NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans

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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

The Delhi Sultans

Chapter: 3

Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)


1. Lets Recall

Q.1. Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi? 

Ans: Tomara Rajput ruler established his or her first capital at Delhi.

Q.2. What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans? 

Ans: Persian.

Q.3. In whose reign did the Sultanate reached its farthest extent? 

Ans: During Ala-ud-din Khalji (Khilji’s) reign.

Q.4. From which country did Ibn-Batuta travel to India?

Ans: From Morocco.

2. Let’s Understand

Q.5. According to the circle of justice, why was it important for military commander to keep the interest of peasantry in mind?

Ans: According to ‘Circle of Justice, it was important for the military commander to keep the interest of peasantry in mind, because each military commander got the salary from the Iqta he got. They could not collect land revenue more than the fixed revenue amount. Accountants were appointed to check amount of revenue collected by Muqtis.

Q.6. What is meant by the internal and external frontiers of the Sultanate?

Ans: Internal Frontier of the Sultanate: By this term we mean that the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterland of the garrison town.

External Frontier of the Sultanate: It aims at the military expeditions of the Sultanate in Southern India started during the reign of Ala-ud-din Khilji and culminated with Muhammad Tughlaq.

Q.7. What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders to Sultans?

Ans: Given below steps were taken to ensure that Muqtis performed their duties:

(i) They were not awarded Iqta for throughout their life.

(ii) They were appointed for a short time.

(iii) They were often transferred from one Iqta to another, so that they could perform their work efficiently.

They wanted to defy the order of the sultan, because a number of restrictions were placed on them. Accountants were appointed by the states to check the amount collected by Muqtis.

Q.8. What was the impact of Mongol invasion on Delhi Sultanate? 

Ans: Impact of Mongol Invasion on Delhi Sultanate:

(i) Mongol invasion paved the way for the disintegration of Delhi Sultanate.

(ii) It posed the two Delhi Sultans Ala-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad Tughlaq to mobilise a large standing army which posed a huge administrative challenge.

3. Let’s Discuss

Q.9. Do you think the authors of Tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women?

Ans: The authors of Tawarikh did not provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women. They only wrote about the history of the Sultans in hope of rich award. The authors of Tawarikh mainly lived in Delhi and hardly visited villages.

Q.10. Raziya Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate. Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?

Ans: Raziya Sultan was the first woman ruler of Delhi Sultanate. She was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate because she was very noble and well qualified than all her brothers.

Yes, I think women leaders are accepted more readily today. With the spread of education, women have become very active and people now have realised the potential of women. Even in rural areas, women even work as sarpanch.

Q.11. Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests? Does deforestation occur for the same reason?

Ans: Delhi Sultans cleared forests due to their internal frontier policy. They cleared forests in Ganga-Yamuna Doab and hunter gatherer and pastoralists expelled from their habitat. This land was distributed amongst the peasants to encourage farming. New cities were set up to promote trade and to protect routes.

Today forests are cleared for setting up new industries and constructing buildings. Thus, today deforestation do not occur for the same reasons.

4. Let’s Do

Q.12. Find out whether there are any buildings built by the Delhi Sultans in your area. Are there any other buildings in your area that were built between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries? Describe some of these buildings, and draw sketches of them.

Ans: Try yourself with the help of your class- teacher.


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Who made Delhi their first capital?

Ans: Under the Tomara Rajputs ruler Delhi first time became the capital of a kingdom. Later they were defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the Chauhans of Ajmer.

Q.2. Name the ruler under whom Delhi became an important commercial centre.

Ans: It was under the Tomaras and Chauhans that Delhi became an important commercial centre.

Q.3. Name the Rajput Dynasties who ruled over Delhi.

Ans: Tomaras, Ananga Pala and Chauhans.

Q.4. Which three sources provide us information about Sultanate period? 

Ans: These are inscriptions, coins and monuments.

Q.5. When did Qutub-ud-din Aibak declare himself the ruler of Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: In 1206 CE, Aibak declared himself as an independent ruler of Delhi.

Q.6. Who were the authors of Tawarikh? 

Ans: Learned men, administrators, poets, courtiers and secretaries were the authors of Tawarikh, who wrote about the kings and their governance.

Q.7. Who challenged the Delhi Sultanate and why?

Ans: Delhi Sultanate was challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan and by the governors of the provinces because they could have rebelled at any time. It was because of Sultan’s weaknesses that Delhi Sultanate was challenged.

Q.8. What do you know about Dehliwal? 

Ans: Dehliwal were the coins minted in Delhi under Tomara Rajputs.

Q.9. Why were Ala-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad Tughlaq mobilise a large army? 

Ans: Both these Sultans mobilised a large army to check the Mongol invasion.

Q.10. Who was Muqaddam?

