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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 4 The Creation Of An Empire: The Mughal (Dynasty)
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The Creation Of An Empire: The Mughal (Dynasty)
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Q.1. You have inherited a kingdom (Remember Babur and Akbar were about your age when they became rulers). How would you make your kingdom stable and prosperous?
Ans: Hint: I would like to make my kingdom stable and prosperous in following ways:
(i) I will appoint wise advisory ministers to guide on every crucial matter.
(ii) A proper tax arrange will be made.
(iii) All the citizens will be provided basic needs at reasonable rate.
2. Let’s Recall
Q.1. Match the follow:
3. Fill in the blanks:
Q.2. (a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was _______.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmednagar ……….. and ………..
Ans: Bijapur, Golconda.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdars’s rank, and salary, Sawer indicated his _______.
Ans: Number of horse maintained.
(d) Abdul Fazal, Akbar’s friend and Councellor helped him frame the idea of _______ so that he could govern a society composed for many religions, cultures and castes.
Q.3. What were the central provinces under the control of Mughals.
Ans: Control provinces under the control of Mughals were Panipat, Lahore, Delhi, Agra, Ajmer, Fatehpur Sikri, Ranthambore, Chittor and Allahabad.
Q.4. What was the relationship between the Mansabdar and the Jagir?
Ans: Mansabdars were the persons who joined the Mughal services. Jagirs were the salaries received by the mansabdars as revenue assignments.
Mansabdars depended on Jagir for their livelihood. Mansabdar did not actually reside in or administration their jagir. They had only right to the revenue of their assignments which were collected by the servants while they serve in either parts of the country.
Q.5. What was the role of Zamindars in Mughal Administration?
Ans: Role of Zamindars in Mughal Admi-nistration:
(i) They were more powerful than local chieftain appointed by the Mughal rulers and exercised great influence and power.
(ii) They collect taxes (land revenue) from the peasants and gave it to Mughal emperor. Thus they played the role of an intermediaries between the Mughal emperor and the peasants.
(iii) In some regions they became more powerful. The exploitation by the Mughal emperor made them to rebellion. They got the support of peasants in rebellion against the Mughal authority.
Q.6. How were debates with the religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s idea on government?
Ans: (i) Their teaching created a division and disharmony amongst the subjects.
(ii) Akbar followed the policy of Sulh-i-Kul. The teaching of Sulh-i-Kul did not discriminate between the people of various castes and focused on a system of ethics such as peace, justice and honesty. Scholars such as Abul-Fazal helped the Mughal emperor Akbar in forming a visionary governance around the idea of Sulh-i-kul.
Q.7. Why did Mughal underline their Timurid and not their Mughal descent?
Ans: It is because, they were proud of their Timurid ancestry who captured Delhi in 1398. They celebrated their genealogy. Pictorially each ruler getting a picture mode of Timur and himself.
Grenghis knows memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. So Mughals did not like to be called Mughal.
4. Let’s Discuss
Q.8. How important was the income from land revenue to be the stability of the Mughal empire?
Ans: (i) Land revenue was the backbone of Mughal empire. Without land revenue nothing could be done. In such a situation it become difficult for the emperor to pay the salaries of his soldiers.
(ii) Nothing could be done for the welfare of the state.
Q.9. Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit Mansabdars from diverse background and not just Turanis and Iranis?
Ans: Mughal empire expanded to encompass different regions. It was important for the Mughals to recruit diverse bodies of people in order to make people comfortable with them. They included Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and other.
Q.10. Like the Mughal Empire, India today is also made up of many social and cultural units. Does this pose a Challenge to national integration?
Ans: It does not pose challenge to national integration as there is unity in diversity in India. Our constitution does not discriminate anybody on the basis of caste, creed and colour. All religions are equally protect. No religion is considered superior to any other. Constitutionally some special provisions are made to safeguard the interest of the people.
Q.11. Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today? Has the gap in the income between the rich and the poor in India changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals?
Ans: Yes, they are also important for today’s economy.
Yes, the gap in the income between the rich and poor in India changed a great deal from the period of great Mughals.
5. Let’s Do
Q.12. The Mughal Empire left its impact on the different regions of the subcontinent in a variety of ways. Find out if it had any impact in the city/village region in which you live.
Ans: The impact of the message ‘Sulh-i-kul’ (universal peace), we can still find in the cities/village/region arounds.
