
1. Let’s Recall
Q.1. Who was considered a ‘foreigner’ in the past?
Ans: A foreigner’ or any stranger who appeared say in a given village, someone who was not a part of that society or culture.
Q.2. Say whether true or false:
(a) We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.
(b) The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period.
(c) Forest-dwellers were sometimes pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements.
(d) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur and Kashmir.
Q.3. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Archives are places where _______ kept.
(b) _______ was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
Ans: Ziyauddin Berni.
(c) _______, ______, _______, _______and _______ were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
Ans: Potatoes, Corn, Chillies, Tea and Coffee.
Q.4. List some of the technological changes associated with this period.
Ans: Persian wheel began to use in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving and firearms in combat.
Q.5. What were some of the major religious developments during this period?
Ans: (i) There were major developments in religious traditions. People’s belief in the divine was sometimes deeply personal, but more usually it was collective. This collective belief in a supernatural religion was often closely connected with the social and economic organisation of local communities.
(ii) The Hinduism took shape during this period. Worship of new deities came into practice.
(iii) Construction of temples by royalty was started. Brahmanas, the priests emerged as dominant groups in society.
(iv) Idea of bhakti also emerged during this period. The idea of bhakti was based on the concept of a loving personal deity that devotees could reach without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.
(v) During this period new religions made their presence felt in the subcontinent. Merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the holy Quran to India in the seventh century.
(vi) Many rulers were patrons of Islam and the ulama-learned the ologians and jurists. Like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers.
2. Let’s Understand
Q.6. In what ways has the meaning of the term “Hindustan” changed over the centuries?
Ans: The term “Hindustan” today stands for “India”, the modern nation state. In the thirteenth century when Mihaj-i-Siraj used the term “Hindustan”, he meant the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and the Yamuna. He used the term in a political sense for lands that were a part of the dominions of the Delhi Sultan. With the extent of the Delhi Sultanate, areas included under the term also shifted, but it never included south India.
In the early sixteenth century, Babur used the term to describe the geography, the fauna and the culture of the inhabitants of the subcontinent.
In the fourteenth century Amir Khusrau used the term in the same way.
But as a matter of fact, the term “Hindustan” used by the different people did not carry the political and national meanings which we mean today.
Q.7. How were the affairs of jatis regulated?
Ans: (i) During the period, forests were cleared for the extension of agriculture. It forced many forest-dwellers to migrate. Agriculture made significant economic and social changes among peasants.
(ii) Society became more differentiated, people were grouped into jatis or sub-castes and ranked on the basis of their backgrounds and their occupations.
(iii) Ranks were not fixed permanently. Power, influence and resources controlled by members of jatis influenced the ranks.
(iv) Each jati had its own rules and regulations. These managed the conduct of members. An assembly of elders enforced these rules and regulations.
(v) This assembly was described in some areas as jati panchayat.
(vi) Jatis were also supposed to follow the rules of their villages. Several villages were governed by a chieftain. Together they formed one small unit of a state.
Q.8. What does the term pan-regional empire mean?
Ans: Pan-regional empire means, rule on the entire area of the state.
3. Let’s Discuss
Q.9. What are the difficulties historians face in using manuscripts?
Ans: (i) Scribes copied manuscripts by hand. Sometimes they failed to understand the handwriting and were forced to guess what was written. As a result there was small but significant change appeared in the succeeding copies.
(ii) As scribes copied manuscripts, they also introduced new words or changed entire sentence. These small differences grew over centuries of copying until manuscripts of the same text became substantially different from one another. This changed the nature of the original manuscript.
So, historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.
On some occasions, authors themselves revised their chronicles at different times. It also posed difficulty for historians. Ziyauddin Barani wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and another version two years later.
Q.10. How do historians divide the past into periods? Do they face any problems in doing so?
Ans: The division of Indian history is based on religion, historical changes, economic and social changes. Time reflects changes in social and economic organisation, in the persistence and transformation of ideas and beliefs.
Yes, historians face problems while doing so. One period overlaps on other. It is very difficult to segregate them properly. One period may be contrasted with another on the basis of lack of some factor. But it may not be true. As the existence of any particular factor may be traced in the preceding period.
Division of history into Muslim, Hindu and British period is ignored on the basis of rich Indian diversity. Modern historians classify history into three periods- Ancient history, Medieval history and Modern history. It is quite acceptable because over the thousand of years a number of chanages occured in Indian History.
4. Let’s Do
Q.11. Compare either Map I or Map II with the present day map of the subcontinent; listing as many similarities and differences that you can find.
(A) Map I
Ans: (i) Map I was made in 1154CE by geographer Al-Idrisi.