Ans: Village head man during Sultanate period was called Muqaddam. 

Q.11. What was Chalisa?

Ans: Chalisa was a group of forty powerful nobles formed by Iltutmish who help him in suppressing his enemies.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Name the dynasties who ruled over Delhi Sultanate.

Ans: The following dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate:

(i) Slave dynasty.

(ii) Khilji dynasty.

(iii) Tughlaq dynasty.

(iv) Sayyid dynasty.

(v) Lodi dynasty.

Q.2. Describe the four stages for preparing a manuscript.

Ans: Stages for preparing a manuscript were:

(i) Preparing a paper.

(ii) Writing text.

(iii) Melting gold to highlight important words or passages.

(iv) Preparing for binding.

Q.3. Who was Iltutmish? Write in brief about him.

Ans: Iltutmish was the slave of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. He became the Sultan of Delhi after the death of Aibak in 1210. When he became the Delhi Sultan he faced many difficulties, like the rebellion of the nobles within his territories. He defeated Rajput rulers of Ranthambore and Ujjain to consolidate his empire. He occupied Lahore and Multan by defeating Nisur-ud-din Qubacha, the governor of Multan.

Q.4. What are the sources which provides us information about the Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: There are various sources which provide us information about the Delhi Sultanate. Some of these are:

(i) Inscriptions engrieved by the Sultan.

(ii) Coins issued by the Delhi sultan.

(iii) ‘Histories’ tarikh (singular) and tawarikh (plural) written in persian; the language of administrationunder Delhi Sultans.

Q.5. Who was Raziyya? Write any two challenges faced by her.

Ans: Raziya was the first woman ruler of Delhi Sultanate. She occupied the throne in 1236. She was wise and prudent, just and generous, a beneficier to her kingdom. She was protector of his subject and was an efficient leader of her army.

She faced the challenges of Chihalgani and military leaders who controlled the politics of Delhi.

Q.6. Write in brief about the economic reforms introduced by Ala-ud-din Khalji.

Ans: (i) Ala-ud-Khalji kept a huge army to check the internal revolts.

(ii) He prohibited the nobles to make any alliance.

(iii) He introduced strong espionage system to check the conspiracies. 

(iv) He banned the social gathering of the nobles.

Q.7. What were three fallacious measures of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq?

Ans: Three fallacious measures introduced by him were:

(i) Raising taxes in Doab region.

(ii) Shifting of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad.

(iii) Introduction of Token currency.

Q.8. Who was Timur? Write in brief about his invasion on India.

Ans: Timur was a Central Asian Turk who invaded India in 1398. He was the ruler of central India. He invaded India like a storm, destroyed anything that came in his way. He ransacked Delhi, Meerut and Jammu. He plundered Delhi. The Timur’s invasion proved a big jolt for a big threat. As a result of his invasion, Delhi never recovered till the foundation of Mughal empire in India.

Q.9. What do you know about Iqta system? Explain.

Ans: Iqta system was started by Sultans of Delhi. Under Iqta system the officers were given the right to collect the revenue of the particular region in lieu of giving him salary. The person who hold the Iqta was known as Iqtadar. The person who was given the Iqta, kept some parts of collected revenue with them as their salary and to pay wages of his soldier. The rest amount was paid to the Sultans. The system of Iqta was not hereditary. The right to collect Iqta could be transformed from one place to another.

Q.10. What is ‘congregational mosque’ referred to as?

Ans: In a congregational mosque (masjid-i-jami-or jama masjid), Muslims read their prayers together. Members of the congregation choose the most respected, learned male as their imam for the ritual prayers.

Q.11. Give any two reasons, why did the early Delhi Sultans favoured their special slaves purchased for military services.

Ans: (i) They (Slaves) were carefully trained to handle some of the most important political offices in the kingdom. 

(ii) They were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon them.

Q.12. List any two sources which provide us information about the court of Mohammad bin-Tughlaq.

Ans: (i) The written account of many Indian historians and foreign travellers among which, one was Zia-ud-din Barni, who spent nearly 17 years in his court.

(ii) Account of Ibn-Batuta who was appointed as the Qazi or Chief Justice during his(Mohammad-bin Tughlaq) reign.

Q.13. What are Garrison towns?

Ans: A towns that has troops permanently stationed in it. Till the late 13th century, the control of the sultanate was largely confined to heavily fortified towns with the presence of soldiers known as garrison towns.

Q.14. Why did large parts of the Indian sub continent remained outside the control of the Delhi sultans?

Ans: It was difficult to control distant provinces like Bengal from Delhi and soon after annexing southern India, the entire region became independent. Even in the Gangetic plain there were forested areas that sultanate forces could not penetrate. Local chieftains established their rule in these regions.