The Sisodiya Rajputs refused to accept Mughal authority for a long time. Once defeated, however, they were honourably treated by the Mughals, given their lands (watan) back as assignments (watan jagir).
The careful balance between defeating but not humiliating their opponents enabled the Mughals to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains.
For administrative purpose, the Mughal emperors had divided the empire into provinces or Subas. The head of the provincial administration was known as a Subedar or Sipahsalar.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who was the founder of Mughal empire in India?
Ans: Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was the founder of Mughal empire in India.
Q.2. When was Mughal empire founded in India?
Ans: Mughal Empire in India was founded in 1526 by Babur after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat.
Q.3. In which year Babur succeeded the throne of Ferghana?
Ans: Babur succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old.
Q.4. Name any two battles fought by Babur to establish his supremacy in India.
Ans: (i) In 1526 he defeated Ibrahim Lodi and his Afghan supporters at Panipat.
(ii) In 1527 he defeated Rana Sanga, and his allies at Khanua.
(iii) In 1528 he defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi.
Q.5. What was Mughal tradition of succession?
Ans: Mughals did not believe in the idea of giving father’s estate to the eldest son. Instead they adopted the Mughal and Timurid tradition of corparcenary inheritance means division of father’s estate among all the sons of father.
Q.6. Name the religion started by Akbar.
Ans: Akbar started a new religion called Din-i-Illahi.
Q.7. Who succeeded Babur?
Ans: Humayun succeeded Babur.
Q.8. Who defeated Humayun?
Ans: Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun.
Q.9. When Humayun re-established Mughal power in India?
Ans: In 1555, Humayun re-established Mughal power in India.
Q.10. Who helped Humayun recaptured Delhi?
Ans: Humayun recaptured Delhi with the help from the Safavid Shah in 1555.
Q.11. Who was Bairam Khan?
Ans: Bairam Khan was the patron of Akbar. He took charge of Mughal empire during the childhood of Akbar.
Q.12. Name the Mughal emperor who installed chain of justice?
Ans: Jahangir, installed the chain of justice to provide justice to all without any difficulties.
Q.13. What were the affects of the teaching of bigots?
Ans: As a result of the affects of the teaching of bigots a division was created in the society and disharmony amongst his subject.
Q.14. What is the meaning of ‘Sulh-i-Kul’? On what idea it was based?
Ans:The meaning of Sulh-i-Kul was universal peace. It was based on the principle of tolerance. It focused on the ideas of ethics, justice, which were universally applicable.
Q.15. What was Taslim?
Ans: Taslim is placing the back of the right hand on the floor and lifting it gently till the person concerned stood erect.
Q.16. What vow was taken by those who accepted Akbar as their spiritual guide?
Ans: They took a vow that they would be prepared to sacrifice their property, their honour, their religion and their life for the emperor.
Q.17. Name the first Mughal emperor of India and who was his son?
Ans: Babur was the first Mughal emperor of India and Humayun was his son.
Q.18. Describe in brief Akbar’s political career from 1556-1570.
Ans: Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff. Military campaigns were launched against the Suris and other Afghans, against the neighboring kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the Sisodiy a capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569 Ranthambhor.
Q.19. What do know about Noorjahan?
Ans: Noorjahan was the wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir who had great control over empire during the reign of Jahangir.
Q.20. Name the ruler who helped Babur against the Lodhi ruler of Punjab.
Ans: Rana Sangha of Mewar offered Babur to help against Lodhi King.
Q.21. When and between whom was the First battle of Panipat fought?
Ans: First battle of Panipat was in 1526 between Babur and Ibrahim lodi.
Q.22. Who defeated Humayun at Chausa and Kannauj?
Ans: Sher Shah.
Q.23. Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari are autobiographies of which ruler.
Q.24. Which Mughal ruler developed the idea of Sulh-i-kul or universal peace?
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who were the Mughals? Why did they did not like to call them Mongol?
Ans: The Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan and from their father’s side they were the successors of Timur. The Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol. This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors. On the other hand, the Mughals were proud of their Timuri ancestry, because their great ancestors had captured Delhi in 1398.
Q.2. What was the relationship between rank and salary under the Mughals?
Ans: Holding a ‘Mansab’ was a grading system used by the Mughal emperor to fix rank, salary and military responsibility. Rank and salaries were determined by a numerical value called zat. The higher the zat, the more the prestigious was the noble’s position in court and the larger his salary.