(ii) This presents a detail of the Indian subcontinent from his larger map of the world.
(iii) In this map, South India was at that place where North India is at present and Sri Lanka is the Island at the top.
(iv) Place names are marked in Arabic as Kanauj in Uttar Pradesh has been spelt as Qanauj.
Present day map of the subcontinent is more clear. It has been made to scale and it clearly shows direction.
(B) Map II
This map was made by French cartographer in 1720s. In this map-
(i) Coastal areas are surprisingly detailed.
(ii) Method of providing information was different.
(iii) The technique of cartography also differed.
Q.12. Find out where records are kept in your village or city. Who writes these records? Is there an archive? Who manages it? What kinds of documents are stored there? Who are the people who use it?
Ans: (i) In villages, records are kept in the Panchayat Ghar. In cities, records are kept in the office of municipal committee or municipal corporation or an archive.
(ii) The records are written and maintained by Sarpanch in villages. In cities these records are written by clerks.
(iii) Rare manuscripts, government records and valuable books etc. are stored there.
(iv) Scholars, researchers and government officials use them.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who is a cartographer?
Ans: A cartographer is a person who draws map.
Q.2. Who was Al-Idrisi?
Ans: Al-Idrisi was an Arab cartographer.
Q.3. What does the word ‘Rajput’ stand for?
Ans: The word ‘Rajput’ stands for the son of a ruler.
Q.4. Why do historians today have to be careful about the terms in the past?
Ans: It is because the terms meant different in past.
Q.5. What is Archive?
Ans: Archive is a place where manuscripts and documents are stored or kept.
Q.6. What was the name used by the Greeks and Chinese for Indian sub-continent?
Ans: (i) The Greeks gave the name ‘Indo’ to the Indian sub-continent.
(ii) The Chinese called Tein-Chu.
Q.7. Who was Minhaj-i-Siraj?
Ans: Minhaj-i-Siraj was a thirteenth century chronicler who wrote in Persian.
Q.8. Who was considered a foreigner in the past?
Ans: A foreigner was any stranger say in a given village, someone who was not a part of that society or culture.
Q.9. What are the sources used by historians to write history?
Ans: Coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records.
Q.10. Who were scribes?
Ans: Scribes were the people who copied manuscripts.
Q.11. Who was Ziyauddin Barani?
Ans: Ziyauddin Barani was a fourteenth century chronicler.
Q.12. When did Ziyauddin Barani wrote his first chronicle?
Ans: In 1356.
Q.13. What did ‘Rajputra’ mean?
Ans: ‘Rajputra’ meant the son of a ruler.
Q.14. To whom the term ‘Rajputra’ was applied?
Ans: Between eighth and fourteenth centuries the term was applied more generally to a group of warriors who claimed Kshatriya caste status.
Q.15. What do you mean by jatis?
Ans: Jatis were the sub-castes.
Q.16. What do historians rely upon information?
Ans: Historians still rely on the coins, inscriptions, textual record, for information.
Q.17. What are monuments?
Ans: Monuments are buildings belonging to the past either dug out of the earth or found still remaining.
Q.18. Where were manuscripts placed?
Ans: Manuscripts were placed in libraries and archives.
Q.19. Name the most important leader of Mongol?
Ans: The most important leader of Mongol was Genghis Khan.
Q.20. What were the areas covered by Minhaj-i-Siraj in his writings?
Ans: The areas covered by Minhaj-i-Siraj were Punjab, Haryana and the land between Ganga and Yamuna.
Q.21. What was jati panchayat?
Ans: An assembly of elders who enforced the regulations of jatis was jati panchayat.
Q.22. When did the Mughal Empire decline?
Ans: The Mughal Empire, declined in the eighteenth century.
Q.23. Who were patrons?
Ans: Patrons were the rich people who supported other persons.
Q.24. What was the idea of bhakti?
Ans: The idea of bhakti was of a loving, personal deity that devotees could reach without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.
Q.25. In which century did the teaching of the holy Quran first came to India.
Ans: Seventh century.
Q.26. Name the language that was considered as the elite language.
Q.27. Between 700 to 1750, various socio cultural changes took place, what was the most important reason for this?
Ans. Interaction with people from different parts of the world was the most important reason for various socio-cultural changes that took place between 700 to 1750.
Q.28. What was the ancient name of Bengal?
Q.29. Name the sultan of Delhi who was praised in a prashasti, written in sanskrit.
Q.30. Who were Ulemas?
Ans: Ulemas were muslim Jurists and theologians.
Q.31. What do you mean by archives?
Ans: Archives were the places where manuscripts were collected.