Q.15. Who was Genghis Khan and when did he invaded Transoxiana?

Ans: He was the founder of the Mongol empire and he invaded Transoxiana in the north-east Iran in 1219.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What do you know about Ibrahim Lodi? How he was he responsible for the downfall of Delhi Sultanate?

Ans: Ibrahim Lodi was the last Sultan of Delhi. He ruled from 1517 CE to 1526 CE. He tried to suppress the Afghan rulers who revolted against him. As a result these rulers revolted against him and invited Babur to invade India. Babur took the advantage of their invitation and invaded India. He defeated Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. After defeating Lodi in the battlefield, Babur founded Mughal Empire in India, which led to the downfall of Delhi Sultanate.

Q.2. Write about the officials of Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s court. 

Ans: Following were the officials of Sultan Muhammad bin-Tughlaq’s Court:

(i) Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller.

(ii) Firuz Hajjam a barber. 

(iii) Marka Tabbakh, a cook.

(iv) Two gardeners-Lodha and Pira.

Ziayuddin Barni, a 14th century chronicle, reported that these appointment made by the Sultan was a sign of his loss of political judgement and his inefficiency to governor. 

Q.3. Describe the causes of the downfall of the Delhi Sultanate. 

Ans: Causes of the downfall of Delhi Sultanate


(i) The Delhi Sultanate were despotic by nature.

(ii) They ruled India by sword.

(iii) The Hindus were dissatisfied with their policies.

(iv) Most of them (Sultants of Delhi) were pleasure lover and incapable ruler.

(v) Their army was ill-disciplined. 

(vi) There was no definite law of succession.

Q.4. Why were there often clashes between the old and new nobility on the accession of a new monarch?

Ans: It was on account of following reasons:

(i) Slaves and elements were loyal of their masters and patrons.

(ii) New Sultans had their own servants. 

(iii) The patronage of these slaves by Delhi Sultans also shocked many elites.

(iv) The old nobility was ready to accept the supremacy of new nobility. There were often clashes between them over this issue.

The result was that the accession of a new monarch often saw conflict between old and new nobility. 

Q.5. Who were Muqtis? Describe their functions.

Ans: Muqtis: Muqtis were the landholders, under the rule of Khilji and Tughlaq Sultans. They were given the right to collect land revenue from the peasants. They had to do the following functions: 

(i) They collect revenue from the people.

(ii) At the time of invasion, they had to provide military services to the Sultant. 

(iii) They had to maintain law and order in their respective Iqtas.

Q.6. Why did a large part of the Indian sub-continent remain outside the control of Delhi Sultan? Give reason.

Ans: A large part of the sub-continent remained outside the influence of the Delhi Sultanate as:

(i) It was very hard to control over distant provinces like Bengal from Delhi.

(ii) Soon after annexation, the ruler asserted their freedom.

(iii) Large area of Gangetic plain was covered with dense forest.

(iv) Local chieftains established their rule in these region.

(v) Only the Sultans like Ala-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq could established their control in these regions but only for a short time.

Q.7. Describe the expansion of Delhi Sultanate from garrison town to Empire.

Ans: In the early thirteenth century, the sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities and were dependent upon trade and tribute for supplies. Controlling garrison town in distant Bengal and Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult.

The expansion of Delhi Sultanate occurred during the reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khilzi and Muhammad Tughluq.

The First Expansion: (i) It occurred along the “internal frontier”. 

(ii) It aimed at consolidating the hinterlands of the garrison towns.

(iii) The hunter-gatherers and pastoralists were expelled from their habitat.

(iv) These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged.

 (v) New fortresses and towns were set up to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.

The Second Expansion: (i) It occurred along the “external frontier”.

(ii) Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khilji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq. 

(iii) Sultanate armies captured elephants, horses and slaves and carried away precious metals.

The Third Expansion: (i) By the end of Muhammad Tughluq’s reign, the armies of the Delhi Sultanate had marched across a large part of the subcontinent. 

(ii) They had defeated rival armies and seized cities.

Q.8. What steps did Alauddin Khalji took to discourage corruption? 

Ans: Alauddin Khalji took the following steps to discourage corruption:

(a) He controlled the prices of the commodities as he had to maintain a large army at minimum cost.

(b) He fixed the prices of all commodities from grain to cloth, slaves, cattle etc.

(c) A controller of the market called the Shahna-i-mandi and intelligence officers known as barids were appointed to implement the market control measures.

(d) He established granaries in Delhi and Rajasthan to collect grains from the grain merchants. 

Q.9. Discuss the system of administration under Delhi Sultans. 

Ans: The system of administration under the Delhi Sultans can be explained as follows:

(a) Like the earlier sultans, the Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territory.

(b) These lands were called Iqta and their holder was called Iqtadar or Muqti.