Q.23. Write any three features of Akbar’s administrative policies.
Ans: (i) The entire Mughal empire was divided into Subas, under the supervision of a Subedar. Each province had a financial officer i.e. diwan, to keep the land revenue records.
(ii) Akbar gave more importance to the idea of tolerance.
(iii) He followed the policy of Sulh-i-Kul and respected all religions equal.
Q.4. Who were ‘navratnas”? Name them.
Ans: Akbar’s court was well-known for the presence of nine illustrious men known collectively as ‘navratnas’ or ‘the nine gems’. They rendered great services to the Mughal Empire. They were Abul Fazl, Faizi, Tansen, Todarmal, Mirza Aziz Koka, Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khana, Raja Bhagwan Das, Raja Mansingh and Birbal. Birbal is remembered even today for his wit and humour.
Q.5. Describe the difficulties faced by Humayun.
Ans: (i) His kingdom was disorganised and the administration had to be set up.
(ii) He had to face the revolts of his brothers who were dissatisfied with their share of the kingdom.
(iii) There were constant threats from all sides which made it difficult for him to sustain his kingdom.
(iv) The Rajput rulers, Bahadur Shah, the rulers of Gujarat and Afghan pose a great challenge for his empire.
Q.6. Humayun had to flee from his kingdom in 1540 CE. Why? When did he came back?
Ans: Humayun had to flee from his kingdom because he was defeated by Sher Khan twice in the Battle of Chausa and in the Battle of Kanauj. After that, he had no option left but to flee from his kingdom. He went to Sindh and then Persia and stayed in exile for nearly 15 years. He came back to Delhi in 1555 after the decline of the Afghan power.
Q.7. What is Dashala or Bandobast system?
Ans: According to this system, all land was measured and divided into four classes depending upon its fertility. The annual revenue was calculated on the basis of a ten year average of the yield and the prices of different crops.
Q.8. Discuss any three reforms carried out by Sher Shah.
Ans: Following Reforms were carried out by Sher Shah Suri during his reign:
(i) He built an excellent network of roads called the Sher Shah Suri Marg to promote trade.
(ii) He also made a number of sarais on every road for the convenience of the travellers and planted many fruit-bearing trees on both sides of the roads.
(iii) As efficient administrator he an introduced many administrative, civil, military reforms and land revenue system. He started minting gold coins called Mohar, copper coins called Dam and silver coins known as Rupaiya.
Q.9. Explain the Mughal relations with other rulers.
Ans: Mughal relations with other rulers can be explained as follows:
(a) Mughal rulers campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept their authority.
(b) But, as the Mughals became powerful many other rulers joined them voluntarily.
(c) The Rajputs were a good example. Many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well.
Q.10. What were the military responsibilities of mansabdars?
Ans: Military responsibilities of mansabdars were as follows:
(a) The mansabdar was required to maintain a specified number of cavalry men.
(b) The mansabdars had to bring his cavalry men for review, get them registered and get their horses branded.
Q.11. Explain the Mughal tradition of succession.
Ans: Mughal tradition of succession can be explained as follows:
(a) The Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father’s estate.
(b) Instead, they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance or division of the inheritance amongst all sons.
Q.12. Name the diverse groups of people recruited by the Mughals.
Ans: Apart from Turkish nobles, the Mughals recruited Iranians, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and other groups.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What was mansabdari system? Describe in detail with focusing on zat.
Ans: As The empire expanded to encompass different regions, the Mughals recruited diverse bodies of people. From a small nucleus of Turkish nobles, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and other groups. Those who joined Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars.
The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix
2. salary. and
3. military responsibilities.
Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called zat.
The higher the zar, the more prestigious was the noble’s position in court and the larger his salary. They received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs which were somewhat like iqtas. Nobles with a set of 5,000 were ranked higher than those of 1,000. In Akbar’s reign there were 29 mansabdars with a rank of 5,000 zat; by Aurangzeb’s reign the number of mansabdars had increased to 79.
Q.2. Describe the agrarian relation during the Mughal Period.
Ans: Agrarian relations during the Mughal Period can be explained as follows:
(i) Political stability under the Mughals contributed a lot to the development of agriculture.
(ii) Agriculture dominated the economy with foodgrains as its principal produce.