Q.32. Name and explain the two sects of Islam.
Ans: The two sects of Islam are:
(a) Shia Muslims who believed that the Prophet Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali, was the legitimate leader of the Muslim community.
(b) Sunni Muslims now accepted the authority of the early leaders (Khalifas) of the community.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How do historians learn about the past?
Ans: Historian use different types of sources to learn about the past depending upon the period of their study and nature of their investigation. They rely on coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records for information.
Q.2. Why did the number and variety of textual records increased dramatically during the early medieval period?
Ans: Through this period paper gradually became cheaper and more widely available. People used it to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records and for registers of accounts and taxes. They slowly displaced other types of available information. Number and variety of textual records increased dramatically during this period.
Q.3. Why did changes appear in the manuscripts?
Ans: Scribes copied manuscripts by hand. This was not a simple exercise. Sometimes they failed to read the handwriting and were forced to guess what was written. They changed words or even sentences also. Scribes also introduced some changes on their own. These small differences grew over centuries of copying until manuscripts of the same text became substantially different from one another.
Q.4. Why was this period, a period of great mobility?
Ans: This was a period of great mobility. Groups of people travelled long distances in search of opportunity. The subcontinent held immense wealth and the possibilities for the people to carve a fortune. One group of people who became important in this period were the Rajputs. Other groups of people such as the Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms and Kayasthas also used the opportunities of the age to become politically important.
Q.5. Write some major religious develop-ments during the period.
Ans: People’s belief in the divine was sometimes deeply personal, but more usually it was collective. This collective belief in a supernatural religion was often closely connected with the social and economic organisation of local communities.
The current days Hinduism took shape during this period. Worship of new deities came into practice. Construction of temples by royalty was started. Brahmanas, the priests emerged as dominant groups in society.
Q.6. How did the British divide the history of India?
Ans: In the middle of the nineteenth century,
British historians divided the history of India into three periods. These were ‘Hindu’, ‘Muslim’ and ‘British’. This division was based on the idea that the religion of rulers was the only important change and that there were no other significant developments.
Q.7. Mention the different languages used during the medieval period.
Ans: During medieval period various languages were used is every region. Sindhi, Lahori, Kashmiri, Telangani, Gujarti, Awadhi and Hindawi.
Q.8. What are sources? How are sources helpful to historians?
Ans: Sources are important to trace the ancient records. Different types of sources are coins, inscriptions architecture and textual records.
References to historical events and traditions are scattered in many ancient Indian texts. Historians use these sources to learn about the past, depending upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation.
Q.9. Why did Brahmans became important in Hindu Society in the early 8th century?
Ans: Brahmans became important during this
period due to the following reasons:
(a) The had the knowledge of Sanskrit texts which made them respectable in the society.
(b) They had the support of their patrons, who were new rulers and searching for prestige.
Q.10. Mention the vegetables, beverages and technologies that came to Indian sub-continent from other continents.
Ans: Vegetables such as chillies, corn, potatoes and beverages such as tea and coffee and new technologies like the persian wheel for irrigation and spinning wheel in textile industry and firearms to be used in battle, came to the sub-continent from other continents.
Q.11. Who were scribes?
Ans: Scribes were those professionals who used to copy down the manuscripts. The scribes copied down the manuscripts by hand.
Q.12. Who coined the term Hindustan in the 13th century and which areas were covered in it?
Ans: The term Hindustan was first used by Minhaj-i-siraj, a chronicler who wrote in Persian. The areas that he used this term for were- Punjab, Haryana and the lands between Ganga and Yamuna. He used the term in political terms for the land that came under the Delhi Sultanate.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How did the pan-regional rule alter the character of the regions?
Ans: Across most of the subcontinent the regions were left with the legacies of the big and small states that had ruled over them. This was apparent in the emergence of many distinct and shared traditions in the realm of governance, the management of the economy, elite cultures and language. Through the thousand years between 700 and 1750, the character of the different regions did not grow in isolation. These regions felt the impact of larger pan-regional forces of integration without ever quite losing their distinctiveness.
Q.2. Describe the contribution of medieval period of Indian History.
Ans: Contribution of Medieval Indian History:
(i) Most of the languages that we speak today, were developed in Medieval India.
(ii) Some special food items, that we enjoy even today were also popular in Medieval India.
(iii) Most of the current religious beliefs were also developed in Medieval India.
Q.3. What do you know about Pan-regional rule? Describe its impact in brief.
Ans: Pan-regional rule applies to the trend of prevailing empire to the region beyond one’s own state. With the decline of mighty Mughal empire in the 18th century many regional kingdoms emerged. As a result of this a change of sharing different traditions in the realms of governance, economy, elite culture and language was prosperous. People knew a lot of new things, manners, etc. without loosing their own culture and identity.