(c) The duty of the muqti was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.

(d) Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis. 

(e) Care was taken that the muqtis collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and that he kept the required number of soldiers.

Higher Order Thinking Skill

Q.1. How can you say that Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was a mixture of opposites? 

Ans: Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was the most famous ruler of Tughlaq dynasty. He was better known as mixture of opposites. He was a lover of art, a scholar of philosophy, mathematics, physical science and astronomy. He was an excellent commander and an administrator. He was extremely innovative but all his strategies failed because he implemented them in great hoste.

Some of the following step taken by him are as the follow: 

(i) Raising of tax in Doab region when this region was in the grip of famine.

(ii) Shifting of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad to safe the capital from the invasion of Mongols.

(iii) Introduction of token currency. He did a blunder by introducing bronze coins in place of silver coins known as Tanka. These coins had equal value to silver coins. People began to mint bronze coins and stored copper and silver coins. It was a big blow financially to his sultanate.

Q.2. Ala-od-din Khilji wanted to become second Alexander and conquer the world. What steps did he take to achieve his aim? How for did he succeed?

Ans: Ala-ud-din Khilji was a brave commander and an able Sultan of Delhi. After becoming the Sultan of Delhi, he consolidated his Sultanate and extended his empire. He was a very ambitious Sultan of Delhi and wanted to become a second Alexander. Like him, he wanted to conquer the world. He took following steps to fulfil his ambitions:

(i) He tried to win the loyalty of his nobles and curb their power. 

(ii) He conquered Deccan and Rajasthan. 

(iii) He forced the Mongols to withdraw from his frontier.

In order to achieve his aim he required a huge army, which meant vast sum of money was required to pay as their salaries. So he had to think the means of getting more revenue for which he took the following steps:

(i) He raised the land taxes on the wealthier people of the Doab.

(ii) He kept a strict watch on the revenue which the nobles got from their land and did not allow them to keep anything which was not their due.

(iii) He controlled the prices of goods and also kept a check that no one could make large profits and everyone could afford to pay the price demanded.

(iv) He made it clear that he would deal severely with anyone who showed signs of disloyalty.

He made all his alteration to consolidate his empire, but his mission had no been yet fulfilled when he died. Therefore his ambition to become second Alexander could not be fulfilled or achieved.

Value Based Questions

Q.1. The two Delhi Sultans, Ala-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq dealt differently with administrative challenge posed by Mongols on Delhi Sultanate. How did the two Sultans faced their danger?


Q.2. During Firoz Tughlaq’s reign the welfare of the people became his primary interest. Explain, how?

Ans: (i) Firoz Shah Tughlaq took efforts to improve cultivation and brought reclaimed waste land under farming.

(ii) He reduced the burden of taxes.

(iii) He repaired old and dug new canals to provide irrigation facilities.

(iv) He built hospitals for the people.

(v) To provide education he opened Madrasas.

Q. 3. How can we gather information about the Delhi Sultanate?


What are the sources available for the Delhi Sultainate?

Ans: We can gather information about the Delhi Sultanate from the following sources:

(a) Accounts of travellers and court chroniclers are the most valuable sources of information for this period. Ibn Batuta and Marco polo visited India and work about the conditions during that line Zia-ud-din Barani and Min has-us-siraj have give a detailed account of court proceedings and details about the personal and public life of the sultans.

(b) Coins, inscriptions and monuments are the other important sources that tell us about this period.


1. On an outline map of India show Alauddin Khalji’s campaign into South India.



1. Multiple Choice Questions: 

Tick (✔) the correct option:

1. The dynasty established by Qutu-buddin Aibak was known as _______.

(a) Slave Dynasty.

(b) Delhi Sultanate.

(c) Mamluks.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (a)Slave Dynasty 

2. Who was the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate?

(a) Iltutmish.

(b) Balban.

(c) Raziya Sultana.

(d) Qutab-ud-din Aibak.

Ans: (d) Qutab-ud-di Aibak.

3. The slave dynasty lasted from 1206 to _______.

(a) 1526.

(b) 1296.

(c) 1290.

(d) 1320.

Ans: (c) 1290.

4. Taimurlane invaded Delhi in _______.

(a) 1388.

(b) 1398.

(c) 1408.

(d) 1418.

Ans: (b) 1418.

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ______ was the founder of Delhi Sultanate.

Ans: Qutab-ud-din Aibak.

2. _______ was the leader of Mongol who invaded India during the reign of Iltutmish.

Ans: Chengiz Khan.

3. _______ conquered Ajmer, Jhansi, Delhi, and Meerut to consolidated his position as the founder of Delhi Sultanate.

Ans: Qutab-ud-din-Aibak. 

4. The Khaljis were of ________.

Ans: Afghan origin.

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