(iii) Peasants had to pay nearly 50% tax as land revenue, but they had enough to pay and meet their daily need.
(iv) Zamindars were responsible for collecting land revenue from a number of villages. Above the zamindars were the rajas, who dominated large chunks of territories and enjoyed internal autonomy.
(v) There was a vast disparity between the luxurious lifestyle of the nobles and the zamindars.
Q.3. What briefly. was Din-i-Illahi? Explain briefly.
Ans: A great change came in the religious policy of Akbar in 1581. Akbar built a spacious hall in his new capital Fatehpur Sikri known as the Ibadat Khana where he could hold religious and philosophical discussions. He invited scholars of all religions-Hindus, Jains, Christians and Muslims to take part in the discussions. The scholars exchanged their views freely. Akbar concluded that the fundamentals of all religions were the same. He made up his mind to act boldly and included the ethics of all these religions to establish a new faith or religious order known as Din-i-Ilahi.
Q.4. Who was Akbar’s revenue minister? How did he carry of land revenue reform during Akbar’s tenure? What was zamindars and peasants reaction towards his reforms?
Ans: Akbar’s revenue minister was Todar Mal. He carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices and areas cultivated for a ten-year period, 1570-1580.
On the basis of this data, tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Each province was divides into revenue circles with its own schedule revenue rates for individual crops.
This revenue system was known as zabt It was prevalent in those areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep very careful accounts.
This was not possible in provinces such as Gujarat and Bengal. In some areas the zamindars exercised a great deal of power. The exploitation by Mughal administrators could drive them to rebellion. Sometimes zamindars and peasants of the same caste allied in rebelling against Mughal authority. These peasant revolts challenged the stability of the Mughal Empire from the end of the seventeenth century.
Q.5. Who wrote Akbar Nama? Describe in brief about its feature.
Ans: Akbar Nama is written by Abul Fazl.
1. The broad features of administration were laid down by Akbar and were elaborately discussed by Abul Fazl in his book the Akbar Nama, in particular in its last volume, the Ain-i Akbari.
2. In this book he explained that the empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subedar who carried out both political and military functions.
3. For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the subedar was supported by other officers such as the military paymaster (bakhshi), the minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr), military commanders (faujdars) and the town police commander (kotwal).
Q.6. What measures were taken by Akbar to consolidate his empire?
Ans: Akbar took various steps to consolidate his empire. Some of them are listed below:
(a) Being a great warrior and conqueror, he extended his boundaries by conquering Gujarat, Bengal, Kashmir, Sindh, Central India, Deccan states of many other states.
(b) He followed the policy of religions tolerance and established friendly relations with Rajputs in particular and the Hindus in general.
(c) He organized his administration on strong footing and took various steps for the welfare of his subjects.
Q.7. Write in brief about Ain-i-Akbari.
Ans: Volume III about Akbar’s regin written by Abul Fazal is the Ain-i-Akbari. Its features can be listed as follows:
(a) It deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, revenues and the geography of his empire.
(b) It also provides rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India.
(c) The most interesting aspect about it is its rich statistical details about things such as crops, yields, prices, wages and revenues.
Q.8. What was the role of Zamindars in Mughal administration?
Ans: All the intermediaries, whether they were local village headmen or powerful chieftains were called zamindars. The zamindars exercised great deal of power in some areas and their exploitation by Mughal administrators forced them to rebel against it. These revolts collectively by zamindars and peasants challenged the stability of the empire from the end of the 17th century.
Q.9. What were the salient aspects of the Mughal empire during the 17th century?
Ans: Following were the salient aspects of the Mughal empire during the 17th century:
(a) There was great economic and commercial prosperity in the Mughal empire due to the administrative and military efficiency.
(b) There were contradictory conditions during that time; on the one hand there was so much prosperity that international travellers called it the fabled land of wealth and on the other hand, the same visitors were appalled at the state of poverty that existed parallelly.
(c) The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure benefited the artisans and peasantry who supplied them with goods and produce.
(d) But the scale of revenue collection left very little for investment in the hands of the primary producers-the peasants and the artisans.
(d) The enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an extremely powerful group of people in the late 17th century.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. How can you say that Akbar was a follower of Sher Shah?