Q.4. Why there was a dramatic increase in the variety of textual records between 700 to 1750 CE?
Ans: During this period, paper became cheaper and widely available. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the variety of textual records between 700 and 1750 CE. People started using paper to write holy text, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records and for registers of accounts and taxes.
Q.5. Describe the difficulties faced by historians in using manuscripts.
Ans: There was no printing press in those days so the writers copied manuscripts by hand. As a result of copying, there occured small but significant differences in the manuscripts. Small changes were introduced a word here, a sentence there. Reading these manuscripts over centuries proved to be difficult and the historians had to face difficulties.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. Why were many forest dwellers forced to migrate?
Ans: Many forest dwellers were forced to migrate due to gradual decline of forest covers and extension of agriculture.
Q.2. Give reasons why is India called the land of many names?
Ans: (i) India was named Aryavarta because of this country being the abode of Aryans.
(ii) India was named Bharata after the name of king Bharat (About whom we get information from Ramayana. Bharata was the step-brother of Lord Rama).
(iii) The name Hindustan and Indus were derived from Sindu, the Vedic name of the great river of north-west.
(iv) The Roman named it Indus on the name of river Indus.
Hence, we can call India the land of many names.
Q.3. Write any two similarities and differences between the Map I and Map II given in the text book.
(i) Both these maps belong to same area.
(ii) Sri Lanka is an island yet the difference is of its location.
(i) In Map-I, South India is kept at that area where we expect to see North India.
(ii) Map-II is more familar to as compared to Map-I.
Q.4. Why the British Historians periodization of Indian history not a correct one?
Ans. The British historians periodized Indian history as Hindu India, Muslim India and British India. This periodization focussed only on the religions of the ruler and rejected the rich diversity of the Indian sub-continent. It did not serve the very purpose of the periodization.
Q.5. What do understand by discontinuity in historical sources?
Ans: Historians use coins, inscriptions and manuscripts for reconstructing the history of ancient period. Very few original manuscripts are available and manuscripts which are available are the reproduction of scribes and sometimes information provided in these sources are not reliable. A scribe fails to understand the information given in the historical text which leads to the misinterpretation of facts.
And moreover there is lack of continuity as text do not follow a timeline. In medieval period use of paper to issues royal orders began instead of inscriptions. As paper has less durability than inscription caused the discontinuity in the availability of historical source.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. Describe the changes we have observed in society during the period between 750-1750 CE.
Ans: The following changes were observed between 750 and 1750.
(a) Introduction of Persian wheel in irrigation.
(b) Spinning wheel in weaving.
(c) Fire arms in combat.
(d) Production of new foods and beverages like potatoes, corn, chillis, tea and coffee.
The changes were introduced with the arrival of the people who came to this land. As a result, significant economic and social differences emerged among the peasants.
Q.2. How has the medieval period helped in the development of India history? Give example from present day experience.
Ans: (i) Most of the languages we speak and write today were developed during this period.
(ii) Most of the food item and the clothes we wear today became popular this period.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
Choose the correct option:
Q.1. In which of the following centuries Babur used ‘Hindustan’ to describe Indian Geography?
(a) 15th century.
(b) 16th century.
(c) 17th century.
(d) 18th century.
Ans: (b) 16th century.
Q.2. When did Minhas-i-Siraj use the term ‘Hindustan’?
(a) 14th century.
(b) 13th century.
(c) 15th century.
(d) 12th century.
Ans: (b) 13th century.
Q.3. In the medieval period which of the following groups became more important?
Ans: (b) Brahmanad.
Q.4. Which of the following is not a source of information for historians?
Ans: (d) Government.
Q.5. Which of the following foods was not introduced during the period?
Ans: (d) Sugar.
Q.6. British historians divided the history of India into how many periods?
Ans: (d) Threy.
Q.7. What were archives?
(a) Places where wars were fought.
(b) Places where manuscripts were collected.
(c) Places where manuscripts were written.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (d) None of these.
Q.8. What was the name given to Indian continent according to Patanjali?
(b) Arya Kunj.
Ans: (a) Aryavarta.
II. Say true or false for each of the following statements:
(i) In map made by al-Idrisi places names are marked in English.
(ii) Historical records exist in a variety of language which changed considerably over the period.
(iii) Minhaj-i-Siraj divided Indian History into three periods-Hindu, Muslim and British.
(iv) Mughal empire flourished in the 18th century.
(v) Muslims accepted the sovereignty of the one God-Allah.