Ans: In 1580 CE, Akbar divided the whole Mughal Empire into 12 provinces called Subas. Each Suba was divided into a number of Sarkars. Sarkars were further divided into parganas and mahals or villages. The emperor was the head of the empire. He had all the sovereign powers and was assisted by his cabinet members like Wazir (Prime Minister), Diwan (Revenue Minister), Mir Bakshi (Paymaster of the army) and Qazi (Highest judicial head).
He followed the policy of Sher Shah in his administration but introduced some changes in it according to the vastness and nature of his empire.
Q.2. Why do you think that it was wise on Akbar’s part to make Rajputs his loyal?
Ans: Akbar realised that there could be no permanent Muslim Empire without the cooperation of the Rajputs. The features of his Rajput policy were:
(i) He made the marriage alliance with the Rajput clans. By marrying Jodha Bai, daughter of Raja Bharmal of Jaipur in 1562 CE, he displayed his secular policy towards the Rajputs. The marriage secured him the powerful support of the Rajput rulers throughout his reign.
(ii) He gave important posts to the Rajputs and other Hindus in his kingdom. Raja Todarmal was the Diwan in the Akbar’s court, Raja Birbal was the Wazir, Raja Mansingh was the most trusted General of Akbar-these were some of the Rajputs who were provided high positions in Akbar’s court.
(iii) He honoured the Rajput kings even after defeating them and did not interfere in their internal affairs. He allowed Rajput rulers to rule over their kingdoms as Watan Jagirs and were guaranteed security of life, property and honour.
Q.3. How differently did mansabdars and muqtis administer their jagirs?
Ans: Muqtis actually resided in or administer their jagirs.
Mansabdars did not actually reside in their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants. The mansabdars themselves served in some parts of the country.
Q.4. What was Zabt?
Ans: Land revenue was the main source of income to the Mughal rulers. Revenue on each crop was fixed in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles, with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as the zabt.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. How did Akbar establish a vast empire? Write three essential values of his character who helped him to do so.
Ans: (i) He was an able ruler and administrator.
(ii) He maintained friendly relations with the Rajputs.
(iii) He followed the policy of religious tolerance and considered all religions equal.
Q.2. How did the idea of Sulhi-kul came into existence?
Ans: Akbar was interested in the religion and social customs of various people. This interaction with people of different faiths made him realize that religious scholars who emphasized ritual and dogma were often bigots. Divisions and disharmony amongst people was created by their teachings. Hence eventually this led Akbar to the idea of Sulh-i-kul or universal peace.
Q.3. Who were the opponents of the Mughals? How did the Mughals behaved with them?
Ans: For a long time the Sisodiya Rajputs refused to accept the authority of the Mughals. They were defeated by the Mughals but were not humiliated by them. They were given their lands (watan) back as assignments. The principle of defeating but not humiliating; followed by the Mughals was the main reason for enabling them to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains. But it was difficult to always keep the balance between dereating but not humiliating. For example we have an instance of Aurangzeb insulting Shivaji when he came to accept the Mughal authority.
On the map of India, mark the following areas of military campaigns under Akbar and Aurangzeb.
(i) Malwa (1561).
(ii) Gujarat (1572).
(iii) Bengal (1574).
(iv) Bijapur (1685).
(v) Golconda (1687).
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
Choose the correct one:
1. Who was the founder of Mughal Empire in India?
Ans: (b) Babur.
2. When was first Battle of Panipat fought?
Ans: (b) 1526.
3. Who was the last ruler of Delhi Sultanate?
(a) Ibrahim Lodi.
(b) Bairam Khan.
(c) Sher Shah.
(d) Rana Sanga.
Ans: (a) Ibrahim Lodi.
4. Who defeated Humayun in the Battle of Chausa?
(a) Sher Shah.
(b) Rana Sanga.
(c) Bahlol Lodi.
(d) Ibrahim Lodi.
Ans: (a) Sher Shah.
5. _______was the revenue minister of Akbar.
(d) Abul Fazal.
Ans: (c) Todarmal.
II. Tick the (✓) and cross the (x) statement.
(i) Akbar was the first Mughal emperor.
(ii) Humayun became the Mughal emperor after the death of Babur.
(iii) Mansabdars were the people who were holding a Mansab.
III. Fill in the blanks:
1. Two battles won by Akbar are _______.
Ans. Battle of Panipat and Kanauj.
2. The regent of Mughal empire Akbar was _______.
Ans. Bairam Khan.